Zorawar Singh Barhath
Born1875 or 1883
Died1939
Ekalgarh, Sitamau State
Other namesSadhu Amardas Bairagi
OccupationRevolutionary
Known forBombing on Lord Hardinge (Delhi Conspiracy Case)
MovementIndian independence movement
Criminal penaltyDeath sentence
SpouseAnop Kanwar
Parent
  • Thakur Krishna Singh Barhath (father)
RelativesThakur Kesari Singh Barhath (brother)
Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhath (nephew)

Thakur Zorawar Singh Barhath (12 September 1883 — 17 October 1939) was an Indian revolutionary and independence activist. He is known for the assassination attempt on the Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge, by throwing a bomb at him during a procession in New Delhi.

Thakur Zorawar Singh was part of the Barhath family of Shahpura, Bhilwara, several of whose members were prominent opponents of the British Raj. Zorawar Singh spent the last three decades of his life living under the pseudonym Sadhu Amardas Bairagi.

Early life

According to K. C. Yadav, Zorawar Singh was born in the hamlet of Khaira, near to Shahpura, Bhilwara, in 1875;[1] other sources say 12 September 1883 in Devpura (Shahpura State) to father Thakur Krishna Singh Barhath. The Barhath family were affluent jagirdars of Rajputana In Udaipur, he received primary education and completed secondary education in Jodhpur. Zorawar Singh's childhood was spent in close company of the aristocratic families of Shahpura, Udaipur, and Jodhpur. He was married to Anop Kanwar, the daughter of Thakur Takhtsingh of Atraliya thikana in Kota State.[2][need quotation to verify][3][need quotation to verify]

Kamdar of Maharani of Jodhpur

After the death of his father,[citation needed] Zorawar Singh joined the Marwar royal court as the Kamdar of the Maharani of Jodhpur.[4] It was here that Zorawar Singh met Bhai Balmukund who worked as a tutor for the princes.[2][page needed][need quotation to verify][3][page needed][need quotation to verify]

Turn to revolution

His elder brother, Thakur Kesari Singh, encouraged Zorawar to join the revolutionaries in Delhi, accompanied by Master Amir Chand and Rash Behari Bose.[5]

Delhi conspiracy case, 1912

An illustration of the assassination attempt on Lord Charles Hardinge

In December 1912, Lord Hardinge, the new Governor-General of British India, arrived in Delhi. A royal procession presided by Hardinge was announced to celebrate the shifting of the capital from Calcutta to Delhi. A plan was hatched by revolutionaries, headed by Rash Behari Bose and Thakur Kesari Singh, to assassinate Hardinge. Zorawar Singh was in close touch with revolutionaries such as Bose and was part of the conspiracy to kill Hardinge during the procession, taking responsibility, along with his nephew, Pratap Singh, to throw a bomb. On 23 December 1912, Zorawar Singh and Pratap Singh went to the roof of the Marwari College[clarification needed] building in Chandni Chowk, Delhi. From there, Zorawar Singh threw a bomb directed at Hardinge, who was riding on the back of an elephant along with his wife and guards.[citation needed]

Injuries caused by the assassination attempt led to unfounded rumours of Hardinge's imminent death. He suffered from neuritis and hearing loss even months later.[6] A bodyguard died on the spot.[citation needed]

Aftermath

After the bombing, both Zorawar Singh and his nephew, Pratap Singh, fled into hiding.[4] Bose, who co-planned the conspiracy, also disappeared, hiding in Nuddea (West Bengal).[citation needed] Kunwar Pratap Singh and his brother-in-law, Ishwar Dan Ashiya, were arrested but released due to lack of evidence. Awards were announced for those who could give any clues about Zorawar Singh and Pratap Singh.[7][clarification needed]

The princely State of Kota put a reward of Rs.500 for the capture of Zorawar Singh in the Pyarelal[who?] Murder case. He was never arrested or found.[4]

Arrah conspiracy case/Nimej murder case

After the Delhi conspiracy case, revolutionaries led by Zorawar Singh committed many dacoities in the United Provinces and Bihar to obtain funds. One of these became known as the Arrah Conspiracy or Nimej murder case, in which Singh was the principal accused. Revolutionaries led by him had attacked a Jain upasar located in Arrah (Bihar) in which a mahant was killed in the encounter. The mahant was believed to be a close confidant of British authorities. A person named Shivnarayan turned informer for the British government. British authorities released a warrant & later kill at sight order for Singh but he evaded them.[8][2][3]

Ravines of Central India

Sensing the heat of the Colonial Police force around him increase, Zorawar Singh left for the ravines of Central India and Rajasthan. He made his residence in this region and remained there for the remaining 27 years of his life.[9][clarification needed]

He had changed his name to Sadhu Amardas Bairagi[3] and lived in the guise of a sage.[9]

In the latter years, he lived mostly in Sitamau State.[citation needed]

Death

In 1937, for the first time, Congress won provincial elections in multiple states across British India and formed governments. It was opportune moment so Congress leaders and Thakur Kesari Singh, who had been released from prison in 1920, made efforts to nullify the death warrant issued against Zorawar Singh in Arrah Conspiracy. He met Purshottam Das Tandon, the Bihar Chief Minister Shri Krishna Sinha and the Home Secretary Anugraha Narayan Sinha to cancel the warrant. Zorawar Singh became ill with pneumonia and without proper treatment, he died in 1939 before this could happen.[10][11]

Legacy

Shaheed Mela

Since 1974, every 23 December sees a celebration in memory of the Barhath family, that being the anniversary of the attack on Hardinge. A fair is organised in their hometown at Shahpura and the event takes place at Shahid Trimurti Memorial, which has statues of Thakur Kesari Singh, Thakur Zorawar Singh, and Kunwar Pratap Singh.[12]

Portraits in Delhi Assembly

In January 2019, the three Barhath revolutionaries were placed in the gallery of Delhi Assembly.[13]

Barhath Haveli of Shahpura

The "Haveli of Late Shri Kesari Singh Barhath" located in Shahpura, Bhilwara, is a State Protected Monument under the Government of Rajasthan.[14] It is now a national museum, in which the family's weapons and armaments are displayed.[15][16]

References

  1. ^ Yadav, Kripal Chandra; Arya, Krishan Singh (1988). Arya Samaj and the Freedom Movement: 1875-1918. Manohar Publications. p. 245. ISBN 978-81-85054-41-4.
  2. ^ a b c Joshi, Shamanesh. Rajasthan Men Swantrata Sangram Ke Senani. ठा० जोरावरसिंह बारहठ राजस्थान केसरी ठा० केसरीसिंह बारहठ के छोटे भाई व अमर शहीद कुवर प्रतापसिंह के चाचा थे। आपका बाल्यकाल शाहपुरा, उदयपुर और जोधपुर के जागीरी घरानो के साथ बीता । यो तो ठा० केसरीसिंह बारहठ शाहपुरा के एक बड़े जागीरदार थे । उन दिनो में उनके जागीर की आय लगभग बारह हजार रुपये वाषिक थी। परन्तु उनका भुकाव प्रत्यक्ष रूप से राजनीति और क्रान्ति की ओर था। जब 12 दिसम्बर, 1911 को दिल्ली दरवार के अवसर पर लार्ड हार्डिग्ज पर बम फेंका गया तो सामान्यत यह समझा जाता रहा कि वम फैकने वाले प्रसिद्ध क्रान्तिकारी श्री रासबिहारी बोस थे। किन्तु वास्तव में लार्ड हार्डिग्ज पर वम फैकने वाले वीर ठा० जोरावरसिंह थे, जो अपने परिवार के सस्कारो फे अनुसार देश सेवा मे रत हो गये थे।
  3. ^ a b c d Purohit, Gobardhanlal. Swatantrata Sangram Ka Itihas. pp. 164, 165, 171, 172.
  4. ^ a b c Saxena, K. S. (1971). The Political Movements and Awakening in Rajasthan, 1857 to 1947. S. Chand. Though Balmukund was arrested and hanged in connection with 'Hardinge-Bomb' case,'yet, it is believed that Thakur Jorawar Singh Barhat, an ex-Kamdar of the Maharani of Jodhpur, who was wearing burka, had thrown a bomb from Marwari Library, Chandni Chowk, Delhi, and remained absconded with his revolutionary cousin Kunwar Pratap Singh Barhat. During the trial, one of the accused, Laxmi Lal Kayastha, turned approver but Jorawar Singh went underground, and in spile of a reward of Rs. 500 offered by the State of Kota for the arrest he could not be captured.
  5. ^ Yadav, Kripal Chandra; Arya, Krishan Singh (1988). Arya Samaj and the Freedom Movement: 1875-1918. Manohar Publications. ISBN 978-81-85054-41-4. Kesari Singh's brother Zorawar Singh Barhat (born 1875) also played a heroic role in the revolutionary struggle for freedom. At the instance of his great brother, he joined hands with Master Amir Chand, that leader of the revolutionaries in and around Delhi.
  6. ^ Hughes, Julie E. (1 March 2013). Animal Kingdoms: Hunting, the Environment, and Power in the Indian Princely States. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-07480-4. After a 1912 assassination attempt injured Lord Hardinge, rumors predicting his imminent collapse began circulating. Talk persisted even after the viceroy, a mere ten weeks after the bomb blast and still suffering from neuritis and hearing loss, presided over a meeting of the Legislative Assembly in New Delhi.
  7. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rupa & Company. ISBN 978-81-291-0890-6. Zorawar Singh and Pratap Singh were party to the conspiracy to assassinate the Governor General Lord Hardinge, as he rode on elephant-back in a ceremonial procession in Delhi in December 1912 to celebrate the shifting of the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi. The revolutionaries hurled a bomb at Hardinge, who survived the attack though his bodyguard was killed. Pratap Singh and his brother-in-law, Ishar Dan Asa, were arrested but were let off later due to lack of evidence. Subsequently, Pratap Singh and Zorawar Singh, who were wanted by the police in some other cases, absconded. (The latter was not arrested till he returned to Kota).
  8. ^ Pangadiya, b l (1964). Rajasthan Men Savtantrata Sangram. यह जानते हुये भी कि कऋ्रान्तिकारियों का मार्ग श्रत्यन्त खतरनाक और मौत की ओर ले जाने वाला है, श्री बारहठ ने अपने सहोदर सिंह, जोरावर पुत्र प्रताप सिंह एवं जामाता ईश्वरदान आसिया को रासविहारी बोस के सहायक मास्टर अमीरचन्द की सेवा में क्रान्ति का व्यवहारिक अनुभव और प्रशिक्षण प्राप्त करने के लिये दिल्‍ली भेज दिया । राजस्थान-के जोरावर सिंह एवं प्रताप सिंह आदि विश्वस्त युवकों के कन्धों पर यह भार डाला। ये युवक चाँदनी चौक स्थित पंजाब नेशनल बैक की इमारत पर पहुंच गये । जब वायसराय जुलूस मे हाथी पर सवार होकर वहाँ से गुजर रहा था तो उन्होंने उस पर बम फेका । हाड्यि के शरीर पर जख्म श्राये, पर वह बच गया । परन्तु उसका छत्रधारी अंगरक्षक महावीर सिंह घटनास्थल पर ही मारा गया। क्रान्तिकारियों ने सारा कार्य इस सफाई से किया कि भारत सरकार की पुलिस अभियुक्तों का सुराग तक नहीं लगा सकी ।
  9. ^ a b "स्वाधीनता के पुरोधा थे जोरावर सिंह बारहठ". Dainik Bhaskar. 2016. इनमें केसरी सिंह बारहठ, उनके भाई जोरावर सिंह बारहठ एवं पुत्र प्रताप सिंह बारहठ भी थे। एक ही परिवार के पिता-पुत्र भाई ने स्वाधीनता के लिए कुर्बानी दी हो ऐसा यह अनूठा उदाहरण है। उनका विवाह कोटा रियासत के ठिकाने अतरालिया के चारण ठाकुर तख्तसिंह की बेटी अनोप कंवर से हुआ। 23 दिसंबर, 1912 को वायसराय लार्ड हार्डिंग्ज का जुलूस दिल्ली के चांदनी चौक से गुजर रहा था। भारी सुरक्षा के बीच वायसराय हाथी पर पत्नी के साथ था। चांदनी चौक स्थित पंजाब नेशनल बैंक भवन की छत पर भीड़ में जोरावर सिंह और प्रतापसिंह बुर्के में थे। जैसे ही जुलूस सामने से गुजरा, जोरावरसिंह ने हार्डिंग्ज पर बम फेंका, लेकिन पास खड़ी महिला के हाथ से टकरा जाने से निशाना चूक गया और हार्डिंग्ज बच गया। छत्र रक्षक महावीर सिंह मारा गया। इससे हुई अफरा-तफरी में एक ही एक गूंजी 'शाबास'। आजादी के आंदोलन की इस महत्वपूर्ण घटना ने ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य की चूलें हिला दी थी।
  10. ^ Srikrishan 'Sarala' (1 January 1999). Indian Revolutionaries 1757-1961 (Vol-2): A Comprehensive Study, 1757-1961. Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-87100-17-1. When his elder brother Keshri Singh Barhath was released from prison where he was to serve a life term, he met the Congress leaders of the time and tried hard to get the warrant against his brother cancelled. He met Babu Purshottam Das Tandon, the Chief Minister Shri Krishna Narayan and the Home Secretary Anugraha Narayan Singh and tried very hard to have the warant cancelled. He was about to succeed in his efforts, but in the meantime, cruel fate, in the form of pneumonia, took Jorawar Singh away from this world.
  11. ^ Chodaryee Ramnarayan (1951). Rajisthani Ajadi Ke Diwane (in Hindi). अभी तक आम जनता ज्यादातर यही समझती रही है कि दिल्ली मे वाइसराय लार्ड हार्डिज पर बम श्री रासबिहारी बोस ने फेंका था, किन्तु वास्तव मे लार्ड हार्डिज पर बम फेंकने वाले राजस्थान केसरी स्वर्गीय ठाकुर केसरीसिंह ,वारहट के छोटे भाई व अमर शहीद वीर कुंवर प्रतापसिह के चाचा श्री ठाकुर जोरावरसिंह थे। आपका बाल्यकाल शाहपुरा, उदयपुर और जोधपुर में राजसी ठाटबाट के साथ अपने पिता श्रीकृष्णसिंह जी बारहट के साथ बीता, जहां पर जीवन के प्रारम्भिक दिनों में अनुशासन सुव्यवस्था, निर्भीकता, सत्य-कथन और वीरत्व के संस्कार इस भावी शहीद के मानस पटल पर दृढ़तापूर्वक अंकित हो गये। पिता के स्वर्गवास के बाद जोधपुर महाराज ने इनको महारानी का कामदार नियुक्त किया। वहां रहते हुए जोरावरसिह एक अत्यन्त प्रतिष्ठित और गौरव युक्त व्यक्ति होकर सम्मान प्राप्त कर सकते थे, किन्तु उनके हृदय में तो देश भक्ति की प्रचण्ड अग्नि प्रज्वलित हो रही थी जिसने उन्हे एक महान शहीद बना दिया ।
  12. ^ "शाहपुरा में शहीद मेला 23 दिसंबर को". Dainik Bhaskar. 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  13. ^ "शहीद केसरीसिंह बारहठ का चित्र दिल्ली विधानसभा में लगेगा". Patrika News (in Hindi). 17 January 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Monuments". rsad.artandculture.rajasthan.gov.in. Retrieved 3 March 2022. [dead link]
  15. ^ "दुनिया मेरे आगे: फड़ और पगड़ी का शाहपुरा". Jansatta (in Hindi). Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  16. ^ "शहीद बारहठ बंधुओं की पैतृक हवेली का लोकार्पण". Dainik Bhaskar. 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2022.