Toungoo
တောင်ငူမြို့
City
Taungoo, Myanmar (Burma) - panoramio (105).jpg
Toungoo is located in Myanmar
Toungoo
Toungoo
Location in Burma
Coordinates: 18°56′N 96°26′E / 18.933°N 96.433°E / 18.933; 96.433
Country Myanmar
Division Bago Region
DistrictTaungoo District
Founded17 April 1279
Government
 • TypeDistrict government and Township government
Population
 (2014)[1]
 • Urban
108,569
 • Ethnicities
Burman Karen
 • Religions
Theravada Buddhism Christianity
Time zoneUTC+6:30 (MST)
Old postcard
Old postcard

Taungoo (Burmese: တောင်ငူမြို့; MLCTS: taung ngu mrui., pronounced [tàʊɰ̃ŋù mjo̰] Tauñngu myoú; S'gaw Karen: တီအူ; also spelled Toungoo) is a district-level city in the Bago Region of Myanmar, 220 km from Yangon, towards the north-eastern end of the division, with mountain ranges to the east and west. The main industry is in forestry products, with teak and other hardwoods extracted from the mountains. The city is known for its areca palms, to the extent that a Burmese proverb for unexpected good fortune is equated to a "betel lover winning a trip to Taungoo".

The city is famous in Burmese history for the Toungoo dynasty which ruled the country for over 200 years between the 16th and 18th centuries. Taungoo was the capital of Burma in 1510–1539 and 1551–1552.

Kaytumadi new city (new city of Taungoo) is the central command of the southern command division region of Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). Hanthawaddy United Football Club is based in Taungoo.

Names

The classical Pali name of Taungoo is Ketumadi (ကေတုမဒီ;Pali: Ketumadi), which translates to "possessed of the royal standard."[2]

History

Main articles: Taungoo Dynasty and First Toungoo Empire

Taungoo was founded in 1279 in the waning days of Pagan as part of frontier expansion southwards. After the fall of Pagan Empire in 1287, Taungoo came under the rule of Myinsaing Kingdom and later Pinya Kingdom. In 1358, Taungoo successfully revolted and became independent until 1367 when it became a nominal part of the Ava Kingdom. Its rulers retained a large degree of autonomy, playing larger Ava and Hanthawaddy kingdoms against each other. In 1470, Ava put down another rebellion and made Sithu Kyawhtin, the general who defeated the rebellion, governor. Sithu Kyawhtin's grandson Mingyi Nyo became governor of Taungoo in 1485. Under Mingyi Nyo's leadership, the principality grew powerful. In October 1510, Mingyi Nyo formally broke away from Ava and founded the Taungoo Kingdom.[3]

Mingyi Nyo's successors Tabinshwehti and Bayinnaung went on to found the largest empire in the history of south-east Asia.[4] Taungoo's stint as capital was short-lived, however. Tabinshwehti moved the kingdom's capital to Pegu (Bago) in 1539. The city briefly again became capital of a rebellion in 1599 when viceroy Minye Thihathu II of Taungoo declared himself king. In December 1599, Taungoo's forces in collaboration with the Arakanese armies aided by Portuguese mercenaries, sacked Pegu. The rebellious city state remained independent for another 10 years when Natshinnaung ascended the Taungoo throne in 1609. In the following year, King Anaukpetlun captured Taungoo and ended the city's long line of rulers.[5] Although few visible historic remains survive, all four sides of the brick city wall remain from the dynastic period, with the exception of the part of the southern wall. The 9.6 m wide moat has largely dried up, except for a section on the eastern side, which is still maintained.

By the mid-19th century, Taungoo was governed by a local governor appointed by the Konbaung kings. The Taungoo District consisted of 52 wards, including today's Pyinmana (and Naypyidaw) regions. The district was cut in half after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The British annexed the southern half, including the city of Taungoo while the northern portion, including Pyinmana and Ela, remained under Burmese control.[6] British troops were withdrawn in 1893.[7]

In 1940, the British Royal Air Force built an airfield north of the town, which from August 1941 through February 1942 served as a training and support base for the 1st American Volunteer Group, popularly known as the Flying Tigers.

In the Battle of the Yunnan-Burma Road in 1942, the Imperial Japanese Army attacked the Chinese Expeditionary Force in Burma in what is known as the Battle of Toungoo.

Taungoo celebrated its 500th birthday on 16 October 2010, by reconstructing and renovating many city attractions.[3]

Geography

Three mountain ranges traverse the district—the Pegu Yomas, the Karen Hills, and the Nat Ma Taung or "Great Watershed"—all of which have a north and south direction, and are covered for the most part with dense forest. The Pegu Yomas have a general elevation of from 800 to 1,200 feet (240 to 370 m), while the central range averages from 2,000 to 3,000 feet (610 to 910 m). The rest of Taungoo forms the upper portion of the valley of the Sittaung River.[7]

Climate

Taungoo has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) bordering on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). Temperatures are hot throughout the year, and the months before the monsoon (March–May) are especially hot with average maximum temperatures exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). There is a winter dry season (November–March) and a summer wet season (April–October).

Climate data for Taungoo (1981–2010, extremes 1942–1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.6
(96.1)
40.0
(104.0)
42.8
(109.0)
42.8
(109.0)
42.2
(108.0)
38.9
(102.0)
37.2
(99.0)
36.1
(97.0)
37.2
(99.0)
37.2
(99.0)
35.0
(95.0)
38.9
(102.0)
42.8
(109.0)
Average high °C (°F) 30.9
(87.6)
33.9
(93.0)
36.6
(97.9)
37.9
(100.2)
35.1
(95.2)
31.1
(88.0)
30.2
(86.4)
30.1
(86.2)
31.6
(88.9)
32.7
(90.9)
31.5
(88.7)
30.2
(86.4)
32.7
(90.9)
Average low °C (°F) 15.0
(59.0)
16.5
(61.7)
20.4
(68.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.6
(76.3)
23.9
(75.0)
23.7
(74.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
20.4
(68.7)
16.5
(61.7)
21.4
(70.5)
Record low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.3
(46.9)
12.2
(54.0)
16.1
(61.0)
13.9
(57.0)
18.3
(64.9)
21.1
(70.0)
20.0
(68.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
12.2
(54.0)
9.4
(48.9)
8.3
(46.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 2.6
(0.10)
4.0
(0.16)
7.3
(0.29)
32.6
(1.28)
204.3
(8.04)
355.9
(14.01)
417.7
(16.44)
451.7
(17.78)
282.5
(11.12)
149.9
(5.90)
48.0
(1.89)
2.6
(0.10)
1,959.1
(77.13)
Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[8]
Source 2: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (records)[9]

Administration

Emergency

Military and Internal Security

Attractions

Investigative bodies

Demographics

The population of Taungoo in the 2014 census was 108,569; in the 1983 census it was 65,851.[1]

The Bamar (Burmans) make up the majority with a significant Kayin (Karen) population on the eastern side of the city. The Chinese, Indians, Shan and Kayah people make up the rest.

The majority of residents are Theravada Buddhists, and minority Baptists and Roman Catholics. Taungoo is home to a number of Karen Christian association headquarters and churches. See list of churches.

Transport

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Yangon-Taungoo-Mandalay railway
Yangon-Taungoo-Mandalay railway

The main transport options to Taungoo is rail and motorways.

Rail

The Taungoo railway station is on the main north line of Myanmar Railways, and the Taungoo Highway bus station is served by domestic bus lines.

Intra-city transport is mainly through a circular railway line which serves around the Taungoo District and bus lines, which serve downtown, and suburban areas:

Taungoo Railway Station
Taungoo Railway Station

Roads

There are two main road bridges: over the Sittaung River and the Kaphaung River.

Air

Taungoo Airport is the area's only airport and is a military-only air base of Myanmar Air Force. MAF's No.47 Helicopter Squadron is stationed at the airport.

Education

Basic Education High School 4
Basic Education High School 4

High schools

Taungoo has eleven high schools: see List of high schools in Taungoo.

Public universities and colleges

Nursing and midwifery schools

Divinity schools

Healthcare

Major sites

Kandawgyi
Kandawgyi
Statue of King Minkyinyo
Statue of King Minkyinyo

Pagodas

Notable residents

Media

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b "Myanmar". City Population. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  2. ^ The Baptist Missionary Magazine. 1856.
  3. ^ a b Shwe Yinnma Oo (2 August 2010). "Taungoo prepares for 500th birthday". The Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010.
  4. ^ Victor B Lieberman (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800-1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–154.
  5. ^ Maung Htin Aung (1967). A History of Burma. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. p. 140.
  6. ^ Sir James George Scott, John Percy Hardiman (1901). Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, Part 2. Vol. 3. Printed by the superintendent, Government printing, Burma. p. 374.
  7. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Toungoo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 101.
  8. ^ "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 23–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Toungoo (Myanmar)" (PDF). Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  10. ^ "Saw Durmay (Po Min) in Myanmar". Koehl D, Elephant Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  11. ^ San C. Po, Dr. (1928). "VII Karen Celebrities". Burma and the Karens. London: Elliott Stock.
  12. ^ "MyanmarMp3.net". Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  13. ^ "MyanmarMp3.net". Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  14. ^ "MyanmarMp3.net". Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  15. ^ "Kayin People's Party". Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
Taungoo Preceded byAva Capital of Burma 16 October 1510 – January 1539 Succeeded byBago Preceded byBago Capital of Burma 11 January 1551 – 12 March 1552 Succeeded byBago

Coordinates: 18°56′N 96°26′E / 18.933°N 96.433°E / 18.933; 96.433