Tenth Dynasty of Egypt
ca. 2130 BC–ca. 2040 BC
Inscription on the tomb Khety II, nomarch of Pharaoh Merykare, Mariette
Inscription on the tomb Khety II, nomarch of Pharaoh Merykare, Mariette
CapitalHerakleopolis Magna
Common languagesEgyptian language
ancient Egyptian religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraBronze Age
• Established
ca. 2130 BC
• Disestablished
ca. 2040 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Eighth Dynasty of Egypt
Ninth Dynasty of Egypt
Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt

The Tenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty X) is often combined with the 7th, 8th, 9th and early 11th Dynasties under the group title First Intermediate Period.[1]


The 9th Dynasty was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and the 10th Dynasty continued there. At this time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line, but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost.[2]

The following is a possible list of rulers of the Tenth Dynasty based on the Turin Canon, as Egyptologists have differing opinions about the order of succession within the two dynasties. Among them, only Wahkare Khety and Merykare are undoubtedly attested by archaeological finds:

Tenth Dynasty (according to Hayes) (c. 2130 – 2040 BC)[3]
Name Image Comments
Meryhathor(?) Existence doubtful, known from a damaged graffito at Hatnub
Neferkare VIII Might be the Kaneferre mentioned in the tomb of the nomarch Ankhtifi
Wahkare Khety III Possibly the purported author of the Teaching for King Merykare
Merykare Main opponent of the Theban pharaoh Mentuhotep II
[name lost] An ephemeral ("x months") successor of Merykare


  1. ^ Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  2. ^ Sir Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1961, pp. 112-13.
  3. ^ William C. Hayes, in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol 1, part 2, 1971 (2008), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-077915, p. 996.
Preceded byNinth Dynasty Dynasty of Egypt c. 2130 – 2040 BC Succeeded byEleventh Dynasty