Thaha Syaifuddin (1816–1904) became Sultan of Jambi in 1855.[1] However, he refused to renew treaties imposed on his predecessors by the Dutch, who invaded Jambi in 1858 and imposed a series of sultans[2] who, under Dutch control, reigned over much of the sultanate until 1899.[1] Thaha, however, continued to claim the sultanate and to rule over its less accessible parts until he was killed by Dutch soldiers in 1904.[1] In 1977, he was elevated to National Hero of Indonesia, the country's highest honor.[3][4]


  1. ^ a b c Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (2001). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1200. Stanford University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780804744805. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  2. ^ Kerlogue, Fiona G (2004). "Jambi". In Ooi, Keat Gin (ed.). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 678. ISBN 9781576077702. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  3. ^ "Daftar Nama Pahlawan Nasional Republik Indonesia (2)" [List of Names of National Heroes of the Republic of Indonesia (2)]. Awards of the Republic of Indonesia (in Indonesian). Indonesian State Secretariat. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  4. ^ Mirnawati (2012). Kumpulan Pahlawan Indonesia Terlengkap [Most Complete Collection of Indonesian Heroes] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: CIF. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-979-788-343-0.