This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (February 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "The Goal" novel – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement
Front Cover
AuthorEliyahu M. Goldratt
PublisherNorth River Press
Publication date
  • 1984 First Edition
  • 1986 Revised First Edition
  • 1992 Revised Second Edition
  • 2004 Revised Third Edition
  • 2014 Fourth Revised (30th Anniversary) Edition
Media typeSoftcover
823/.914 22
LC ClassPR9510.9.G64 G6 2004
Followed byIt's Not Luck 

The Goal is a management-oriented novel by Eliyahu M. Goldratt, a business consultant known for his theory of constraints, and Jeff Cox, an author of multiple management-oriented novels.[1] The Goal was originally published in 1984 and has since been revised and republished. This book can be used for case studies in operations management, with a focus geared towards the theory of constraints, bottlenecks and how to alleviate them, and applications of these concepts in real life.[2] It is used in management colleges to teach students about the importance of strategic capacity planning and constraint management. Time Magazine listed the book as one of "The 25 Most Influential Business Management Books.[3]


Like other books by Goldratt and by Cox, The Goal is written as a piece of fiction. The main character is Alex Rogo, who manages a production plant owned by UniCo Manufacturing, where everything is always behind schedule and things are looking dire.[4] At the beginning of the book, Bill Peach, a company executive, tells Alex that he has three months to turn operations at his plant around from being unprofitable and unreliable to being successful.[5] His distant acquaintance, Jonah (a physicist), whom many believe represents Goldratt himself, helps him solve the company's problems through a series of telephone calls and short meetings. A second story line is introduced involving Alex's marital life. Perhaps surprisingly, Jonah's concepts are also applied successfully in this alternative story line.


The book goes on to point out the role of bottlenecks (constraints) in a manufacturing process, and how identifying them not only makes it possible to reduce their impact, but also yields a useful tool for measuring and controlling the flow of materials. Alex and his team identify the bottlenecks in their process and immediately begin to implement changes to help increase capacity and speed up production. In response to questions about the logic of using outdated technology in modern manufacturing, Alex's team brought in an old machine they received for free (which had previously been used at their plant in conjunction with two other machines) in order to increase the capacity of the NCX-10 machine, which had been identified as one of the two bottlenecks. Further more, they identified processes at the heat treat, identified as their second bottleneck, that caused massive delays in their getting product through the heat-treat and which had also caused some products to be heat-treated multiple times (to make softer and then harder again) instead of just once or not at all.

Socratic method

In the book, Jonah teaches Alex Rogo by using the Socratic method. Throughout the book, whenever a meeting or telephone call dialogue happens with Jonah, he poses a question to Alex Rogo or a member of his crew, which in turn causes them to talk amongst themselves to come up with a solution to their problem. When Alex Rogo is with his wife, he finds the Socratic method to be a way to fix his marriage, which he then uses, with his crew, to come up with the five steps they should use to fix problems in the plant, which ultimately leads him and Lou to think up the three things every division manager, the position Rogo is promoted to, should be able to do.


See also


  1. ^ "Jeff Cox". Simon & Schuster. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
  2. ^ A summary of The Goal by Gower Publishing
  3. ^ Rawlings, Nate (2011-08-09). "The 25 Most Influential Business Management Books". Time. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  4. ^ Stevenson, Seth (2012-06-08). ""Then Why Did We Buy the NCX-10?"". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
  5. ^ A chapter-by-chapter summary of The Goal


This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (April 2020)