Thakur Zorawar Singh Barhath
Born(1883-09-12)12 September 1883
DiedOctober 17, 1939(1939-10-17) (aged 56)
Ekalgarh, Sitamau State
Other namesBaba Amardas Bairagi
OccupationRevolutionary
Known forBombing on Lord Hardinge (Delhi Conspiracy Case)
MovementIndian independence movement
Criminal penaltyDeath sentence
Spouse(s)Anop Kanwar
Parent(s)
  • Thakur Krishna Singh Barhath (father)
RelativesThakur Kesari Singh Barhath (brother)
Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhath (nephew)

Thakur Zorawar Singh Barhath (12 September 1883 - 17 October 1939) was an Indian revolutionary and anti-British activist. He is known for the assassination attempt on the Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge by throwing a bomb on him during the procession in New Delhi. He is also called "Chandra Shekhar Azad of Rajasthan".[1]

Thakur Zorawar Singh was part of the celebrated Barhath Family of Shahpura(Bhilwara) whose members were prominent revolutionary leaders in the freedom struggle against the British Raj. Thakur Krishna Singh Barhath, his sons Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath and Thakur Zorawar Singh Barhath and grandson Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhath(son of Thakur Kesari Singh) took an active part in the freedom struggle and devoted their lives and belongings for the cause of Indian Independence. Zorawar Singh spent the last 3 decades of his life in the attire of saint, under the pseudo name Baba Amardas Bairagi.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Early life

Zorawar Singh was born on 12 September 1883 in Devpura (Shahpura State) to father Thakur Krishna Singh Barhath. The Barhath family of Shahpura were affluent jagirdars of Rajputana and belonged to Sauda clan of Charans. In Udaipur, he received primary education and completed secondary education in Jodhpur. Zorawar Singh's childhood was spent in close company of the aristocratic families of Shahpura, Udaipur, and Jodhpur. He was married to Anop Kanwar, the daughter of Thakur Takhtsingh of Atraliya thikana in Kota State.[11][8][12]

Kamdar of Maharani of Jodhpur

After the death of his father, Thakur Krishna Singh, Zorawar Singh joined the Marwar Court as the Kamdar of Maharani of Jodhpur. It was here that Zorawar Singh met Bhai Balmukund who worked as a tutor for the princes.[13][6][8][12]

Turn to revolution

At the instance of his elder brother Thakur Kesari Singh, Zorawar Singh joined the revolutionaries in Delhi accompanied by Master Amir Chand and Rash Bihari Bose.[11][14]

Although Thakur Keshari Singh was in a high position in the native states, he was also secretly connected to the Revolutionary party. He had sent his younger brother Thakur Zoravar Singh Barahth, his son Pratap Singh Barahth and son-in-law Ishwar Dan Ashiya to Master Amirchand.[8]

Delhi conspiracy case(Hardinge bomb case 1912)

Source:[8]

An illustration of the assassination attempt on Lord Charles Hardinge
An illustration of the assassination attempt on Lord Charles Hardinge

In December 1912, Lord Hardinge, the new Governor-General of British India arrived in Delhi. A royal procession presided by Lord Hardinge was announced in the celebration of the shifting of the capital from Kolkata to Delhi. A plan was hatched by revolutionaries headed by Rash Bihari Bose and Thakur Kesari Singh to assassinate Lord Hardinge. Zorawar Singh was in close touch with revolutionaries like Ras Bihari Bose and was part of the conspiracy to kill Governor-General Lord Hardinge during his ceremonial procession in Delhi. Zorawar Singh, along with his nephew, Pratap Singh, took the responsibility to throw a bomb at Lord Harding during this procession. On 23 December 1912, Zorawar Singh and Pratap Singh went to the roof of the building of Marwari College in Chandni Chowk, Delhi. They wore a disguise and went on the roof, where Zorawar Singh threw a bomb directed at Lord Hardinge, who was riding on the back of an elephant along with his wife and guards. Hardinge was seriously wounded at the impact of the bomb but survived while one of his bodyguards died on the spot.[15][13][11][16][2][17][18][14][19][9][20][12][21][22]

Aftermath

After the bombing, both Zorawar Singh and his nephew Pratap Singh absconded from the place and remained hidden.[13]

Rash Bihari Bose, who co-planned the conspiracy, also went into hiding. He remained underground in Nuddea (West Bengal).[2]

After the bombing, the police and the army immediately surrounded all the houses, all the houses were searched but no one could be caught. An award of one lakh rupees was announced by the British Government of India to the person who captures the culprit. In order to show their allegiance, the Maharajas of each native princely state announced a separate award to find the bomber. The amount of all the prizes increased to several crores of rupees but the Indian police and the intelligence of Scotland Yard could not trace the bomber.

Kunwar Pratap Singh and his brother-in-law, Ishwar Dan Ashiya, were arrested but later released due to lack of evidence. Subsequently, Zorawar Singh & Pratap Singh, who were also wanted in other cases, absconded. Police made efforts but failed to arrest them. Attractive prizes were announced for those who could give any clues about Zorawar Singh and Pratap Singh. Zorawar Singh would never be caught and remained underground for his whole life.[15][2][14]

Injuries caused by this assassination attempt led to rumours of Lord Hardinge's imminent death. Though he survived, he suffered from neuritis and hearing loss even months later.[23]

Escape from Delhi

Zoravar Singh and Pratap Singh had to escape Delhi and they came to the banks of Yamuna. They couldn't cross at the time since there was flooding in the river. For seven hours, Pratap Singh sometimes swam, sometimes dived and sometimes hanged by the chains of the bridge. When it got dark enough, they swam across the river. Pratap Singh was very tired, when he reached the shore, and fell unconscious. Two police constables who saw him crossing became suspicious of him. Zoravar Singh slashed both of them with his sword and carried Pratap Singh on his back.[8][21]

When Zorawar Singh & Pratap Singh left from Delhi after throwing the bomb, they walked about forty miles in a day. A spy followed them from there. After a few days, when they were leaving the border of Banswara, the spy alerted the Nakadar and told him to catch them. Zoravar Singh immediately razed that Nakadar with his sword and both of them fled from there.[8]

Reactions

The revolutionaries distributed a secret communique praising this incident, which stated:

"Gita, Vedas, Quran all instruct us that it is our religious duty to kill the enemy of the motherland, irrespective of caste, creed, race and religion. We do not talk about other big and small revolutionary works, but last December the divine power that appeared in Delhi is a unquestionable proof that God himself is changing the fate of India."[14]

Famed nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai has written in his biography that "the person who threw the bomb on Lord Hardinge on 12 December 1911 had done a memorable deed to be remembered for generations. The courage and bravery of this man cannot be matched. What is even more encouraging is that all the means and power of a mighty glorious empire have proved incapable of finding that heroic till date. That person was none other than Thakur Zorawar Singh Barhath of Shahpura."[21]

Jodhpur Mahant conspiracy

Revolutionaries guided by Thakur Kesari Singh planned to kill a wealthy corrupt Mahant from Jodhpur, Pyarelal, to gather money from anti-British projects. According to the plan, Pyarelal was to be brought to Kota from Jodhpur by Ram Karan. His lodging arrangements were made in the Charan Rajput Boarding House. Hiralal Lahiri killed Pyarelal on 25 June 1912. Despite a vehement search by the police, they couldn't arrest anybody till after six months when a letter written by Ram Karan to Thakur Kesari Singh in code language was recovered. In this letter, Ram Karan had stated that the "flour might have become rotten by then and may be, therefore, thrown to the fishes in the Chambal." This was interpreted to mean that the remains of Pyarelal should now be thrown into the river to remove any sign of evidence.[13][14]

When the conspiracy came to light during the search at Arjun Lal Sethi's school at Indore, Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath, Hira Lal Lahiri, Ram Karan and Hiralal Jalori were arrested. During the trial, one of the accused, Laxmi Lal Kayastha, turned approver and corroborated with the British government and Thakur Kesari Singh was sentenced to 20 years of rigorous imprisonment.[13]

The princely State of Kota put a reward of Rs.500 for the capture of Zorawar Singh in the Pyarelal Murder case. He was never arrested or found.[13]

Arrah conspiracy case/Nimej murder case

After the Delhi Bomb(Delhi Conspiracy Case) outrage, revolutionaries led by Zorawar Singh committed many dacoities in UP and Bihar for the want of funds one of which was Arrah Conspiracy also known as Nimej Murder Case. Zorawar Singh was the chief accused in the Arrah Conspiracy Case. Revolutionaries led by him had attacked a Jain upasar located in Arrah (Bihar) in which a mahant was killed in the encounter. The mahant was believed to be a close confidant of British authorities. A person named Shivnarayan turned informer for the British government. British authorities released a warrant & later kill at sight order for Zoarwar Singh but he evaded them and wasn't caught.[14][19][8][12]

Ravines of Central India

Source:[8]

Sensing the heat of the Colonial Police force around him increase, Zorawar Singh left for the ravines of Central India & Rajasthan. He made his residence in this region and remained there for the rest of his life. Sometimes, he managed to secretly meet with his wife and family members for short durations.[11][9]

For 27 consecutive years, he roamed in the jungles and hills of Rajasthan, Central India. He had changed his name to Baba Amardas Bairagi and lived in the guise of a sage.[9][12]

In the latter years, he lived mostly in the kingdom of Sitamau. There Maniraj Singh Jagawat came in close contact with him. Zoravar Singh narrated to him the bombing on Lord Hardinge:

"When Lord Hardinge came out sitting on the cistern, I myself fired at him from a high building. When we(Zorawar Singh & Pratap Singh) came out of Delhi after throwing the bomb, we walked about forty miles in a day. A spy followed us from there. After a few days, when we were leaving the border of Banswara, the spy called the Nakadar and told him to catch this person. Zoravar Singh immediately razed that Nakadar with his sword and both of them fled from there."[8]

A few years before shifting to Central India, Thakur Zorawar Singh had shown the place from where he had dropped the bomb in Chandni Chowk, Delhi to Rajlakshmi Devi, granddaughter of his elder brother Thakur Kesari Singh.

Death

To catch Zoravar Singh, the Kota government and the Bihar government had announced big rewards, but the revolutionary altered his dress and speech and assumed such a form that even the British CID department could not be successful in capturing him. In the Arrah Conspiracy case of Bihar, Zoravar Singh was sentenced to death, but again could not be caught.[11][8]

In 1937, for the first time, Congress successfully won provincial elections in multiple states across British India and formed governments. It was opportune moment so Congress leaders and Thakur Kesari Singh, who had been released from prison in 1920, made efforts to nullify the death warrant issued against Zorawar Singh in Arrah Conspiracy. He met Purshottam Das Tandon, the Bihar Chief Minister Shri Krishna Sinha and the Home Secretary Anugraha Narayan Sinha to cancel the warrant. Unfortunately, before the efforts could frutify, Zorawar Singh became ill with pneumonia and without proper treatment, he died in 1939.[24][21]

27 years after throwing the bomb on Lord Hardinge, dedicating himself to the freedom of the motherland while living underground, he died on 17 October 1939.[11][12]

Fateh Singh Manav has said:

"From Bang-Bhang(Partition of Bengal-1905) to the last revolution of 1942, in all the sacrifices that were made in the freedom struggle of India, if those men are kept in comparison with the incomparable sacrifice, unparalleled patience and infinite suffering tolerance, then the place of Zoravar Singh will be the highest among martyrs."[8][21]

Quotes

Babu Jagjivan Ram, Former Deputy Prime Minister of India

Jagjivan Ram

Jagjivan Ram, former Deputy Prime Minister of India:–

"Shri Kesari Singh, his brother Zorawar Singh and Shri Pratap Singh were the brave martyrs from Rajasthan but not only Rajasthan but the whole of India, especially Bihar, where we are equally proud of their martyrdom."[25]

Raghubir Singh Sitamau

Raghubir Singh, the last ruler of Sitamau princly state:–

"Barhath-putra Pratap Singh sacrificed his life, Barhath Kesari Singh did not shirk from his duty even after losing everything and suffering many tortures and his brother Zorawar Singh spent the last twenty five years of his life wandering in Chambal Kanthe completely unknown."[25]

Ashok Gehlot, 14th & present Chief Minister of Rajasthan

Ashok Gehlot

Ashok Gehlot, 14th Chief Minister of Rajasthan:–

"Rajasthan, the land of bravery and valor, was also second to none in the freedom struggle of the country. I pay homage to Shri Kesari Singh Barhath, Shri Zorawar Singh Barhath and Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhath. I am sure that his immortal story will become a powerful medium in the resurgence of the society."[25]

Haridev Joshi

Haridev Joshi, former Chief Minister of Rajasthan on 25 April 1976:–

"Sri Kesari Singh, Sri Pratap Singh and Sri Zorawar Singh were members of the same family. They sacrificed their lives, because they believed it is better to die with self-respect than to be a slave. They led the struggle for freedom with their life. Kesari Singh sacrificed his family for the freedom of India. He stood firm throughout his life, did not break, did not fall."[25]

Vasundhara Raje Former Rajasthan Chief Minister and BJP National Vice President
Vasundhara Raje Former Rajasthan Chief Minister and BJP National Vice President

Vasundhara Raje

Vasundhara Raje, 13th Chief Minsiter of Rajasthan:–

"Revolutionary leaders Shri Kesari Singh Barhath and his brother Zorawar Singh Barhath and son Pratap Singh Barhath have made valuable contributions to the freedom movement. The entire family of Shri Barhath has sacrificed everything in the freedom movement. They are all our sources of inspiration."[25]

Legacy

Zorawar Singh along with other members of Barhath family of Shahpura are taught as part of secondary syllabus in RBSC board in Rajasthan.[26]

Shaheed Mela

Since last 50 years, from 1974 onwards, every year on 23 December, Shaeed Mela is celebrated in memory of the Barhath family. It was on this day that Zorawar Singh hurled a bomb on the British Viecroy of India in 1912. A fair is organized in their hometown at Shahpura and the event takes place at Shahid Trimurti Memorial which displays the statues of Thakur Kesari Singh, Thakur Zorawar Singh, and Kunwar Pratap Singh. The event is presided by the political class including MPs, MLAs, and local polticians.[27][28]

Portraits in Delhi Assembly

In January 2019, portraits of revolutionaries of Barhath Family including Thakur Kesari Singh Barhath, Zorawar Singh Barhath, and Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhath were placed in the gallary of Delhi Assembly.[29]

Barhath Haveli of Shahpura

‘Haveli of Late Shri Kesari Singh Barhath’ located in Shahpura (Bhilwara) is a State Protected Monument under the Government of Rajasthan.[30]

At the 100th death anniversary of Pratap Singh Barhath, the Barhath Haveli of Shahpura has been converted to Shri Kesari Singh Barhath Government Museum.[31] The haveli of the Barhath family has now become a national museum, in which their personal weapons and armaments are displayed. It was inaugurated by Onkar Singh Lakahwat and Kailash Meghwal.[32][33]

Bibliography

  1. Lakhawat, Onkar Singh (2012) Svātaṃtrya Rājasūya Yajña meṃ Bārahaṭha Parivāra kī mahāna āhūti. First Edition: December, 2012. ISBN 978-81-920932-5-3
  2. Krantikari Barahath Kesari Singh क्रान्तिकारी बारहठ केसरी सिंह Author : Dr. Mohanlal Gupta Language : Hindi ISBN : 9788186103444 Edition : 2018

See also

References

  1. ^ Team, YCT Expert. Civil Engineering (in Hindi). Youth Competition Times. केसरी सिंह बारहठ कवि व स्वतंत्रता सेनानी थे। उनका जन्म 1872 को शाहपुरा रियासत के देवखेड़ा नामक गांव में हुआ था। इनके भाई जोरावर सिंह बारहठ को राजस्थान का चन्द्रशेखर आजाद भी कहा जाता है।
  2. ^ a b c d Jhunjhunwala, Lakshiminiwas (1 January 2015). Panorama. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-8430-312-4. Bhilwara is also proud to have produced a great martyr family of Barhaths. The three family members – eldest being Kesari Singh, his younger brother Jorawar Singh and son Pratap Singh sacrificed their life for the country. Pratap and his uncle Zorawar Singh were entrusted by Rashbehari Bose with the job of throwing bombs on Lord Hardinge when he was entering Delhi in a big royal procession. Lord Hardinge was injured, Rashbehari Bose went underground. Zorawar Singh and Pratap also fled and could not be arrested. Rashbehari Bose was hiding in Nuddea (West Bengal). Attractive prizes were announced for those who could give any clues about Zorawar and Pratap. Younger brother Zorawar Singh could not be caught by the government and remained underground for his whole life.
  3. ^ Kaul, Raj Kumar; Jaidev (1993). Social Awareness in Modern Indian Literature. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. ISBN 978-81-85952-01-7. A writer of Kesarisingh's stature, stamina, and candour appears but rarely in a nation. His brother Joravar Singh, his son Pratap Singh, and he himself - all the three sacrificed their lives for the sake of Indian freedom.
  4. ^ The Researcher (in Hindi). Directorate of Archaeology & Museums, Government of Rajasthan. 1997. The celebrated Barhat family (Charan by birth) had a glorious role in the freedom movement, whose three generations viz. Thakur Kishan Singh, his sons Keshari Singh and Jorawar Singh and grandson Pratap Singh(son of Keshari Singh) took active part and staked their lives and belongings. Kunwar Pratap Singh sacrificed even himself for the cause of the mother-land.
  5. ^ Shodhak. Bhartiya Pragtisheel Shiksha Parishad. 1986. There has been revolutionary activities associated with Rajasthan. The main figures of such activities were Thakur Kesari Singh Barhat his son Pratap Singh Barhat and brother Zorawar Singh Barhat
  6. ^ a b Paliwal, D. L. (1971). Mewar and the British, 1857-1921 A.D.: A History of the Relations of the Mewar State with the British Government of India from 1857 to 1921 A.D. Bafna Prakashan. in Rajputana connected with the terrorist activities were Rao Gopal Singh of Kharwa, Kesari Singh Barhat, Arjun Lal Sethi, Bhup Singh, Jorawar Singh Barhat, Pratap Singh Barhat (son of Kesari Singh) and Swami Kumaranand. Several revolutionaries secretly got employment in the services of the Rajput rulers.
  7. ^ EduGorilla (12 July 2020). RSMSSB JE (Civil) 2020 | 10 Mock Test + 2 Previous Year Paper (2016) | With Complete Solution. EduGorilla. Zorawar Singh Barhat revolutionary of Rajasthan threw a bomb on Lord Hardinge.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Joshi, Shamanesh. Rajasthan Men Swantrata Sangram Ke Senani. ठा० जोरावरसिंह बारहठ राजस्थान केसरी ठा० केसरीसिंह बारहठ के छोटे भाई व अमर शहीद कुवर प्रतापसिंह के चाचा थे। आपका बाल्यकाल शाहपुरा, उदयपुर और जोधपुर के जागीरी घरानो के साथ बीता । यो तो ठा० केसरीसिंह बारहठ शाहपुरा के एक बड़े जागीरदार थे । उन दिनो में उनके जागीर की आय लगभग बारह हजार रुपये वाषिक थी। परन्तु उनका भुकाव प्रत्यक्ष रूप से राजनीति और क्रान्ति की ओर था। जब 12 दिसम्बर, 1911 को दिल्ली दरवार के अवसर पर लार्ड हार्डिग्ज पर बम फेंका गया तो सामान्यत यह समझा जाता रहा कि वम फैकने वाले प्रसिद्ध क्रान्तिकारी श्री रासबिहारी बोस थे। किन्तु वास्तव में लार्ड हार्डिग्ज पर वम फैकने वाले वीर ठा० जोरावरसिंह थे, जो अपने परिवार के सस्कारो फे अनुसार देश सेवा मे रत हो गये थे।
  9. ^ a b c d "स्वाधीनता के पुरोधा थे जोरावर सिंह बारहठ". Dainik Bhaskar. 2016. इनमें केसरी सिंह बारहठ, उनके भाई जोरावर सिंह बारहठ एवं पुत्र प्रताप सिंह बारहठ भी थे। एक ही परिवार के पिता-पुत्र भाई ने स्वाधीनता के लिए कुर्बानी दी हो ऐसा यह अनूठा उदाहरण है। उनका विवाह कोटा रियासत के ठिकाने अतरालिया के चारण ठाकुर तख्तसिंह की बेटी अनोप कंवर से हुआ। 23 दिसंबर, 1912 को वायसराय लार्ड हार्डिंग्ज का जुलूस दिल्ली के चांदनी चौक से गुजर रहा था। भारी सुरक्षा के बीच वायसराय हाथी पर पत्नी के साथ था। चांदनी चौक स्थित पंजाब नेशनल बैंक भवन की छत पर भीड़ में जोरावर सिंह और प्रतापसिंह बुर्के में थे। जैसे ही जुलूस सामने से गुजरा, जोरावरसिंह ने हार्डिंग्ज पर बम फेंका, लेकिन पास खड़ी महिला के हाथ से टकरा जाने से निशाना चूक गया और हार्डिंग्ज बच गया। छत्र रक्षक महावीर सिंह मारा गया। इससे हुई अफरा-तफरी में एक ही एक गूंजी 'शाबास'। आजादी के आंदोलन की इस महत्वपूर्ण घटना ने ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य की चूलें हिला दी थी।
  10. ^ Singh, Gulab (1964). Under the Shadow of Gallows. Chand. Thakur Kesri Singh, a great patriot and political sufferer had been sentenced to life imprisonment in a political case of Kotah. His brother Thakur Zorawar Singh and all his other relatives, who were big Jagirdars, were deprived of all their property. Warrants of arrest of all his male relatives were issued. His son Kanwar Partap Singh however, escaped along with his uncle and was with Master Amir Chand at Delhi only a few days before the latter’s arrest.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Yadav, Kripal Chandra; Arya, Krishan Singh (1988). Arya Samaj and the Freedom Movement: 1875-1918. Manohar Publications. ISBN 978-81-85054-41-4. Kesari Singh's brother Zorawar Singh Barhat (born 1875) also played a heroic role in the revolutionary struggle for freedom. At the instance of his great brother, he joined hands with Master Amir Chand, that leader of the revolutionaries in and around Delhi.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Purohit, Gobardhanlal. Swatantrata Sangram Ka Itihas. pp. 164, 165, 171, 172.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Saxena, K. S. (1971). The Political Movements and Awakening in Rajasthan, 1857 to 1947. S. Chand. Though Balmukund was arrested and hanged in connection with 'Hardinge-Bomb' case,'yet, it is believed that Thakur Jorawar Singh Barhat, an ex-Kamdar of the Maharani of Jodhpur, who was wearing burka, had thrown a bomb from Marwari Library, Chandni Chowk, Delhi, and remained absconded with his revolutionary cousin Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhat. During the trial, one of the accused, Laxmi Lal Kayastha, turned approver but Jorawar Singh went underground, and in spile of a reward of Rs. 500 offered by the State of Kota for the arrest he could not be captured.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Pangadiya, b l (1964). Rajasthan Men Savtantrata Sangram. यह जानते हुये भी कि कऋ्रान्तिकारियों का मार्ग श्रत्यन्त खतरनाक और मौत की ओर ले जाने वाला है, श्री बारहठ ने अपने सहोदर सिंह, जोरावर पुत्र प्रताप सिंह एवं जामाता ईश्वरदान आसिया को रासविहारी बोस के सहायक मास्टर अमीरचन्द की सेवा में क्रान्ति का व्यवहारिक अनुभव और प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त करने के लिये दिल्‍ली भेज दिया । राजस्थान-के जोरावर सिंह एवं प्रताप सिंह आदि विश्वस्त युवकों के कन्धों पर यह भार डाला। ये युवक चाँदनी चौक स्थित पंजाब नेशनल बैक की इमारत पर पहुंच गये । जब वायसराय जुलूस मे हाथी पर सवार होकर वहाँ से गुजर रहा था तो उन्होंने उस पर बम फेका । हाड्यि के शरीर पर जख्म श्राये, पर वह बच गया । परन्तु उसका छत्रधारी अंगरक्षक महावीर सिंह घटनास्थल पर ही मारा गया। क्रान्तिकारियों ने सारा कार्य इस सफाई से किया कि भारत सरकार की पुलिस अभियुक्तों का सुराग तक नहीं लगा सकी ।
  15. ^ a b Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-0890-6. Zorawar Singh and Pratap Singh were party to the conspiracy to assassinate the Governor General Lord Hardinge, as he rode on elephant-back in a ceremonial procession in Delhi in December 1912 to celebrate the shifting of the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi. The revolutionaries hurled a bomb at Hardinge, who survived the attack though his bodyguard was killed. Pratap Singh and his brother-in-law, Ishar Dan Asa, were arrested but were let off later due to lack of evidence. Subsequently, Pratap Singh and Zorawar Singh, who were wanted by the police in some other cases, absconded. (The latter was not arrested till he returned to Kota).
  16. ^ Vyas, Indira (2004). Freedom Movement in Rajasthan: With Special Reference to Ajmer-Merwara. University Book House. ISBN 978-81-8198-011-3. He was a great revolutionary leader who had contacts with Arbindo Ghose and Swami Kumaranand who came to Kharwa in the year 1906. This was a time when the leaders like Ras Bihari Bose, Damodar Das Rathi, Arjun Lal Sethi, Kesari Singh Barhat, Thakur Zorawar Singh (who threw a bomb on Lord Harding) and Bijay Singh..
  17. ^ Singh, M. K. (2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian War of Independence, 1857-1947: Birth of Indian National Congress : establishment of Indian National Congress. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-3745-9. Participated in the revolutionary plot to throw a bomb on Lord Hardinge, Viceroy of India, on December 3, 1912. His uncle, Shri Zorawar Singh was also a member of this group.
  18. ^ CHOPRA, P. N. (1969). WHO'S WHO OF INDIAN MARTYRS VOL.I. Ministry of Education and Youth Services, Government of India. ISBN 978-81-230-2180-5.
  19. ^ a b Mishra, Shri Vivek (29 January 2022). Azadi @ 75 : Krantikariyon Ki Shauryagatha (in Hindi). Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-93-5521-184-2. प्रताप सिंह बारहट, मोतीचंद, ईश्वरदान, मानिकचंद, जयचंद प्रमुख शिष्य थे। इन शिशुओं की क्रांतिकारी गतिविधियों में प्रमुख भूमिका थी, जिसमें लॉर्ड हार्डिंग पर बम फेंकने में तथा नीमेज हत्याकांड में, वर्धमान पाठशाला में विष्णु दत्त शिक्षक थे। प्रताप सिंह बारहठ, ईश्वर दान, छोटालाल व जोरावर सिंह बारहठ ने लॉर्ड हार्डिंग पर बम फेंका।
  20. ^ "दुनिया मेरे आगे: फड़ और पगड़ी का शाहपुरा". Jansatta (in Hindi). Retrieved 15 March 2022. केसरी सिंह क्रांतिकारी तो थे ही, राजस्थानी भाषा में भी एक रचनाकार के तौर पर उनका बहुत ऊंचा स्थान है। साहित्य अकादेमी ने ‘भारतीय साहित्य के निर्माता’ शृंखला में उनके कृतित्व पर एक पुस्तक प्रकाशित की है। उनके भाई जोरावरसिंह ने रासबिहारी बोेस की योजनानुसार 23 दिसंबर 1912 को दिल्ली के चांदनी चौक में वायसराय लार्ड हार्डिंग पर बम फेंका था।
  21. ^ a b c d e Chodaryee Ramnarayan (1951). Rajisthani Ajadi Ke Diwane (in Hindi). अभी तक आम जनता ज्यादातर यही समझती रही है कि दिल्ली मे वाइसराय लार्ड हार्डिज पर बम श्री रासबिहारी बोस ने फेंका था, किन्तु वास्तव मे लार्ड हार्डिज पर बम फेंकने वाले राजस्थान केसरी स्वर्गीय ठाकुर केसरीसिंह ,वारहट के छोटे भाई व अमर शहीद वीर कुंवर प्रतापसिह के चाचा श्री ठाकुर जोरावरसिंह थे। आपका बाल्यकाल शाहपुरा, उदयपुर और जोधपुर में राजसी ठाटबाट के साथ अपने पिता श्रीकृष्णसिंह जी बारहट के साथ बीता, जहां पर जीवन के प्रारम्भिक दिनों में अनुशासन सुव्यवस्था, निर्भीकता, सत्य-कथन और वीरत्व के संस्कार इस भावी शहीद के मानस पटल पर दृढ़तापूर्वक अंकित हो गये। पिता के स्वर्गवास के बाद जोधपुर महाराज ने इनको महारानी का कामदार नियुक्त किया। वहां रहते हुए जोरावरसिह एक अत्यन्त प्रतिष्ठित और गौरव युक्त व्यक्ति होकर सम्मान प्राप्त कर सकते थे, किन्तु उनके हृदय में तो देश भक्ति की प्रचण्ड अग्नि प्रज्वलित हो रही थी जिसने उन्हे एक महान शहीद बना दिया ।
  22. ^ Kanungo, J. R. (1965). Know Your Rajasthan: For University Students Appearing in Competitive Examinations and Interviews, and for Officials, Planners, and Government Departments. Jain Bros. Thakur Zorawar Singh He was the brother of Sri Kesari Singh Barhath, who fought vigorously for the freedom of India. He was also the uncle of Pratap who died in Bareilly jail. He was the man who threw bomb at the time of the big reception arranged for Viceroy Lord Harding.
  23. ^ Hughes, Julie E. (1 March 2013). Animal Kingdoms: Hunting, the Environment, and Power in the Indian Princely States. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-07480-4. After a 1912 assassination attempt injured Lord Hardinge, rumors predicting his imminent collapse began circulating. Talk persisted even after the viceroy, a mere ten weeks after the bomb blast and still suffering from neuritis and hearing loss, presided over a meeting of the Legislative Assembly in New Delhi.
  24. ^ Srikrishan 'Sarala' (1 January 1999). Indian Revolutionaries 1757-1961 (Vol-2): A Comprehensive Study, 1757-1961. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-87100-17-1. When his elder brother Keshri Singh Barhath was released from prison where he was to serve a life term, he met the Congress leaders of the time and tried hard to get the warrant against his brother cancelled. He met Babu Purshottam Das Tandon, the Chief Minister Shri Krishna Narayan and the Home Secretary Anugraha Narayan Singh and tried very hard to have the warant cancelled. He was about to succeed in his efforts, but in the meantime, cruel fate, in the form of pneumonia, took Jorawar Singh away from this world.
  25. ^ a b c d e "स्वातंत्र्य राजसूय यज्ञ में बारहठ परिवार की महान आहूति - ओंकार सिंह लखावत". Charans.org (चारण समागम). Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  26. ^ "कोटा के क्रांतिकारी केसरीसिंह की जीवनी पढ़ेंगे छात्र". Dainik Bhaskar. 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  27. ^ "शाहपुरा में शहीद मेला 23 दिसंबर को". Dainik Bhaskar. 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  28. ^ "शाहपुरा में शहीद मेला आयोजित". Dainik Bhaskar. 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  29. ^ "शहीद केसरीसिंह बारहठ का चित्र दिल्ली विधानसभा में लगेगा". Patrika News (in Hindi). 17 January 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  30. ^ "Monuments". rsad.artandculture.rajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  31. ^ "बारहठ व सरस्वती का साहित्य अमूल्य निधी है: डा. धर्मवीर - Ajmernama". Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  32. ^ "दुनिया मेरे आगे: फड़ और पगड़ी का शाहपुरा". Jansatta (in Hindi). Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  33. ^ "शहीद बारहठ बंधुओं की पैतृक हवेली का लोकार्पण". Dainik Bhaskar. 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2022.