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Taxation in Greece is based on the direct and indirect systems. The total tax revenue in 2017 was €47.56 billion from which €20.62 billion came from direct taxes and €26.94 billion from indirect taxes. The total tax revenue represented 39.4% of GDP in 2017. Taxes in Greece are collected by the Independent Authority for Public Revenue (Ανεξάρτητη Αρχή Δημοσίων Εσόδων).
Income taxation in Greece is progressive. Income tax is payable by all individuals earning income in Greece, regardless of citizenship or place of permanent residence. Permanent residents are taxed on their worldwide income in Greece. An individual in Greece is liable for tax on their income as an employee and on income as a self-employed person. In the case of an individual who is a permanent resident of Greece, their tax owed is calculated on their income earned in Greece and overseas. An individual whose income is only from a wage is not obligated to file an annual return. The employer deducts tax from the employee and transfers it to the tax authority every month.
The 2014 tax rates are as follows:
|€0 – €25,000||22%|
|€25,001 – €42,000||32%|
On May 9, 2016 a new set of emergency measures were voted in the Parliament by the SYRIZA/ANEL government. These changes include new income tax rates as well as new solidarity tax rates. The tax rates applicable to income earned in 2016 are as follows:
|€0 – €20,000||22%|
|€20,001 – €30,000||29%|
|€30,001 – €40,000||37%|
The solidarity tax rates are progressive ranging from 2.2% to 10%. They are assigned as follows:
|Income||Solidarity tax rate|
|€0 – €12,000||0%|
|€12,001 – €20,000||2.2%|
|€20,001 – €30,000||5%|
|€30,001 – €40,000||6.5%|
|€40,001 – €65,000||7.5%|
|€65,001 – €220,000||9%|
But as 1 January 2020 the tax rate for the solidarity contribution will have been amended as in the table below:
|Income||Solidarity tax rate|
|€0 – €30,000||0%|
|€30,001 – €40,000||2%|
|€40,001 – €65,000||5%|
|€65,001 – €220,000||9%|
An employer is obligated to deduct tax at source from an employee and to make additional contributions to social security as in many other EU member states. The employer's contribution amounts to 24.56% of the salary. The employee's contribution is 15.5%.
The basic social security contributions amount to the 27.1% of total income (after VAT paid, qualified expenses deducted and before income tax paid). This number can broken down to 20.0% for public pension funding and 7.1% for the public health system.
An extra 7.0% is charged for people enlisted to added benefits public pension schemes. An extra 4.0% is charged for people enlisted to retirement bonuses public schemes. Thus the total contributions can go as high as 38.1% of income.
Income range for calculation of Social security tax is 4,923 - 70,330 EUR per year. If annual income is out of the range above, the lower/higher limits respectively will be considered for calculation.
Especially for agriculture professionals, the basic contribution of 27.1% will be lower until 2021, as follows:
Especially for doctors, pharmacists, engineers, lawyers and economists, the total contribution of 27.1-38.1% will be 5-50% lower until 31/12/2020, as follows:
Corporations in Greece are taxed on their income in Greece and from overseas. Foreign companies in Greece are taxed only on income that is generated in Greece. Also, there is 100% advance payment of the taxable amount of the current fiscal year, and is being balanced by each next fiscal year financial data.
Corporate income tax rates by year:
The corporate income tax rate is to be gradually reduced as follows:
The planned reduction does not include corporate income tax rate of Greek credit institutions and Greek branches of nonresident credit institutions, which is to remain at 29%.
A capital gain in Greece is added to regular income and is taxable at the same rate as regular income for a company, other than in specific instances as defined in law.
A capital gain by an individual in Greece is taxable at the rate of 15%. There is no tax in the case of capital gain from trading in the stock market as long as the individual owns less than 0.5% of the publicly listed company.
As of 1 Jan 2009, Greece imposes a withholding tax of 10% on corporate dividends, unless the dividend qualifies for application of the EC Parent-Subsidiary Directive or if a lower rate applies under an applicable double tax treaty. It also imposes a withholding tax on interest and royalties, however the tax rates may be reduced or eliminated by an applicable double tax treaty or if the payment qualifies for application of the EC Interest and Royalties Directive.
As of 13 December 2018 the withholding tax rates are as given in the table below:
|Type of income||Withholding tax rate|
|Royalties and other payments||20%|
|Fees for technical projects, management fees, and consultancy and other related services||20%|
|By exception, fees received by contractors of every kind of technical projects and lessors of public, municipal, association, or port proceeds||3% on the value of the project under construction or lease payment|
Value added tax (VAT) was implemented in to the Greek taxation system in 1987 in order to replace turnover tax and other indirect taxes. The Greek VAT system complies with the European Union value added tax system.
The Value added tax (Φόρος Προστιθέμενης Αξίας) in Greece consists of 3 rates:
The VAT rates applied in the Aegan islands of Leros, Lesbos, Kos, Samos and Chios, are 30% lower than the corresponding rates applied in the mainland. The lower VAT rates applied in these Greek Islands are 4% (super-reduced rate), 9% (reduced rate) and 17% (standard rate). The lower VAT rates are in effect until 30.06.2019.
The standard rate applies to the following categories and to the following goods and services:
The reduced rate applies to the following categories and to the following goods and services:
The super reduced rate applies to the following categories:
VAT returns are submitted on quarterly or monthly basis, depending on the type of books (single or double-entry books) kept by the VAT payer. Exempted from VAT are those taxable persons whose annual turnover (excluding VAT) is no higher than €10,000 from supply of goods or/and services. Such persons may opt to be exempt from VAT. The exemption does not apply with regard to taxable persons not established in the Greek territory.
The Real property tax is levied on property, that is located in Greece. The tax composes of two parts, the main tax and the additional tax. The value of the main tax depends on the size, location, zone price, surface, age, use and other characteristics of the taxed property. The additional tax is derived from the total tax value of all the taxpayer's property and it ranges from 0.15% to 1.15% depending on the total value of the property. The additional tax is in effect, if the total value of the taxed property exceeds €250,000.
The Inheritance tax is different for close relatives of the deceased and for other heirs. The former ranges from 1% to 10% of the "tax value" after the deduction of a tax-free amount, depending on the relationship of the taxpayer with the testator. For other heirs, the inheritance tax rate ranges from 0% to 40% of the tax value.
There are several cases of Tax exemptions under the Greek taxation system, these are as follows:
The examples of Tax deductibility in Greece are, as with most other features of Greek taxation, similar to that of other Western European and North American nations, that is, tax deductibility for things such as charity and other things as shown below:
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