Terrebonne Parish
Terrebonne Parish Courthouse
Terrebonne Parish Courthouse
Flag of Terrebonne Parish
Map of Louisiana highlighting Terrebonne Parish
Location within the U.S. state of Louisiana
Map of the United States highlighting Louisiana
Louisiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 29°20′N 90°50′W / 29.34°N 90.84°W / 29.34; -90.84
Country United States
State Louisiana
FoundedMarch 22, 1822
Named forterre bonne, French for good earth
SeatHouma
Largest cityHouma
Area
 • Total2,080 sq mi (5,400 km2)
 • Land1,232 sq mi (3,190 km2)
 • Water850 sq mi (2,200 km2)  41%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total109,580
 • Density53/sq mi (20/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional districts1st, 6th
Websitewww.tpcg.org

Terrebonne Parish (/ˌtɛrəˈbn/ TERR-ə-BOHN; French: Paroisse de Terrebonne) is a parish located in the southern part of the U.S. state of Louisiana. At the 2020 census, the population was 109,580.[1] The parish seat is Houma.[2] The parish was founded in 1822.[3] Terrebonne Parish is part of the Houma-Thibodaux metropolitan statistical area.

It is the fifth-largest parish in the state in terms of land area, and it has been a center of Cajun culture since the 18th century. More than 10% of its residents speak French at home.[citation needed]

History

The parish seat of Houma was named after the Houma people. The native word houma means red, and the tribe's war emblem was the crawfish. Historians say the Houma are related to the Muskogean-speaking Choctaw, and migrated into the area from present-day Mississippi and Alabama. They first settled in the area that developed as Baton Rouge. After many conflicts with other Indian tribes, and losing a war to the Tunica in 1706, the Houma Indians continued moving south to more remote areas in the bayous, in order to escape the encroachment of Europeans. They settled in present-day Terrebonne Parish in the mid- to late 18th century. They established a camp known as Ouiski Bayou on the high ground northwest of what later developed as downtown Houma. They were subsequently pushed from the highlands of the north to the coastal regions of the south by the European settlements in the late 1700s and 1800s. Evidence of the Houma Tribe can still be found in this area today.

One of the southernmost of Louisiana's parishes, Terrebonne Parish was established on March 22, 1822, from the southern part of Lafourche Interior, bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. Covering an area of 2100 square miles, it is the second-largest parish in the state. The early French settlers named the parish for the fertility of its soils: terre bonne means "good earth."

In 1834, Terrebonne Parish founded the city of Houma in order to establish a centrally located and more easily accessible parish seat. Prior to this, the county seat had been set at Williamsburg (now Bayou Cane), approximately four miles northwest of present-day downtown Houma. Government officials believed that the site of Houma, at the convergence of six bayous, would provide better access for commerce and development in Terrebonne Parish, as most transportation and shipping was by water. It was near a former settlement of the Houma Tribe of Native Americans. Williamsburg was at the junction of two bayous: Cane and Terrebonne.

European and African settlers

Most of the European settlers who came to Terrebonne migrated from along the Mississippi River, down Bayou Lafourche to Bayou Terrebonne. There was an influx of French colonists from New Orleans to the bayou country in 1762 after the Spanish took over rule of the colony following the French defeat by the British in the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in North America). The district Spanish commandant granted concessions of title to not more than 630 acres of land for each newcomer to the bayou lands. While many Frenchmen came into the area prior to this, British and Spanish colonists also recorded claims.

Other settlers in the area in 1760 were French colonists from Acadia (modern Nova Scotia), who had been expelled by the British in 1755 during the Seven Years' War. They became known as "Cajuns" (Acadians). Many settled along the bayous in Terrebonne Parish. They chose this area because of its isolated geographic location, a minimum of government control, fertile land, and an abundance of fish and wildlife. These people lived in relative cultural seclusion for generations and continued their family traditions of living off the land. Today they celebrate their heritage through their festivals and church fairs.

In 1848, Houma was incorporated as a city by an act of legislature. By this time, industry in the Houma area consisted largely of plantations for sugar cane, dependent on the labor of enslaved African-Americans. Also important were harvesting seafood, fur trading, and logging industries. The cultivation of sugar cane was the principal agricultural industry in the parish. The first plantation in the parish was established in 1828. By 1851, Terrebonne had 110 plantations with 80 sugar houses (small sugar cane mills). Thousands of enslaved Africans were brought to the parish through the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.

Southdown Plantation was founded in 1828 by the Minor family. They held hundreds of enslaved Africans for sugar cane cultivation and processing. Stephen Minor had served as the Secretary to the Spanish Governor Gayoso of Louisiana. Today, the Minor family home, built in 1858 and enlarged in 1893, serves as the parish museum. The sugar mill was sold in 1979, dismantled and shipped to Guatemala, where it was reassembled. It is still in use today.

Settlers had canals dug between the bayous to decrease travel time within the parish and make trade more efficient. In 1872, a railroad that linked Schriever to Houma was instrumental in increasing trade and travel within and outside the parish.

In 1923, the construction of the Intracoastal Waterway led to the abandonment of the canals. The Intracoastal was later extended to Lafourche Parish and to Bayou Lafourche, increasing Houma's importance as a portal city.

20th century to present

During World War II, Houma was selected for the establishment of a Lighter Than Air Blimp Naval Station, which operated from May 1943 to September 1944. The Navy base, which used blimp squadrons to scan the coastline for enemy vessels, was one of only two blimp stations operating on the Gulf Coast.

Terrebonne has depended on natural resources: oysters, shrimp, crabs and fish contribute their share of wealth to the parish. In the great stretches of marshland surrounding Terrebonne parish, trapping of Louisiana muskrat, mink, otter, raccoon, and nutria pelts are another form of local commerce.

Development of oil and gas resources in the parish began in 1929, bringing a period of economic development and prosperity unparalleled anywhere in the state. The industry grew into enormous dimensions with the discovery of offshore oil. Terrebonne became the gateway to the most dense concentration of offshore oil service companies in the state. By 1960, with the combination of rich oil production backed by Houma's productive waters, fertile soil, and natural mineral resources, Houma became one of the fastest-growing cities in America. In 1961, the Houma Navigational Canal was completed to provide a 30-mile link to Terrebonne Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

By the late 1970s, Houma's main focus was the oil industry. Those companies not related to oil and gas depended on this industry for their survival. When the bottom fell out of the oil industry in the early 1980s because of cheaper foreign product and dwindling local resources, Houma declined. For nearly two years, the Houma-Terrebonne area experienced an unemployment rate near 25%.

The Houma community has worked to diversify the parish economy. While the oil industry is still the primary source of revenue for the Houma-Terrebonne area, alternative industries are emerging. Terrebonne Parish accounts for more than 20% of Louisiana's seafood production. In addition, the medical industry is growing in the area. Tourism, too, is a popular source of commerce in and around Houma. The addition of Houma's new Civic Center promises to attract more entertainment and convention revenue to the city.

The draw of authentic Acadian culture, diverse environment and wildlife, plantation homes, excellent food, and close proximity to New Orleans, Baton Rouge, and Lafayette attracts visitors to Houma and its central location.

On August 29, 2021, Hurricane Ida made landfall in the parish.[4]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 2,082 square miles (5,390 km2), of which 1,232 square miles (3,190 km2) is land and 850 square miles (2,200 km2) (41%) is water.[5] It is the fifth-largest parish in Louisiana by land area and third-largest by total area. The Gulf of Mexico is located to the south of the parish.

The average height above sea level of the parish is about six feet. The parish is protected by extensive flood protection works.[6]

Major highways

Adjacent parishes

National protected area

Communities

Map of Terrebonne Parish, with municipal labels

City

Unincorporated areas

Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18302,121
18404,410107.9%
18507,72475.1%
186012,09156.5%
187012,4513.0%
188017,95744.2%
189020,16712.3%
190024,46421.3%
191028,32015.8%
192026,974−4.8%
193029,81610.5%
194035,88020.3%
195043,32820.8%
196060,77140.3%
197076,04925.1%
198094,39324.1%
199096,9822.7%
2000104,5037.8%
2010111,8607.0%
2020109,580−2.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010[11]
Terrebonne Parish racial composition as of 2020[12]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 68,802 62.79%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 21,059 19.22%
Native American 5,808 5.3%
Asian 1,294 1.18%
Pacific Islander 39 0.04%
Other/Mixed 5,220 4.76%
Hispanic or Latino 7,358 6.71%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 109,580 people, 40,173 households, and 28,808 families residing in the parish. The largest single ancestry group amongst its population was French American, at 20%, while 21,253 or 19.4% were African American. The median household income was $48,446; 20% of the population lived at or below the poverty line.[13]

Education

Terrebonne Parish School District operates public schools in all of the parish, and its boundary is that of the parish.[14]

The parish is in the service area of Fletcher Technical Community College.[15] Additionally, a Delgado Community College document stated that Terrebonne Parish was in the college's service area.[16]

Libraries

The Terrebonne Parish Library System is the public library system that serves the residents of Terrebonne Parish.[17] The library system grew from a small social club formed in 1927, called B.E.S.T.W.S for the surnames of the six original women who formed the club.[18] In 1929, the club changed its name to the Terrebonne Literary Club and opened a public library in the parish. Today, it consists of eight branch libraries.

Terrebonne Parish Library Branches

Government

The parish has been run by the Terrebonne Parish Consolidated Government since it absorbed the powers of the City of Houma. The parish is led by President Gordon Dove, elected in 2016. State Representatives Jerome Zeringue, and Beryl Amedee represent Terrebonne Parish in the Louisiana House.

The 32nd Judicial District has five judgeships, all of which are elected at-large. In 2014, Assistant District Attorney Juan Pickett was elected as the first black judge in the parish's history. He ran unopposed as a Republican. In 2015 he switched to the Democratic Party.[27]

Earlier in 2014 the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, in cooperation with local plaintiffs, filed a lawsuit against the state of Louisiana for its system of at-large voting for the five judicial positions in Terrebonne Parish. They said it violated the Voting Rights Act, as it diluted minority voting power. Minority residents in the parish were unable to elect candidates of their choice. (Earlier cases that went to the US Supreme Court established that the VRA covered elected judicial positions.)[27]

In August 2017 the federal district court in Baton Rouge ruled that the parish's at-large voting was unconstitutional and discriminatory. US District Court Judge James Brady found that

“no black candidate who has faced opposition in Terrebonne has been elected to an at-large position and black candidates have received incredibly minimal support from white voters, a pattern which has been consistent over the course of more than 20 years.”

The parties would be working on a remedy; a minority sub-district has been proposed among five single-member districts to elect these judges. The legislature would have to pass a law establishing such a change. The state said it would appeal the decision.[27]

Law enforcement

The Terrebonne Parish Sheriff's Office is headquartered at the courthouse annex in Houma. It has about three hundred employees.[28] The office is organized into a number of divisions including: Administration, criminal, civil, communications, corrections, and water Patrol.[29]

Timothy Soignet, the current sheriff, took office on July 1, 2020. Jerry Larpenter, who became sheriff for the first time in 1987, stepped down briefly in 2008, and was re-elected in 2012. He announced he would not seek re-election in October 2019.[30]

In 2017, the parish and the sheriff's office settled a civil case brought against them by a local couple in 2016. The couple operated a web site dedicated to exposing corruption. An individual named on the site filed a criminal defamation complaint with the Sheriff's Office. As a result, a search warrant issued by a parish judge was executed by deputies at the home of the couple, whose computer equipment was seized. No criminal charges were ultimately brought against them. In total the couple received $200,000 in settlements from several parish entities including the Sheriff's Office.[31]

Representation in other media

See also: List of newspapers in Louisiana, List of radio stations in Louisiana, and List of television stations in Louisiana

National Guard

C Company 2-156th Infantry Battalion of the 256th IBCT resides in Houma, Louisiana.

D Company 2-156 Infantry Battalion of the 256 IBCT resides in Thibodaux, Louisiana

Politics

United States presidential election results for Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana[33]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 34,339 74.26% 11,198 24.22% 703 1.52%
2016 31,902 72.68% 10,665 24.30% 1,329 3.03%
2012 29,503 69.68% 12,074 28.52% 764 1.80%
2008 28,210 69.32% 11,581 28.46% 905 2.22%
2004 26,358 64.96% 13,684 33.73% 532 1.31%
2000 21,314 58.12% 14,414 39.30% 947 2.58%
1996 13,944 38.35% 18,550 51.02% 3,867 10.64%
1992 14,662 42.30% 13,325 38.44% 6,677 19.26%
1988 18,745 58.19% 12,686 39.38% 781 2.42%
1984 23,696 69.51% 9,640 28.28% 753 2.21%
1980 16,644 58.03% 10,804 37.67% 1,233 4.30%
1976 12,895 53.11% 10,627 43.76% 760 3.13%
1972 13,753 71.70% 4,415 23.02% 1,014 5.29%
1968 5,214 27.92% 4,627 24.77% 8,836 47.31%
1964 6,729 43.96% 8,577 56.04% 0 0.00%
1960 3,126 23.66% 8,992 68.07% 1,092 8.27%
1956 4,983 64.85% 2,460 32.01% 241 3.14%
1952 3,848 47.51% 4,252 52.49% 0 0.00%
1948 1,048 24.18% 1,262 29.12% 2,024 46.70%
1944 550 13.45% 3,539 86.55% 0 0.00%
1940 601 15.74% 3,217 84.26% 0 0.00%
1936 526 21.74% 1,894 78.26% 0 0.00%
1932 215 9.18% 2,126 90.82% 0 0.00%
1928 268 14.03% 1,642 85.97% 0 0.00%
1924 415 46.27% 482 53.73% 0 0.00%
1920 713 59.92% 477 40.08% 0 0.00%
1916 113 8.65% 606 46.37% 588 44.99%
1912 89 10.83% 455 55.35% 278 33.82%

Terrebonne is represented in the Louisiana House of Representatives by the Republican Jerome Zeringue. The Parish president is Republican Gordon Dove.

Since the 20th century, white voters in the parish have become majority Republican. Before the civil rights era, whites generally supported Democratic candidates throughout the South. The Southern Democrats, exclusively white, constituted a powerful block in Congress during the first part of the 20th century. The state legislature had essentially disenfranchised most African Americans at the turn of the century.

Voting in Terrebonne Parish, as in the rest of Louisiana, has been racially polarized since African Americans recovered the ability to register and vote. Most African Americans have voted for Democratic candidates since Congress passed civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[34] Since the white majority in the parish shifted to the Republican Party, since 1968 the only Democratic presidential candidate to carry Terrebonne was Bill Clinton, a native son of Arkansas, in 1996.

Notable people

Ray Authement, who was the fifth president of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, serving from 1974 to 2008 and the longest-serving president of a public university in the United States, was born in rural Terrebonne Parish in 1928, near Chauvin.[35][36]

Allen J. Ellender, a Senator from Louisiana from 1937 to 1972, and the President pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate from 1971 to 1972, was born in the town of Montegut in Terrebonne Parish.[37]

See also

References

  1. ^ "QuickFacts: Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Terrebonne Parish". Center for Cultural and Eco-Tourism. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
  4. ^ CNN (August 29, 2021). "August 29, 2021 Hurricane Ida landfall news". CNN. Retrieved October 7, 2021. ((cite web)): |last= has generic name (help)
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  6. ^ Werblow, Steve. "Closing the Gates". Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  9. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  11. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  12. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  13. ^ "Geography Profile: Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana". data.census.gov. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  14. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Terrebonne Parish, LA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 31, 2022. Retrieved July 31, 2022. - Text list
  15. ^ "Our Colleges". Louisiana's Technical and Community Colleges. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
  16. ^ "The Economic Value of Delgado Community College" (PDF). Delgado Community College. Retrieved March 9, 2024. For the purposes of this analysis, the Delgado Service Area is comprised of [...] and Terrebonne[...]
  17. ^ "Terrebonne Parish Library System". Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  18. ^ "How the Terrebonne Parish Library System came to be". The Times of Houma/Thibodaux. April 11, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
  19. ^ "Main Library". | Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  20. ^ "Chauvin Branch". | Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  21. ^ "Dulac Branch". | Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  22. ^ "Dularge Branch". Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  23. ^ "East Houma Branch". Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  24. ^ "Gibson Branch". Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  25. ^ "Montegut Branch". Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  26. ^ "North Branch". Terrebonne Parish Library System. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  27. ^ a b c Dan Copp, "Minority judgeship ruling called long overdue", Daily Comet, August 19, 2017; accessed June 19, 2018
  28. ^ "About TPSO". Terrebonne Parish Sheriff's Office. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  29. ^ "Water Patrol". Terrebonne Parish Sheriff's Office. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  30. ^ "Welcome!". Terrebonne Parish Sheriff's Office. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  31. ^ "Terrebonne's Top 10 Stories of 2017". Houma Today. January 3, 2018. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  32. ^ Rachel Arons, "A Mythical Bayou's All-Too-Real Peril: The Making of 'Beasts of the Southern Wild'", New York Times June 8, 2012
  33. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  34. ^ Johnathan C. Augustine and Ulysses Gene Thibodeaux, "Forty Years Later: Chronicling the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and Its Impact on Louisiana's Judiciary", Louisiana Law Review, Vol.66, No. 2 (Winter 2006)
  35. ^ "Newsmaker of the Year". theind.com. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
  36. ^ "Ray Paul Authement". wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
  37. ^ Laurence Kestenbaum. https://politicalgraveyard.com/geo/LA/TB-buried.html Retrieved March 23, 2023

29°20′N 90°50′W / 29.34°N 90.84°W / 29.34; -90.84