The Mission
The Mission (1986 film poster).jpg
Original film poster
Directed byRoland Joffé
Written byRobert Bolt
Produced by
CinematographyChris Menges
Edited byJim Clark
Music byEnnio Morricone[1]
Distributed byColumbia-Cannon-Warner Distributors
Release dates
  • 16 May 1986 (1986-05-16) (Cannes)
  • 31 October 1986 (1986-10-31) (United States)
Running time
125 minutes[2]
CountryUnited Kingdom
Budget£16.5 million[3]
Box office$17.2 million

The Mission is a 1986 British period drama film about the experiences of a Jesuit missionary in 18th-century South America.[4] Directed by Roland Joffé and written by Robert Bolt, the film stars Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, Ray McAnally, Aidan Quinn, Cherie Lunghi, and Liam Neeson.

It won the Cannes Film Festival Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Cinematography. In April 2007, it was elected number one on the Church Times' Top 50 Religious Films list.[5] Furthermore, it is one of fifteen films listed in the category "Religion" on the Vatican film list.[6] The music, scored by Italian composer Ennio Morricone, ranked 1st on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC) Classic 100 Music in the Movies.


In the 1750s, Spanish Jesuit priest Father Gabriel enters the northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguayan jungle to build a mission station and convert a Guaraní community to Christianity. The Guaraní are not initially receptive to Christianity or outsiders in general and, when Gabriel sends a priest to make contact with them, they tie the priest to a wooden cross and send him to his death over the Iguazu Falls. Father Gabriel himself then travels to the falls, climbs to the top and, in an attempt to make a connection with them through music, plays his oboe. One of the Guaraní warriors, seeing that the stranger and his music are European, breaks the oboe, throws it down into the water, and stalks off. Father Gabriel does not react, however, and the remaining Guaraní (who were captivated by the music) allow him to live and take him to their village.

Mercenary and slaver Rodrigo Mendoza makes his living kidnapping natives such as the Guaraní community and selling them to nearby plantations, including the plantation of the Spanish Governor Don Cabeza. After returning from another kidnapping trip, his assumed fiancée, Carlotta, confesses to Mendoza that she is actually in love with his younger half-brother Felipe. Mendoza later finds them in bed together and, in a fit of rage, kills Felipe in a duel. Although he is acquitted of the killing of Felipe, Mendoza spirals into depression. Father Gabriel visits and challenges Mendoza to undertake a suitable penance. Mendoza accompanies the Jesuits on their return journey, dragging a heavy bundle containing his armour and sword. After initially tense moments upon reaching the outskirts of the natives' territory, since they recognize their former persecutor, the natives soon come to forgive a tearful Mendoza and cut away his heavy bundle.

Father Gabriel's mission is depicted as a place of sanctuary and education for the Guaraní. Moved by the Guaraní's acceptance, Mendoza wishes to help at the mission and Father Gabriel gives him a Bible. In time, Mendoza takes vows and becomes a Jesuit under Father Gabriel and his colleague, Father John.

With the protection offered to Missions under Spanish law, the Jesuit missions have been safe. However, the Treaty of Madrid (1750) reapportioned South American land on which the Jesuit missions were located, transferring the area to the Portuguese, who allowed slavery. The Portuguese colonials seek to enslave the natives and, as the independent Jesuit missions might impede this, Papal emissary Cardinal Altamirano, a former Jesuit priest, is sent from the Vatican to survey the missions and decide which, if any, should be allowed to remain.

Under pressure from both Cabeza and Portuguese representative Hontar, Cardinal Altamirano is forced to choose between two evils. If he rules in favour of the colonists, the indigenous peoples will become enslaved; if he rules in favour of the missions, the entire Jesuit Order may be condemned by the Portuguese and the European Catholic Church could fracture. Altamirano visits the missions and is amazed at their industry and success, both in converting the Indians and, in some cases, economically. At Father Gabriel's mission of San Carlos, he tries to explain the reasons behind closing the missions and instructs the Guaraní that they must leave, because "it is God's will." The Guaraní question the validity of his claim and argue God's will was to settle and develop the mission. Father Gabriel and Mendoza, under threat of excommunication, state their intention to defend the mission alongside the Guaraní if the plantation owners and colonists attack. They are, however, divided on how to do this, and they debate how to respond to the impending military attack. Father Gabriel believes that violence is a direct crime against God. Mendoza, however, decides to break his vows by militarily defending the Mission. Against Father Gabriel's wishes, he teaches the natives the European art of war and, once more, takes up his sword.

When a joint Portuguese and Spanish force attacks, the mission is initially defended by Mendoza, John, and the Guaraní. Although they put up a good fight, they are no match for the military force. Father John is killed while luring the Portuguese commander into a trap. Mendoza is shot and fatally wounded after the soldiers destroy a trap, allowing them to enter the village. Upon seeing the church service at the mission village, the soldiers become reluctant to fire. When the soldiers enter the mission village, they encounter the singing of Father Gabriel and the Guaraní women and children who march in a religious procession. Father Gabriel leads, carrying a monstrance with the Blessed Sacrament. Ignoring this, the Spanish commander orders the attack. Father Gabriel, the rest of the priests and most of the Guaraní, including women and children, are systematically gunned down. After Father Gabriel is shot, a man picks up the Blessed Sacrament and continues leading the procession. Only a handful of children escape into the jungle.

In a final exchange between Cardinal Altamirano and Hontar, Hontar laments, saying what has happened was unfortunate but inevitable: "We must work in the world; the world is thus." Altamirano rejoins: "No, thus have we made the world. Thus have I made it." Days later, a canoe of young children return to the scene of the Mission massacre and salvage a few belongings. They set off up the river, going deeper into the jungle, with the thought that the events will remain in their memories. A final title declares that many priests have continued to fight for the rights of indigenous people into the present day. The text of John 1:5 is displayed: "The light shineth in the darkness, and the darkness hath not overcome it."


Historical basis

See also: Bandeirantes

The Mission is based on events surrounding the Treaty of Madrid in 1750, in which Spain ceded part of Jesuit Paraguay to Portugal. A significant subtext is the impending suppression of the Jesuits, of which Father Gabriel is warned by the film's narrator, Cardinal Altamirano, who was once himself a Jesuit. Altamirano, speaking in hindsight in 1758, corresponds to the actual Andalusian Jesuit Father Luis Altamirano, who was sent by Jesuit Superior General Ignacio Visconti to Paraguay in 1752 to transfer territory from Spain to Portugal. He oversaw the transfer of seven missions south and east of the Río Uruguay, that had been settled by Guaraní and Jesuits in the 17th century. As compensation, Spain promised each mission 4,000 pesos, or fewer than 1 peso for each of the approximately 30,000 Guaraní of the seven missions, while the cultivated lands, livestock, and buildings were estimated to be worth 7–16 million pesos. The film's climax is the Guaraní War of 1754–1756, during which historical Guaraní defended their homes against Spanish-Portuguese forces implementing the Treaty of Madrid. For the film, a re-creation was made of one of the seven missions, São Miguel das Missões.[8]

Father Gabriel's character is loosely based on the life of Paraguayan saint and Jesuit Roque González de Santa Cruz. The story is taken from the book The Lost Cities of Paraguay by Father C. J. McNaspy, S.J., who was also a consultant on the film.[9]

The waterfall setting of the film suggests the combination of these events with the story of older missions, founded between 1610–1630 on the Paranapanema River above the Guaíra Falls, from which Paulista slave raids forced Guaraní and Jesuits to flee in 1631. The battle at the end of the film evokes the eight-day Battle of Mbororé in 1641, a battle fought on land as well as in boats on rivers, in which the Jesuit-organised, firearm-equipped Guaraní forces stopped the Paulista raiders.[8]

Historical inaccuracies

The historical Altamirano was not a cardinal sent by the Pope, but an emissary sent by the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, Ignacio Visconti, to preserve the Jesuits in Europe in the face of attacks in Spain and Portugal.[10]

Historical critiques

Scholar James Schofield Saeger has many objections to the portrayal of the Guaraní in the movie. The film in his opinion is a "white European distortion of Native American reality." Indians are treated as "mission furniture." The film asserts that the Guaraní accepted Christianity immediately although in reality native religious beliefs persisted for several generations. The film also glosses over the frequent resistance by Guaraní to Jesuit authority as witnessed by several revolts and the refusal of many Guaraní to live in the missions.[11] The movie also portrays Jesuit-led armed resistance to Spanish attempts to force the missions to move in the 1750s. In reality the revolt was carried out only by the Guaraní after the Jesuits had turned over control of the missions to the colonial governments of Spain and Portugal. A Jesuit ordered that the missions be abandoned and also ordered the Guaraní to cease making weapons. The Guaraní defied him and embarked on an armed, but ultimately unsuccessful revolt. However, several Jesuits remained in the missions with the Guaraní during their suppression by the colonials and the Spanish and Portuguese accused them of inciting the Guaraní to resist.[12]

Filming locations

The film was mostly filmed in Colombia, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The tunnels of Fort Amherst in Kent were used as part of the monastery where Mendoza (Robert De Niro) sequesters himself after murdering his brother.[13]


Main article: The Mission (soundtrack)

The soundtrack for The Mission was written by Ennio Morricone. Beginning with a liturgical piece ("On Earth as It Is in Heaven") which becomes the 'Spanish' theme, it moves quickly to the 'Guaraní' theme, which is written in a heavily native style and uses several indigenous instruments. Later, Morricone defines The Mission theme as a duet between the 'Spanish' and "Guaraní" themes. The soundtrack was recorded at CTS Lansdowne Studios in London.[citation needed]

Other themes throughout the movie include the 'Penance', 'Conquest', and 'Ave Maria Guaraní' themes. In the latter, a large choir of indigenous people sing a rendition of the "Ave Maria".[citation needed]


Box office

The film grossed $17.2 million at the US and international box office against a budget of £16.5 million, which at the time was the US equivalent of $25.4 million, making this film a commercial flop.

Goldcrest Films invested £15,130,000 in the film and received £12,250,000 in returns, netting Goldcrest a £2,880,000 loss.[14]


The Mission received mixed to positive reviews from critics. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 64% of critics have given the film a positive review based on 28 reviews, with an average rating of 6.3/10. The site's critics consensus reads, "The Mission is a well-meaning epic given delicate heft by its sumptuous visuals and a standout score by Ennio Morricone, but its staid presentation never stirs an emotional investment in its characters."[15] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 55 out of 100 based on 18 critic reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[16]

Awards and honours

Award Category Nominee(s) Result
Academy Awards[17] Best Picture Fernando Ghia and David Puttnam Nominated
Best Director Roland Joffé Nominated
Best Art Direction Stuart Craig and Jack Stephens Nominated
Best Cinematography Chris Menges Won
Best Costume Design Enrico Sabbatini Nominated
Best Film Editing Jim Clark Nominated
Best Original Score Ennio Morricone Nominated
American Cinema Editors Awards Best Edited Feature Film Jim Clark Nominated
American Society of Cinematographers Awards[18] Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Chris Menges Nominated
Association of Polish Filmmakers Critics Awards Best Foreign Film Roland Joffé Won
British Academy Film Awards[19] Best Film Fernando Ghia, David Puttnam and Roland Joffé Nominated
Best Direction Roland Joffé Nominated
Best Actor in a Supporting Role Ray McAnally Won
Best Screenplay – Original Robert Bolt Nominated
Best Cinematography Chris Menges Nominated
Best Costume Design Enrico Sabbatini Nominated
Best Editing Jim Clark Won
Best Original Score Ennio Morricone Won
Best Production Design Stuart Craig Nominated
Best Sound Ian Fuller, Bill Rowe and Clive Winter Nominated
Best Special Visual Effects Peter Hutchinson Nominated
British Society of Cinematographers[20] Best Cinematography in a Theatrical Feature Film Chris Menges Nominated
Cannes Film Festival[21] Palme d'Or Roland Joffé Won
Technical Grand Prize Won
César Awards Best Foreign Film Nominated
David di Donatello Awards[22] Best Foreign Film Nominated
Best Foreign Actor Jeremy Irons Nominated
Best Foreign Producer Fernando Ghia and David Puttnam Won
Evening Standard British Film Awards Best Actor Ray McAnally (also or No Surrender) Won
Best Screenplay Robert Bolt Won
Golden Globe Awards[23] Best Motion Picture – Drama Nominated
Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama Jeremy Irons Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Roland Joffé Nominated
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Robert Bolt Won
Best Original Score – Motion Picture Ennio Morricone Won
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards[24] Best Film Won[a]
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards[25] Best Cinematography Chris Menges Won
Best Music Score Ennio Morricone Runner-up
Nastro d'Argento Best Foreign Actor Robert De Niro Nominated
National Board of Review Awards[26] Top Ten Films 10th Place
New York Film Critics Circle Awards[27] Best Cinematographer Chris Menges 3rd Place
Turkish Film Critics Association Awards Best Foreign Film 3rd Place

American Film Institute

See also


  1. ^ Ebert, Roger (14 November 1986). "The Mission". Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  2. ^ "The Mission (PG)". British Board of Film Classification. 30 July 1986. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  3. ^ "Puttnam bites back." Sunday Times [London, England] 22 Mar. 1987: 47. The Sunday Times Digital Archive. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
  4. ^ Sheila Benson (14 November 1986). "Movie Review : A Dilemma Of Conscience At Heart Of 'The Mission'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Top 50 Religious Films - Ray Fowler .org". Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
  6. ^ SDG (2015). "The Mission (1986)". Decent Films. Steven D. Greydanus. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  7. ^ Harris, Will (15 January 2016). "Fred Melamed on Casual, the Coens, and making Larry David laugh". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  8. ^ a b James Schofield Saeger (1995) "The Mission and Historical Missions: Film and the Writing of History." The Americas, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 393–415.
  9. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (8 February 1995). "C. J. McNaspy, 79, Jesuit Musicologist, Author and Linguist". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016.
  10. ^ "The Mission". Archived from the original on 24 October 2014.
  11. ^ Saeger, James Schofield (1995). "The Mission and Historical Missions: Film and the Writing of History". The Americas. 51 (3): 393, 394, 400–401, 408.409. doi:10.2307/1008228. JSTOR 1008228. S2CID 147530959. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  12. ^ Hemming, John (1978). Red Gold: The conquest of the Brazilian Indians, 1500-1760. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 470–474. ISBN 0674751078.
  13. ^ Kent Film Office. "Kent Film Office The Mission Film Focus". Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.
  14. ^ Eberts, Jake; Illott, Terry (1990). My indecision is final. Faber and Faber. p. 657.
  15. ^ "The Mission (1986)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  16. ^ "The Mission Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  17. ^ "The 59th Academy Awards (1987) Nominees and Winners". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  18. ^ "The ASC Awards for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011.
  19. ^ "BAFTA Awards: Film in 1987". BAFTA. 1987. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  20. ^ "Best Cinematography in Feature Film" (PDF). Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  21. ^ "Festival de Cannes: The Mission". Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  22. ^ "Cronologia Dei Premi David Di Donatello". David di Donatello. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  23. ^ "The Mission – Golden Globes". HFPA. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  24. ^ "KCFCC Award Winners – 1980-89". 14 December 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  25. ^ "The 12th Annual Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards". Los Angeles Film Critics Association. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  26. ^ "1986 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  27. ^ "New York Film Critics Circle: 1986 Awards". Archived from the original on 7 September 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  28. ^ "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores" (PDF). American Film Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  1. ^ Tied with Salvador.