Terabit Ethernet (TbE) is Ethernet with speeds above 100 Gigabit Ethernet. The 400 Gigabit Ethernet (400G, 400GbE) and 200 Gigabit Ethernet (200G, 200GbE)[1] standard developed by the IEEE P802.3bs Task Force using broadly similar technology to 100 Gigabit Ethernet[2][3] was approved on December 6, 2017.[4][5] On February 16, 2024 the 800 Gigabit Ethernet (800G, 800GbE) standard developed by the IEEE P802.3df Task Force was approved.[6]

The Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) has already announced five new projects at 112 Gbit/s which would also make 4th generation (single-lane) 100 GbE links possible.[7] The IEEE P802.3df Task Force started work in January 2022 to standardize 800 Gbit/s and 1.6 Tbit/s Ethernet. [8] In November 2022 the IEEE 802.3df project objectives were split in two, with 1.6T and 200G/lane work being moved to the new IEEE 802.3dj project. The timeline for the 802.3dj project indicates completion in July 2026. [9]

History

Facebook and Google, among other companies, have expressed a need for TbE.[10] While a speed of 400 Gbit/s is achievable with existing technology, 1 Tbit/s (1000 Gbit/s) would require different technology.[2][11] Accordingly, at the IEEE Industry Connections Higher Speed Ethernet Consensus group meeting in September 2012, 400 GbE was chosen as the next generation goal.[2] Additional 200 GbE objectives were added in January 2016.

The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) attracted help from Agilent Technologies, Google, Intel, Rockwell Collins, and Verizon Communications to help with research into next generation Ethernet.[12]

As of early 2016, chassis/modular based core router platforms from Cisco, Juniper and other major manufacturers support 400 Gbit/s full duplex data rates per slot. One, two and four port 100 GbE and one port 400 GbE line cards are presently available. As of early 2019, 200 GbE line cards became available after 802.3cd standard ratification.[13][14] In 2020 the Ethernet Technology Consortium announced a specification for 800 Gigabit Ethernet.[15]

200G Ethernet uses PAM4 signaling which allows 2 bits to be transmitted per clock cycle, but at a higher implementation cost.[16] Cisco introduced an 800G Ethernet switch in 2022.[17] In 2024, Nokia routers with 800G Ethernet were deployed.[18]

Standards development

The IEEE formed the "IEEE 802.3 Industry Connections Ethernet Bandwidth Assessment Ad Hoc", to investigate the business needs for short and long term bandwidth requirements.[19][20][21]

IEEE 802.3's "400 Gb/s Ethernet Study Group" started working on the 400 Gbit/s generation standard in March 2013.[22] Results from the study group were published and approved on March 27, 2014. Subsequently, the IEEE 802.3bs Task Force[23] started working to provide physical layer specifications for several link distances.[24]

The IEEE 802.3bs standard was approved on December 6, 2017[4].

The IEEE 802.3cd standard was approved on December 5, 2018.

The IEEE 802.3cn standard was approved on December 20, 2019.

The IEEE 802.3cm standard was approved on January 30, 2020.

The IEEE 802.3cu standard was approved on February 11, 2021.

The IEEE 802.3ck and 802.3db standards were approved on September 21, 2022.

In November 2022 the IEEE 802.3df project objectives were split in two, with 1.6T and 200G/lane work being moved to the new IEEE 802.3dj project

The IEEE 802.3df standard was approved on February 16, 2024.

IEEE project objectives

Like all speeds since 10 Gigabit Ethernet, the standards support only full-duplex operation. Other objectives include:[24]

  1. Preserve the Ethernet frame format utilizing the Ethernet MAC
  2. Preserve minimum and maximum frame size of current Ethernet standard
  3. Support a bit error ratio (BER) of 10−13, which is an improvement over the 10−12 BER that was specified for 10GbE, 40GbE, and 100GbE.
  4. Support for OTN (transport of Ethernet across optical transport networks), and optional support for Energy-Efficient Ethernet (EEE).

802.3bs project

Define physical layer specifications supporting:[24]

802.3cd project

802.3ck project

802.3cm project

802.3cn project

802.3cu project

802.3cw project

802.3db project

'IEEE P802.3db 100 Gb/s, 200 Gb/s, and 400 Gb/s Short Reach Fiber Task Force'

802.3df project

IEEE P802.3df Objectives for 800 Gbit/s Ethernet and 400G and 800G PHYs using 100 Gbit/s lanes

802.3dj project

IEEE P802.3dj Objectives for 1.6 Tbit/s Ethernet and 200G, 400G 800 Gb/s, and 1.6 Tb/s PHYs using 200 Gbit/s lanes

200G port types

Legend for fibre-based PHYs[38]
Fibre type Introduced Performance
MMF FDDI 62.5/125 µm 1987 0160 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM1 62.5/125 µm 1989 0200 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM2 50/125 µm 1998 0500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM3 50/125 µm 2003 1500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM4 50/125 µm 2008 3500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM5 50/125 µm 2016 3500 MHz·km @ 850 nm + 1850 MHz·km @ 950 nm
SMF OS1 9/125 µm 1998 1.0 dB/km @ 1300/1550 nm
SMF OS2 9/125 µm 2000 0.4 dB/km @ 1300/1550 nm
Name Standard Status Media Connector Transceiver
Module
Reach
in m
#
Media
(⇆)
#
Lambdas
(→)
#
Lanes
(→)
Notes
200 Gigabit Ethernet (200 GbE) (1st Generation: 25GbE-based) - (Data rate: 200 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × NRZ - Line rate: 8x 26.5625 GBd = 212.5 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39][40][41]
200GAUI-8 802.3bs-2017
(CL120B/C)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
0.25 16 N/A 8 PCBs
200 Gigabit Ethernet (200 GbE) (2nd Generation: 50GbE-based) - (Data rate: 200 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 4x 26.5625 GBd x2 = 212.5 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39][40][41]
200GAUI-4 802.3bs-2017
(CL120D/E)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
0.25 8 N/A 4 PCBs
200GBASE-KR4 802.3cd-2018
(CL137)
current Cu-Backplane 1 8 N/A 4 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 30 dB at 13.28125 GHz
200GBASE-CR4 802.3cd-2018
(CL136)
current twinaxial
copper
cable
QSFP-DD,
QSFP56,
microQSFP,
OSFP
N/A 3 8 N/A 4 Data centres (in-rack)
200GBASE-SR4 802.3cd-2018
(CL138)
current Fibre
850 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-12)
QSFP56 OM3: 70 8 1 4 uses four fibers in each direction
OM4: 100
200GBASE-DR4 802.3bs-2017
(CL121)
current Fibre
1304.5 – 1317.5 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-12)
QSFP56 OS2: 500 8 1 4 uses four fibers in each direction
200GBASE-FR4 802.3bs-2017
(CL122)
current Fibre
1271 – 1331 nm
LC QSFP56 OS2: 2k 2 4 4 WDM
200GBASE-LR4 802.3bs-2017
(CL122)
current Fibre
1295.56 – 1309.14 nm
LC QSFP56 OS2: 10k 2 4 4 WDM
200GBASE-ER4 802.3cn-2019
(CL122)
current Fibre
1295.56 – 1309.14 nm
LC QSFP56 OS2: 40k 2 4 4 WDM
200 Gigabit Ethernet (200 GbE) (3rd Generation: 100GbE-based) - (Data rate: 200 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 2x 53.1250 GBd x2 = 212.5 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39][40][41]
200GAUI-2 802.3ck-2022
(CL120F/G)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
N/A 0.25 4 N/A 2 PCBs
200GBASE-KR2 802.3ck-2022
(CL163)
current Cu backplane 1 4 N/A 2 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 28 dB at 26.56 GHz
200GBASE-CR2 802.3ck-2022
(CL162)
current twinaxial copper cable QSFP-DD,
QSFP112,
SFP-DD112,
DSFP,
OSFP
N/A 2 4 N/A 2
200GBASE-VR2 802.3db-2022
(CL167)
current Fiber
850 nm
MPO
(MPO-12)
QSFP
QSFP-DD
SFP-DD112
OM3: 30 4 1 2
OM4: 50
200GBASE-SR2 802.3db-2022
(CL167)
current Fiber
850 nm
MPO
(MPO-12)
QSFP
QSFP-DD
SFP-DD112
OM3: 60 4 1 2
OM4: 100
200 Gigabit Ethernet (200 GbE) (4th Generation: 200GbE-based) - (Data rate: 200 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 2x 106.25 GBd x1 = 212.5 GBd - Full-Duplex)
200GAUI-1 802.3dj
(CL176D/E)
development Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
N/A 0.25 2 N/A 1 PCBs
200GBASE-KR1 802.3dj
(CL178)
development Cu backplane N/A 2 N/A 1 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 40 dB at 53.125 GHz
200GBASE-CR1 802.3dj
(CL179)
development twinaxial copper cable TBD N/A 1 2 N/A 1
200GBASE-DR1 802.3dj
(CL180)
development Fiber
1310 nm
TBD TBD OS2: 500 2 1 1

400G port types

Legend for fibre-based PHYs[38]
Fibre type Introduced Performance
MMF FDDI 62.5/125 µm 1987 0160 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM1 62.5/125 µm 1989 0200 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM2 50/125 µm 1998 0500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM3 50/125 µm 2003 1500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM4 50/125 µm 2008 3500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM5 50/125 µm 2016 3500 MHz·km @ 850 nm + 1850 MHz·km @ 950 nm
SMF OS1 9/125 µm 1998 1.0 dB/km @ 1300/1550 nm
SMF OS2 9/125 µm 2000 0.4 dB/km @ 1300/1550 nm
Name Standard Status Media Connector Transceiver
Module
Reach
in m
#
Media
(⇆)
#
λ
(→)
#
Lanes
(→)
Notes
400 Gigabit Ethernet (400 GbE) (1st Generation: 25GbE-based) - (Data rate: 400 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × NRZ - Line rate: 16x 26.5625 GBd = 425 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39]
400GAUI-16 802.3bs-2017
(CL120B/C)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
0.25 32 N/A 16 PCBs
400GBASE-SR16 802.3bs-2017
(CL123)
current Fibre
850 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-32)
CFP8 OM3: 70 32 1 16
OM4: 100
OM5: 100
400 Gigabit Ethernet (400 GbE) (2nd Generation: 50GbE-based) - (Data rate: 400 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 8x 26.5625 GBd x2 = 425.0 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39]
400GAUI-8 802.3bs-2017
(CL 120D/E)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
0.25 16 N/A 8 PCBs
400GBASE-KR8 proprietary
(ETC) (CL120)
current Cu-Backplane 1 8 N/A 8 WDM
400GBASE-SR8 802.3cm-2020
(CL138)
current Fiber
850 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-16)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OM3: 70 16 1 8
OM4: 100
OM5: 100
400GBASE-SR4.2
(Bidirectional)
802.3cm-2020
(CL150)
current Fiber
850 nm
912 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-12)
QSFP-DD OM3: 70 8 2 8 Bidirectional WDM
OM4: 100
OM5: 150
400GBASE-FR8 802.3bs-2017
(CL122)
current Fibre
1273.54 – 1309.14 nm
LC QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 2k 2 8 8 WDM
400GBASE-LR8 802.3bs-2017
(CL122)
current Fibre
1273.54 – 1309.14 nm
LC QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 10k 2 8 8 WDM
400GBASE-ER8 802.3cn-2019
(CL122)
current Fibre
1273.54 – 1309.14 nm
LC QSFP-DD OS2: 40k 2 8 8 WDM
400 Gigabit Ethernet (400 GbE) (3rd Generation: 100GbE-based) - (Data rate: 400 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 4x 53.1250 GBd x2 = 425.0 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39]
400GAUI-4 802.3ck-2022
(CL120F/G)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
0.25 8 N/A 4 PCBs
400GBASE-KR4 802.3ck-2022
(CL163)
current Cu-Backplane 1 8 N/A 4 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 28 dB at 26.56 GHz
400GBASE-CR4 802.3ck-2022
(CL162)
current twinaxial
copper
cable
QSFP-DD,
QSFP112,
OSFP
N/A 2 8 N/A 4 Data centres (in-rack)
400GBASE-VR4 802.3db-2022
(CL167)
current Fibre
850 nm
MPO
(MPO-12)
QSFP-DD OM3: 30 8 1 4
OM4: 50
OM5: 50
400GBASE-SR4 802.3db-2022
(CL167)
current Fibre
850 nm
MPO
(MPO-12)
QSFP-DD OM3: 60 8 1 4
OM4: 100
OM5: 100
400GBASE-DR4 802.3bs-2017
(CL124)
current Fibre
1304.5 – 1317.5 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-12)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 500 8 1 4
400GBASE-DR4-2 802.3df-2024
(CL124)
current Fibre
1304.5 – 1317.5 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-12)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 2k 8 1 4
400GBASE-XDR4
400GBASE-DR4+
proprietary
(non IEEE)
current Fibre
1304.5 – 1317.5 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-12)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OSx: 2k 8 1 4
400GBASE-FR4 802.3cu-2021
(CL151)
current Fibre
1271−1331 nm
LC QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 2k 2 4 4 Multi-Vendor Standard[42]
400GBASE-LR4-6 802.3cu-2021
(CL151)
current Fibre
1271−1331 nm
LC QSFP-DD OS2: 6k 2 4 4
400GBASE-LR4-10 proprietary
(MSA, Sept 2020)
current Fibre
1271−1331 nm
LC QSFP-DD OSx: 10k 2 4 4 Multi-Vendor Standard[43]
400GBASE-ZR 802.3cw
(CL155/156)
development Fibre LC QSFP-DD
OSFP
OSx: 80k 2 1 2 59.84375 Gigabaud (DP-16QAM)
400 Gigabit Ethernet (400 GbE) (4th Generation: 200GbE-based) - (Data rate: 400 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 2x 106.25 GBd x2 = 425 GBd - Full-Duplex)
400GAUI-2 802.3dj
(CL176D/E)
development Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
N/A 0.25 2 N/A 1 PCBs
400GBASE-KR2 802.3dj
(CL178)
development Cu backplane N/A 4 N/A 2 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 40 dB at 53.125 GHz
400GBASE-CR2 802.3dj
(CL179)
development twinaxial copper cable TBD N/A 1 4 N/A 2
400GBASE-DR2 802.3dj
(CL180)
development Fiber
1310 nm
TBD TBD OS2: 500 4 1 2

800G port types

Legend for fibre-based PHYs[38]
Fibre type Introduced Performance
MMF FDDI 62.5/125 µm 1987 0160 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM1 62.5/125 µm 1989 0200 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM2 50/125 µm 1998 0500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM3 50/125 µm 2003 1500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM4 50/125 µm 2008 3500 MHz·km @ 850 nm
MMF OM5 50/125 µm 2016 3500 MHz·km @ 850 nm + 1850 MHz·km @ 950 nm
SMF OS1 9/125 µm 1998 1.0 dB/km @ 1300/1550 nm
SMF OS2 9/125 µm 2000 0.4 dB/km @ 1300/1550 nm
Name Standard Status Media Connector Transceiver
Module
Reach
in m
#
Media
(⇆)
#
λ
(→)
#
Lanes
(→)
Notes
800 Gigabit Ethernet (800 GbE) (100GbE-based) - (Data rate: 800 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 8x 53.1250 GBd x2 = 850 GBd - Full-Duplex) [39]
800GAUI-8 802.3df-2024
(CL120F/G)
current Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
0.25 16 N/A 8 PCBs
800GBASE-KR8 802.3df-2024
(CL163)
current Cu-Backplane 1 16 N/A 8 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 28 dB at 26.56 GHz
800GBASE-CR8 802.3df-2024
(CL162)
current twinaxial
copper
cable
QSFP−DD800
OSFP
N/A 2 16 N/A 8 Data centres (in-rack)
800GBASE-VR8 802.3df-2024
(CL167)
current Fibre
850 nm
MPO
(MPO-16)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OM3: 30 16 1 8
OM4: 50
OM5: 50
800GBASE-SR8 802.3df-2024
(CL167)
current Fibre
850 nm
MPO
(MPO-16)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OM3: 60 16 1 8
OM4: 100
OM5: 100
800GBASE-DR8 802.3df-2024
(CL124)
current Fibre
1304.5 – 1317.5 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-16)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 500 16 1 8
800GBASE-DR8-2 802.3df-2024
(CL124)
current Fibre
1304.5 – 1317.5 nm
MPO/MTP
(MPO-16)
QSFP-DD
OSFP
OS2: 2k 16 1 8
800 Gigabit Ethernet (800 GbE) (200GbE-based) - (Data rate: 800 Gbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 2x 106.25 GBd x4 = 850 GBd - Full-Duplex)
800GAUI-4 802.3dj
(CL176D/E)
development Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
N/A 0.25 8 N/A 4 PCBs
800GBASE-KR4 802.3dj
(CL178)
development Cu backplane N/A 8 N/A 4 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 40 dB at 53.125 GHz
800GBASE-CR4 802.3dj
(CL179)
development twinaxial copper cable TBD N/A 1 8 N/A 4
800GBASE-DR4 802.3dj
(CL180)
development Fiber
1310 nm
TBD TBD OS2: 500 8 1 4

1.6T port types

Name Standard Status Media Connector Transceiver
Module
Reach
in m
#
Media
(⇆)
#
λ
(→)
#
Lanes
(→)
Notes
1.6 Terabit Ethernet (1.6 TbE) (200GbE-based) - (Data rate: 1.6 Tbit/s - Line code: 256b/257b × RS-FEC(544,514) × PAM4 - Line rate: 2x 106.25 GBd x8 = 1700 GBd - Full-Duplex)
1.6TAUI-8 802.3dj
(CL176D/E)
development Chip-to-chip/
Chip-to-module interface
N/A 0.25 16 N/A 8 PCBs
1.6TBASE-KR8 802.3dj
(CL178)
development Cu backplane N/A 16 N/A 8 PCBs;
total insertion loss of ≤ 40 dB at 53.125 GHz
1.6TBASE-CR8 802.3dj
(CL179)
development twinaxial copper cable TBD N/A 1 16 N/A 8
1.6TBASE-DR8 802.3dj
(CL180)
development Fiber
1310 nm
TBD TBD OS2: 500 16 1 8

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "IEEE 802.3 NGOATH SG Adopted Changes to 802.3bs Project Objectives" (PDF).
  2. ^ a b c "Network boffins say Terabit Ethernet is TOO FAST: Sticking to 400Gb for now". The Register.
  3. ^ On-board optics: beyond pluggables
  4. ^ a b "[STDS-802-3-400G] IEEE P802.3bs Approved!". IEEE 802.3bs Task Force. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  5. ^ "High-Speed Transmission Update: 200G/400G". 2016-07-18.
  6. ^ "[802.3_B400G] IEEE P802.3df Standard Approved!". www.ieee802.org. Retrieved 2024-02-25.
  7. ^ "OIF Launches CEI-112G Project for 100G Serial Electrical Links". Businesswire. 30 Aug 2016.
  8. ^ "802.3df Public Area".
  9. ^ https://www.ieee802.org/3/dj/projdoc/timeline_3dj_231128.pdf
  10. ^ Feldman, Michael (February 3, 2010). "Facebook Dreams of Terabit Ethernet". HPCwire. Tabor Communications, Inc.
  11. ^ Matsumoto, Craig (March 5, 2010). "Dare We Aim for Terabit Ethernet?". Light Reading. UBM TechWeb.
  12. ^ Craig Matsumoto (October 26, 2010). "The Terabit Ethernet Chase Begins". Light Reading. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  13. ^ "Cisco 4 x 100 Gbit/s interface".
  14. ^ "Alcatel-Lucent boosts operator capacity to deliver big data and video over existing networks with launch of 400G IP router interface".
  15. ^ "Rebranded Ethernet Technology Consortium Unveils 800 Gigabit Ethernet".
  16. ^ Smith, Ryan. "Micron Spills on GDDR6X: PAM4 Signaling For Higher Rates, Coming to NVIDIA's RTX 3090". www.anandtech.com.
  17. ^ "Cisco powers up Nexus switch, offers 800GB optic modules".
  18. ^ "NL-ix deploys a range of Nokia service routers". 16 January 2024.
  19. ^ Stephen Lawson (May 9, 2011). "IEEE Seeks Data on Ethernet Bandwidth Needs". PC World. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
  20. ^ "IEEE Industry Connections Ethernet Bandwidth Assessment" (PDF). IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group. July 19, 2012. Retrieved 2015-03-01.
  21. ^ Max Burkhalter Brafton (May 12, 2011). "Terabit Ethernet could be on its way". Perle. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  22. ^ "400 Gb/s Ethernet Study Group". Group web site. IEEE 802.3. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
  23. ^ IEEE 802.3bs Task Force
  24. ^ a b c "Objectives" (PDF). IEEE 802.3bs Task Force. Mar 2014. Retrieved 2015-03-01.
  25. ^ 100 m MMF draft proposal
  26. ^ "400GBase-SR16 draft specifications" (PDF).
  27. ^ a b c IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group Liaison letter to ITU-T Questions 6/15 and 11/15
  28. ^ 400G-PSM4: A Proposal for the 500 m Objective using 100 Gbit/s per Lane Signaling
  29. ^ 400 Gb/s 8x50G PAM4 WDM 2km SMF PMD Baseline Specifications
  30. ^ a b Baseline Proposal for 8 x 50G NRZ for 400GbE 2 km and 10 km PMD
  31. ^ "400 GbE technical draft specifications" (PDF).
  32. ^ IEEE 802.3 NGOATH SG Adopted Changes to 802.3bs Project Objectives Updated by IEEE 802.3 NGOATH Study Group, Mar 16, 2016, IEEE 802 Mar 2016 Plenary, Macau, China.
  33. ^ a b c IEEE 802.3bs 200/400 Gb/s Ethernet (Standards Informant)
  34. ^ a b http://www.ieee802.org/3/cn/proj_doc/3cn_Objectives_181113.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  35. ^ https://www.ieee802.org/3/cu/Objectives_Approved_Sept_2019.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  36. ^ http://www.ieee802.org/3/cw/proj_doc/3cw_Objectives_190911.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  37. ^ https://www.ieee802.org/3/ct/public/tf_interim/20_0227/dambrosia_3cw_01_200227.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  38. ^ a b c Charles E. Spurgeon (2014). Ethernet: The Definitive Guide (2nd ed.). O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-6184-6.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g "Exploring The IEEE 802 Ethernet Ecosystem" (PDF). IEEE. 2017-06-04. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  40. ^ a b c "Multi-Port Implementations of 50/100/200GbE" (PDF). Brocade. 2016-05-22. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  41. ^ a b c "100Gb/s Electrical Signaling" (PDF). IEEE 802.3 NEA Ad hoc. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  42. ^ Nowell, Mark. "400G-FR4 Technical Specification". 100glambda.com. 100G Lambda MSA Group. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  43. ^ Nowell, Mark. "400G-LR4-10 Technical Specification". 100glambda.com. 100G Lambda MSA Group. Retrieved 26 May 2021.

Further reading