The Ikettes
Background information
GenresR&B, soul, pop
Occupation(s)Backing vocalists, Girl group
Years active1960–1976; 1988–2000s
Labels
Associated actsIke & Tina Turner, Ike Turner, Tina Turner, The Mirettes, Kings of Rhythm
Past membersRobbie Montgomery
Eloise Hester
Jo Armstead
Jessie Smith
Venetta Fields
Pat Arnold (a.k.a. P.P. Arnold)
Juanita Hixson
Gloria Scott
Maxine Smith
Pat Powdrill
Ann Thomas
Rose Smith
Paulette Parker (a.k.a. Maxayn Lewis)
Esther Jones
Claudia Lennear
Edna Richardson
Linda Shuford-Williams
Stonye Figueroa
Yolanda Goodwin
Jeanette Bazzell Turner
Randi Love (a.k.a. Michelle Love)
Audrey Madison Turner
See members section for others

The Ikettes, originally The Artettes, were a trio (sometimes quartet) of female backing vocalists for the Ike & Tina Turner Revue. Despite their origins, the Ikettes became successful artists in their own right. In the 1960s they had hits such as "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)" and "Peaches 'N' Cream." In 2017, Billboard ranked "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)" No. 63 on its list of 100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time.[1]

The group started as “The Artettes”, the backing group of Art Lassiter. The first official incarnation of The Ikettes was composed of Delores Johnson, Eloise Hester and Josie Jo Armstead. The most popular line-up consisted of Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, and Jessie Smith. It was this trio that later morphed into The Mirettes.

As the 1960s progressed, the Ikettes became known for their sexy onstage appearance; minidresses, long hair and high-energy dance routines that mirrored their mentor Tina Turner. "They represent me, and in my act they gotta look outta sight at all times. There's simply no room for sloppiness and unprofessionalism," Tina told Esquire.[2] She added:

I also believe in the Ikette visual. I don't see it as cheap or vulgar. Nor do I see myself as that. Sex is not cheap or vulgar. And I always loved the look of long straight hair. Ike says he patterned me after Sheena of the jungle. She was white, you know. But I still love the look and action of long hair movin' and the short skirts shimmying. I want action on that stage at all times.[2]

History

1960–1968

When Art Lassiter didn't show up for a recording session in early 1960, Ike Turner took Lassiter's backup singers, the Artettes (Robbie Montgomery, Frances Hodges, and Sandra Harding) and had them accompany Tina Turner on the recording "A Fool in Love."[3] Following the success of the single, Ike formed the Ike & Tina Turner Revue, but with a new group of backup singers: Delores Johnson, Eloise Hester, and Jo Armstead. Montgomery was pregnant and unable to tour.[3] They recorded "I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)" the following year, produced by Ike and leased to Atco Records.[4] Released in November 1961, the single reached No. 3 on the Billboard R&B chart and No. 19 on the Hot 100.[5]

Montgomery rejoined the revue shortly after having her baby and was teamed with Jessie Smith (recruited from a group named Benny Sharp and the Zorros of Rhythm) and Venetta Fields (a gospel singer from Buffalo, New Yor) to form the first official incarnation of The Ikettes.[6] The revue toured constantly through the U.S. on the Chitlin' Circuit in the segregated South.[7] Occasionally they'd play at major venues such as the Apollo Theater in New York, Howard Theater in Washington, D.C., and Uptown Theater in Philadelphia.[7]

In 1962, Ike switched them to his Teena record label for two singles: "Crazy in Love" (credited as Robbie Montgomery & the Ikettes) and "Prisoner in Love." Soon after its release, the title of "Prisoner in Love" was changed to "No Bail in This Jail" in order to avoid confusion with "Prisoner of Love" by James Brown.[8]

During this period Bonnie Bramlett was briefly an Ikette, becoming the first white Ikette.[9] According to Bramlett, Smith briefly quit the Ikettes after Turner fired her boyfriend Sam Rhodes, who was the bass player in the Kings of Rhythm. Bramlett recalled that she was an Ikette for three days when she was 17. She put on a dark wig to cover her blonde hair and used Man Tan to darken her skin.[10]

The single "Here's Your Heart" came out on Innis Records in 1964 but failed to go national; nor did "What'cha Gonna Do (When I Leave You)" released on Phi-Dan Records in 1966.[3] From 1964 through 1966, they released six singles on Modern Records, including "The Camel Walk" (1964), and two hits "Peaches 'N' Cream" (1965) and "I'm So Thankful" (1965).[5] Ultra-funky remakes of "Sally Go Round the Roses" and "Da Doo Ron Ron" did not go as well; neither did "He's Gonna Be Fine, Fine, Fine," though it sounded like a precursor to the music Betty Davis did later. When "Peaches and Cream" became rapidly popular, Ike sent a different set of Ikettes — Janice Singleton (Hughes), Diane Rutherford and Marquentta Tinsley — on the road with "The Dick Clark Caravan of Stars" and kept Montgomery, Smith, and Fields on tour with his revue. In the meantime, Turner hired new Ikettes after Montgomery, Fields and Smith left to form the Mirettes. The first set included Pat Arnold (a.k.a. P.P. Arnold), Gloria Scott, and Maxine Smith.[6]

The first album by the Ikettes, Soul The Hits, was released on Modern Records in 1966. Instead of the Ikettes, the Blossoms provided backing vocals for Tina Turner on the Phil Spector-produced 1966 record "River Deep – Mountain High."[11] Following the success of the single in Europe, Ike & Tina Turner were asked to tour with The Rolling Stones during their British tour in the fall of 1966.[12] The Ikettes on that tour were Rose Smith, Pat Arnold, and Ann Thomas. Shelly Clark (later of Honey Cone) was also an Ikette in 1966 until she was injured in a bus accident in Wichita, Kansas.[13][14] Other Ikettes during this period include Pat Powdrill, Paulette Parker (later of Maxayn), Jean Brown, and Juanita Hixson.

In 1968, Pompeii Records issued "So Fine" credited to Ike & Tina Turner & the Ikettes, it charted at No. 50 on the R&B chart.[5] In Summer 1968, a revised lineup of Ikettes was formed with Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear, and Esther Jones.[15]

1969–1976

Minit Records and its parent label Liberty Records issued singles credited to The Ikettes (with Ike & Tina Turner) in 1969 and 1970 respectively, resulting in the hits "Come Together" by the Beatles and Sly & the Family Stone's "I Want to Take You Higher."

In November 1969, The Rolling Stones once again asked Ike & Tina Turner to open for them, but this time on their American tour.[12] The Ikettes on that tour were Claudia Lennear, Esther Jones and Pat Powdrill. This lineup performed on Playboy After Dark in December 1969. Stonye Figueroa along with Esther Jones, and Claudia Lennear performed on The Ed Sullivan Show with Ike & Tina Turner on January 11, 1970. That month, they performed In Las Vegas at the Hilton Hotel opposite Redd Foxx. Vera Hamilton and Jean Brown joined Jones in 1970, and this trio performed on The Andy Williams Show and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.

In 1971, Liberty Records was absorbed into United Artists Records.[16] the Ikettes released their first single "Got What It Takes (To Get What I Want)," on United Artists later that year. In 1972, "Two Timin', Double Dealin'" was released, the last known single by the Ikettes. Edna Richardson returned to the group in 1971 and remained an Ikette on-and-off until 1976. Richardson, Jean Brown and Esther Jones performed on Soul Train in April 1972. They also provided backing vocals on Gayle McCormick's album Flesh & Blood (1972).[17] In October 1972, Tina Turner and the Ikettes performed at the political fundraising concert Star-Spangled Women for McGovern–Shriver at Madison Square Garden.[18]

Tina Turner and the Ikettes (Esther Jones, Gail Stevens and Edna LeJeune Richardson) performing in Hamburg in 1972
Tina Turner and the Ikettes (Esther Jones, Gail Stevens and Edna LeJeune Richardson) performing in Hamburg in 1972

There were a few lineup changes in 1973 with the absence of Esther Jones and Enda Richardson. Jones temporarily left after she was fined for being late onstage. The Ikettes weren't paid much and were often fined by the Turners for "inexcusables" such as tardiness, no-shows at rehearsals, miscues onstage, sloppy appearance, and disruptive behavior.[2] Jones was the "longest-lasting Ikette" and was referred to as "Motha" Ikette. She was the group's trainer and came up with most of the choreography.[2] In February 1973, the Ikettes, consisting of Linda Sims, Linda-Shuford Williams and Alesia Butler, performed on The Midnight Special. The Ikettes performed on The Midnight Special again in November 1973; Linda Sims was joined by Edna Richardson and Charlotte Lewis. The next month Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis and Debbie Wilson performed on the music program Hits à Gogo in Switzerland. Sims and Wilson along with Tina Turner provided backing vocals on Frank Zappa's albums Over-Nite Sensation (1973) and Apostrophe (') (1974), recorded at the Turners' Bolic Sound studio.[19][20]

The last album by the Ikettes, (G)Old & New, was released on United Artists in January 1974.[21] In March, Edna Richardson, Stonye Figueroa and Linda Sims appeared on Don Krishner's Rock Concert. Esther Jones, Yolanda Goodwin and Marcy Thomas soon replaced them for most of 1974.[2] Richardson, Goodwin and Jones became the final lineup for the Ike & Tina Turner Revue by late 1975. They performed on Don Krishner's Rock Concert in March 1976, before the Ike & Tina Turner Revue disbanded later that year.[22][6]

1988–2000s

In 1988, Ike Turner attempted an ill-fated return to the stage with Marcy Thomas, Bonnie Johnson, and Jeanette Bazzell as his Ikettes.[23] He was arrested on drug charges the following year. After serving 18-months in prison he managed to rehabilitate his cocaine addiction and he revived his career in the 1990s. Turner formed new sets of Ikettes, which included Jeanette Bazzell, Randi Love, a.k.a. Michelle Love, Stonye Figueroa, Vera Hamilton and Audrey Madison.[24]

Post-Ikette careers

Members

1960s–1970s

1980s–2000s

Discography

See also: Ike & Tina Turner discography and List of songs written by Ike Turner

Albums

Title Album Details Peak chart

positions

Notes
US Top
200
US
R&B
Fine Fine Fine
  • EP released in the UK
Soul The Hits
  • Reissued on CD in 2007
In Person
  • Released: June 1969
  • Label: Minit Records
  • Catalog Number: LP 24018
142 19
  • Credited to Ike & Tina Turner and The Ikettes
  • Recorded at Basin Street West in San Francisco
Come Together 130 13
  • Credited to Ike & Tina Turner and The Ikettes
(G)Old & New
"—" denotes a recording that did not chart.

Compilations

Singles

The Ikettes had 3 songs chart on the Billboard Hot 100 and 3 songs on the Billboard Hot R&B which include 1 top 10 hit. They have also charted on records with Ike & Tina Turner.

Single (A-side, B-side) Release date Label & Cat No, Peak positions Album Notes
US Hot 100

[5]

US R&B

[5]

"I'm Blue (The Gong-Gong Song)"

b/w "Find My Baby"

Nov 1961 Atco – 45-6212 19 3 Non-album tracks
  • No. 63 on Billboard's list of 100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time
"Troubles on My Mind"

b/w "Come On and Truck"

Apr 1962 Atco – 45-6223
"Heavenly Love"

b/w "Zizzy Zee Zum Zum"

Jul 1962 Atco – 45-6232
"I Had a Dream the Other Night"

b/w "I Do Love You"

Nov 1962 Atco – 45-6243
"Crazy in Love"

b/w Pee Wee

Feb 1963 Teena – 1701
  • Credited as Robbie Montgomery and the Ikettes
"No Bail in This Jail (Prisoner In Love)"

b/w "Those Words"

Apr 1963 Teena – 1702 126*[49]
  • Teena was Ike Turner's label named after Tina Turner
"You're Still My Baby"

b/w "I'm Leaving You"

Apr 1963 Sony – 112
  • Credited to Venetta Fields; Sony was Ike Turner's label
"Blue with a Broken Heart"

b/w "Mind In A Whirl"

ca. 1963 Sonja – 2003
"Here's Your Heart"

"Here's Your Heart (Instrumental)"

Jan 1964 Innis – 3000
  • Innis was Ike Turner's label
"Camel Walk"

b/w "Nobody Loves Me"

Dec 1964 Modern – 1003 107*[50] Soul The Hits
"Peaches 'N' Cream"

b/w "The Biggest Players"

Feb 1965 Modern – 45x1005 36 28
"(He's Gonna Be) Fine, Fine, Fine"

b/w "How Come"

May 1965 Modern – 45x1008 125*[51]
"I'm So Thankful"

b/w "Don't Feel Sorry for Me"

Jul 1965 Modern – 45x1011 74 12
"(Never More) Lonely gor You"

b/w "Sally Go Round The Roses"

Jan 1966 Modern – 45xM 1015 122*[52]
"Not That I Recall"

b/w "Da Doo Ron Ron"

Jul 1966 Modern – 45xM 1024
"What'cha Gonna Do (When I Leave You)"

b/w "Down, Down"

Aug 1966 Phi-Dan – 5009 Non-album tracks
  • Phi-Dan was a subsidiary label of Phil Spector Productions
  • Pat Arnold (P.P. Arnold) sang lead
  • Lead vocals by Rose Smith on "Down, Down"
"So Fine"

b/w "So Blue Over You"

Mar 1968 Pompeii – 45-6667 117*[53] 50 So Fine
  • "So Fine" is credited to Ike & Tina Turner and The Ikettes
  • B-side is on the album Cussin', Cryin' & Carryin' On
"Make 'Em Wait"

b/w "Beauty Is Just Skin Deep"

Nov 1968 Pompeii – 45-66683 Cussin', Cryin' & Carryin' On
  • Cussin', Cryin' & Carryin' On is an Ike & Tina Turner album
  • Billboard Review (November 16, 1968)[54]
"Come Together"

b/w "Honky Tonk Women"

Jan 1970 Minit – 32087 57 21 Come Together
  • Credited to Ike & Tina Turner and The Ikettes
"I Want to Take You Higher"

b/w "Contact High"

May 1970 Liberty – 56177 34 25
  • Credited to Ike & Tina Turner and The Ikettes
"Got What It Takes (To Get What I Want)"

b/w "If You Take A Close Look"

Dec 1971 United Artists – 50866 Non-album tracks
"I'm Just Not Ready for Love"

b/w "Two Timin' Double Dealin'"

Dec 1972 United Artists – 51103
*single did not chart on the main chart but was on the Bubbling Under Top LP's.

"—" denotes a recording that did not chart.

Filmography/Selected TV appearances

[55]

Title Airdate/Year Ikettes
Shindig! Apr. 21, 1965 Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith
Hollywood A Go-Go Apr. 24, 1965 Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith
American Bandstand May 1, 1965 Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith
The Big T.N.T Show 1966

(filmed Nov. 29, 1965)

Pat Arnold (P.P. Arnold), Gloria Scott, and Maxine Smith
Studio Uno Mar. 26, 1966 Robbie Montgomery, Venetta Fields, Jessie Smith
Goodbye Again Aug. 18 1968

(filmed Apr 1968)

Pat Powdrill, Ann Thomas, Jean Brown, Paulette Parker (Maxayn Lewis)
The Hollywood Palace Dec. 7, 1968 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear
Andy's Love Concert Marc. 19, 1969 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear
The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour Apr. 13, 1969 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Claudia Lennear
It's Your Thing 1970 Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Vera Hamilton
Playboy After Dark Feb. 3, 1970

(filmed Dec. 3, 1969)

Pat Powdrill, Esther Jones,Claudia Lennear
The Ed Sullivan Show Jan 11. 1970 Claudia Lennear, Esther Jones, Stonye Figueroa
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson Jul. 9, 1970 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
Johnny Cash Presents the Everly Brothers Aug. 5, 1970 Esther Jones, Jean Brown
The Andy Williams Show Sept. 26, 1970 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson Nov. 25, 1970 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
Taking Off 1971 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
Soul to Soul 1971 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
Beat-Club Feb. 27, 1971 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
The Pearl Bailey Show Mar. 27, 1971 Esther Jones, Vera Hamilton, Jean Brown
Good Vibrations from Central Park Aug, 19, 1971 Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson
Rollin' on the River Mar. 4, 1972 Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson
Soul Train Apr. 22, 1972 Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson
The Dick Cavett Show Oct. 10, 1972 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson
Top à Régine Nov. 11, 1972 Esther Jones, Gail Stevens, Edna Richardson
The Midnight Special Feb. 2, 1973 Linda Sims, Linda Shuford-Williams, Alesia Butler
The Burns and Schreiber Comedy Hour Jun. 22, 1973 Alesia Butler
In Concert Aug. 3, 1973 Linda Sims, Linda Shuford-Williams, Debbie Wilson
The Midnight Special Nov. 9, 1973 Edna Richardson, Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis
In Concert Dec. 14, 1973[56] Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis, Debbie Wilson
Hits à Gogo Dec. 14, 1973 Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis, Debbie Wilson
The Midnight Special Feb. 8, 1974 Linda Sims, Charlotte Lewis, Debbie Wilson
Don Kirshner's Rock Concert Mar. 16, 1974 Linda Sims, Stonye Figueroa, Edna Richardson
Musikladen Nov. 14, 1974 Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Yolanda Goodwin
Soul Train Jan. 18, 1975 Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Yolanda Goodwin
The Midnight Special Mar. 7, 1975 Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Edna Richardson
Cher Apr. 27, 1975 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Yolanda Goodwin
Cher Oct. 12, 1975 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Yolanda Goodwin
Van Dyke and Company Oct. 30, 1975 Esther Jones, Marcy Thomas (Lyrica Garrett), Edna Richardson
Poiret est à vous 1975 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Judy Cheeks
Don Kirshner's Rock Concert Mar. 12, 1976 Esther Jones, Edna Richardson, Yolanda Goodwin
Ike & Tina on the Road: 1971–72 2012 Esther Jones, Jean Brown, Edna Richardson

References

  1. ^ "100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time: Critics' Picks". Billboard. July 10, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sabol, Blair (May 1975). "I Was an lkette for a Night". Esquire.
  3. ^ a b c Baumgart, Malcom. Original sleeve note from The Ikettes — Fine, Fine Fine (1986).
  4. ^ "Artist's Biographies: The Ikettes" (PDF). Billboard: 36. February 10, 1962.
  5. ^ a b c d e "The Ikettes Songs ••• Top Songs / Chart Singles Discography". Music VF, US & UK hits charts.
  6. ^ a b c d Tina Turner, Kurt Loder (1986). I, Tina. HarperCollins. ISBN 0380700972.
  7. ^ a b c Jeannette, Cooperman (February 26, 2010). "A Conversation With Robbie Montgomery". St. Louis Mag.
  8. ^ "Change Teena Singles Title, Names New Distribs" (PDF). Cash Box: 29. June 8, 1963.
  9. ^ a b Eve Zibart, "Bonnie Bramlett Belts Them Out at Cellar Door", The Washington Post, May 11, 1978, C7.
  10. ^ a b Hopkins, Jerry (May 31, 1969). "Interview: Delaney & Bonnie". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2019-11-10.
  11. ^ Love, Darlene (1998). My Name Is Love. William Morrow and Co. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-688-15657-2 – via Internet Archive.
  12. ^ a b Fong-Torres, Ben (October 14, 1971). "Tales of Ike and Tina Turner". Rolling Stones.
  13. ^ Clemente, John (2013). Girl Groups: Fabulous Females Who Rocked the World. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-4772-7633-4.
  14. ^ "Ike Turner Revue Injured In Kansas Bus Crash". Jet. 31 (12): 59. December 29, 1966.
  15. ^ Bernholm, Jonas (2019-07-26), "Los Angeles", Soul Music Odyssey USA 1968, York University Libraries, retrieved 2021-02-16
  16. ^ "UA Corp Absorbs Lines; UA Records Sole Disk Co" (PDF). Billboard: 3. January 23, 1971.
  17. ^ "Gayle McCormick – Flesh & Blood". Discogs.
  18. ^ Beckman, Don (1972-10-29). "Music: Rally for McGovern". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  19. ^ "Over-Nite Sensation". www.donlope.net. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  20. ^ "Apostrophe (')". www.donlope.net. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  21. ^ "Billboard Recommended LP's" (PDF). Billboard: 68. January 26, 1974.
  22. ^ a b Turner, Ike (1999). Takin' Back My Name: The Confessions of Ike Turner. Virgin Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85227-850-2.
  23. ^ a b c Willam, Chris (October 10, 1988). "Ike Turner Doesn't Quite Get It Turned Around". The Los Angeles Times.
  24. ^ a b c Pareles, Jon (August 26, 1996). "Turner Revue Is Back (Minus Tina)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  25. ^ Dougherty, Steve (April 13, 1992). "A '70s Burnout Lights Up Roseanne". People.com.
  26. ^ "Delaney, Bonnie & Friends Songs ••• Top Songs / Chart Singles Discography". Music VF, US & UK hits charts.
  27. ^ "An Interview With Venetta Fields". Pink Floyd - A Fleeting Glimpse.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Nevill, Brian. "Looking for Pat Powdrill," SpectroPop (2006).
  29. ^ "Edna Richardson". IMDb.
  30. ^ Donovan, Charles (February 28, 2018). "The Message Never Gets Old: Maxayn Lewis and the Maxayn Band". Pop Matters.
  31. ^ "Esther Jones". Discogs.
  32. ^ Campbell, Ruth (December 11, 2006). "Midlander, backup singer for Ike, Tina Turner, dies". Midland Reporter-Telegram.
  33. ^ "What They Call Me - EP". Apple Music.
  34. ^ Kasten, Roy (October 10, 2018). "Ms. Robbie Montgomery Just Released Her First New Music in 40 Years". Riverfront Times.
  35. ^ Abrams, Ken (April 17, 2019). "WhatsUp Interview: Claudia Lennear, 2019 RI Music Hall of Fame Inductee". What's Up Rhode Island.
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  38. ^ Michel, Sarah (September 2, 2016). "Lyrica Garrett Been That Chick! Meet The Love & Hip Hop Mom Who Got Her Start With Ike and Tina". VH1.
  39. ^ Archer, Greg (June 10, 2019). "Talking Turner". Palm Springs Life.
  40. ^ Starr, Michael (October 5, 2011). "Famous 'X'". New York Post.
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  42. ^ The Ed Sullivan Show, 1970 and Don Kristner's Rock Concert, 1974; also 20 Feet From Stardom
  43. ^ a b c "Spotlights Turn On Her". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. June 2, 1969 – via Newspapers.com.
  44. ^ Wikane, Christian John. "Her Best Is Yet to Come: The Return of Gloria Scott," PopMatters (18 March 2009).
  45. ^ Seen on the cover of Ikettes (G)old and New album (right); 20 Feet from Stardom
  46. ^ Pryweller, Joseph. "Moving In Different Directions: Picking Hampton Over The Bright Lights Of Calif.," Daily Press (December 21, 1990).
  47. ^ Seen on the cover of Ikettes (G)old and New album (center); 20 Feet from Stardom
  48. ^ The Boston Herald (Aug. 27, 1996), p. 3
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  50. ^ "Bubbling Under The Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. February 13, 1965.
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  54. ^ "Special Merit Spotlight" (PDF). Billboard: 74. November 16, 1968.
  55. ^ "The Ikettes". IMDb.
  56. ^ "Television". Jet: 98. December 20, 1973.