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Ambhi
Ambhi offering presents to Alexander the Great
King of Gandhara and its capital Takshashila (Taxila)
Reignc. 331 BCE to 305 BCE[citation needed]
Coronationc. 331[citation needed]
Born359 BCE[citation needed]
Taxila
Died305 BCE[citation needed]
Patliputra, Magadha (today Bihar)[citation needed]
SpouseQueen Alkakumari (his mother's namemate)
IssueKing Ambhik
FatherKing Ambhiraj (born 380 BCE, died 326 BCE)
MotherQueen Alka

Taxiles (in Greek Tαξίλης or Ταξίλας; lived 4th century BC) was the Greek chroniclers' name for the ruler who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Jhelum (Hydaspes) Rivers in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent at the time of Alexander the Great's expedition. His real name was Ambhi[1] (Greek: Omphis), and the Greeks appear to have called him Taxiles or Taxilas, after the name of his capital city of Taxila, near the modern city of Attock, Pakistan.[2][3]

Life

Ambhi ascended to throne of Takshasila.[4] He sent an embassy to Alexander along with presents consisting of 200 Talents of silver, 3,000 fat oxen and 10,000 sheep or more ( both are estimated around 600 talents of silver), 30 elephants and a force of 700 horsemen and offered for surrender.[4] He appears to have been on hostile terms with his neighbour, Porus, who held the territories east of the Hydaspes.[5][6] It was probably with a view to strengthening himself against this foe that he sent an embassy to Alexander, while the latter was still in Sogdiana, with offers of assistance and support, perhaps in return for money.[5] Alexander was unnerved by the sight of Ambhi's forces on his first descent into India in 327 BC and ordered his own forces to form up.[7] Ambhi hastened to relieve Alexander of his apprehension and met him with valuable presents, placing himself and all his forces at his disposal.[7] Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1000 talents in gold".[7][8][9] Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund (Fox 1973), supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.[10][11][2][12]

Meeting of king Porus and king Ambhi, a 20th century artist's imagination.
Meeting of king Porus and king Ambhi, a 20th century artist's imagination.

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5000 men and took part in the Battle of the Hydaspes. After Alexander was unsuccessful to defeat King Porus in the Battle of Hydaspes who held the large army of Alexander and King Ambhi and stopped them from furtherly entering the grounds of India, Alexander requested requested a peace treaty with King Porus. Alexander was unable to accomplish his goal of conquering the Golden Bird also known as India and was forced to go back by King Porus and Taxiles, who accompanied Alexander in the war, also suffered great loss om his grounds but because of the peace treaty, was able to keep his territory to himself.

Later Eudemus took over Taxila briefly, after which Chandragupta Maurya conquered Alexander's satraps in the sub-continent by 317 BC.

Notes

- Taxiles was a king who rules Taxila(Present day Pakistan)
- Suffered great loss in the Battle of Hydaspes and was unsuccessful but kept his territory because of the peace treaty made by King Porus and Alexander
- His territory was overtaken by Eudemus, one of Alexander's generals

References

  1. ^ Waldemar Heckel (2002). The Wars of Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. Taylor & Francis. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-96855-3.
  2. ^ a b Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 86
  3. ^ Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, viii. 12
  4. ^ a b Sastri 1988, p. 55.
  5. ^ a b Sastri 1988, p. 46.
  6. ^ Jonathan Mark Kenoyer; Kimberly Burton Heuston (1 October 2005), The Ancient South Asian World, Oxford University Press, p. 110, ISBN 978-0-19-522243-2
  7. ^ a b c Sastri 1988, p. 56.
  8. ^ Sastri 1988, p. 36.
  9. ^ Quintus Curtius Rufus, [1]
  10. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, iv. 12, v. 3, 8
  11. ^ Curtius, viii. 14, ix. 3
  12. ^ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Alexander", 59, 65

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William (1870). "Taxiles". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.