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This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (October 2016) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the German article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 8,832 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Die Blechtrommel]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|de|Die Blechtrommel)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
The Tin Drum
Die Blechtrommel earliest edition german.jpg
Cover of the first German edition
AuthorGünter Grass
Original titleDie Blechtrommel
TranslatorRalph Manheim, Breon Mitchell
Cover artistGünter Grass
CountryWest Germany
LanguageGerman
SeriesDanzig Trilogy
GenreMagic realism
PublisherHermann Luchterhand Verlag
Publication date
1959
Published in English
1961
Pages576
OCLC3618781
833.914
Followed byCat and Mouse 

The Tin Drum (German: Die Blechtrommel, pronounced [diː ˈblɛçˌtʁɔml̩] (listen)) is a 1959 novel by Günter Grass. The novel is the first book of Grass's Danziger Trilogie (Danzig Trilogy). It was adapted into a 1979 film, which won both the 1979 Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1980.

To "beat a tin drum" when used as an idiom means to create a disturbance in order to bring attention to a cause.[1][2] This is based on an interpretation of the book where Oskar's beating of his titular tin drum "symbolizes his protest against the middle-class mentality of his family and neighborhood."[3]

Plot

The story revolves around the life of Oskar Matzerath, as narrated by himself when confined in a mental hospital during the years 1952–1954. Born in 1924 in the Free City of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland), with an adult's capacity for thought and perception, he decides never to grow up when he hears his father declare that he would become a grocer. Gifted with a piercing shriek that can shatter glass or be used as a weapon, Oskar declares himself to be one of those "clairaudient infants", whose "spiritual development is complete at birth and only needs to affirm itself". He retains the stature of a child while living through the beginning of World War II, several love affairs, and the world of postwar Europe. Through all this, a toy tin drum, the first of which he received as a present on his third birthday, followed by many replacement drums each time he wears one out from over-vigorous drumming, remains his treasured possession; he is willing to commit violence to retain it.

Oskar considers himself to have two "presumptive fathers"—his mother's husband Alfred Matzerath, a member of the Nazi Party, and her cousin and lover Jan Bronski, a Danzig Pole who is executed for defending the Polish Post Office in Danzig during the German invasion of Poland. Oskar's mother having died, Alfred marries Maria, a woman who is secretly Oskar's first mistress. After marrying Alfred, Maria gives birth to Kurt, whom Oskar thereafter refers to as his son. But Oskar is disappointed to find that the baby persists in growing up, and will not join him in ceasing to grow at the age of three.

During the war, Oskar joins a troupe of performing dwarfs who entertain the German troops at the front line. But when his second love, the diminutive Roswitha, is killed by Allied troops in the invasion of Normandy, Oskar returns to his family in Danzig where he becomes the leader of a criminal youth gang (akin to the Edelweiss Pirates). The Russian army soon captures Danzig, and Alfred is shot by invading troops after he goes into seizures while swallowing his party pin to avoid being revealed as a Nazi. Oskar bears some culpability for both of his presumptive fathers' deaths since he leads Jan Bronski to the Polish Post Office in an effort to get his drum repaired and he returns Alfred Matzerath's Nazi party pin while he is being interrogated by Soviet soldiers.

After the war Oskar, his widowed stepmother, and their son have to leave the now Polish city of Danzig and move to Düsseldorf, where he models in the nude and works engraving tombstones. Mounting tensions compel Oskar to live apart from Maria and Kurt; he decides on a flat owned by the Zeidlers. Upon moving in, he falls in love with Sister Dorothea, a neighbor, but he later fails to seduce her. During an encounter with fellow musician Klepp, Klepp asks Oskar how he has an authority over the judgement of music. Oskar, willing to prove himself once and for all, picks up his drum and sticks despite his vow to never play again after Alfred's death, and plays a measure on his drum. The ensuing events lead Klepp, Oskar, and Scholle, a guitarist, to form the Rhine River Three jazz band. They are discovered by Mr. Schmuh, who invites them to play at the Onion Cellar club. After a virtuoso performance, a record company talent seeker discovers Oskar the jazz drummer and offers a contract. Oskar soon achieves fame and riches. One day while walking through a field he finds a severed finger: the ring finger of Sister Dorothea, who has been murdered. He then meets and befriends Vittlar. Oskar allows himself to be falsely convicted of the murder and is confined to an insane asylum, where he writes his memoirs.

Characters

The novel is divided into three books. The main characters in each book are:[4]

Book One

Book Two

Book Three

Style

Oskar Matzerath is an unreliable narrator, as his sanity, or insanity, never becomes clear. He tells the tale in first person, though he occasionally diverts to third person, sometimes within the same sentence. As an unreliable narrator, he may contradict himself within his autobiography, as with his varying accounts of, but not exclusively, the Defense of the Polish Post Office, his grandfather Koljaiczek's fate, his paternal status over Kurt, Maria's son, and many others.

The novel is strongly political in nature, although it goes beyond a political novel in the writing's stylistic plurality. There are elements of allegory, myth and legend, placing it in the genre of magic realism.

The Tin Drum has religious overtones, both Jewish and Christian. Oskar holds conversations with both Jesus and Satan throughout the book. His gang members call him "Jesus", and he refers to himself as "Satan" later in the book.[4]

Critical reception

Initial reaction to The Tin Drum was mixed. It was called blasphemous and pornographic by some, and legal action was taken against it and Grass.[citation needed] However, by 1965 sentiment had cemented into public acceptance, and it soon became recognized as a classic of post-World War II literature, both in Germany and around the world.[4]

Translations

A translation into English by Ralph Manheim was published in 1961. A new 50th anniversary translation into English by Breon Mitchell was published in 2009.

Adaptations

Film

Main article: The Tin Drum (film)

In 1979 a film adaptation appeared by Volker Schlöndorff. It covers only Books One and Two, concluding at the end of the war. It shared the 1979 Cannes Film Festival Palme d'Or with Apocalypse Now. It also won the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film of 1979 at the 1980 Academy Awards.

Radio

In 1996 a radio dramatisation starring Phil Daniels was broadcast by BBC Radio 4.[5] Adapted by Mike Walker, it won the British Writers Guild award for best dramatisation.[6]

Theatre

The Kneehigh Theatre company performed an adaption of the novel in 2017 at the Everyman Theatre located in Liverpool.[7] The production features the story from Oskar's birth through the war, ending with Oskar marrying Maria.[citation needed]

In popular culture

Bibliography

See also

References

  1. ^ "The hypocrite's halo". The Washington Times. 20 August 2006.
  2. ^ Jeffrey Hart. "Response to "How the Right Went Wrong"". Dartmouth Alumni Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 December 2006.
  3. ^ "IMDb: The Tin Drum (1979)".
  4. ^ a b c Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Christopher Giroux and Brigham Narins. Vol. 88. Detroit: Gale Research, 1995. pp. 19-40. From Literature Resource Center.
  5. ^ Hanks, Robert (3 June 1996). "radio review". The Independent. Independent News & Media. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
  6. ^ "Music Details for Tuesday 4 February 1997". ABC Classic FM. ABC. 15 February 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
  7. ^ Love, Catherine (6 October 2017). "The Tin Drum review – Kneehigh turn Grass's fable into chaotic cabaret". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  8. ^ Return to the Onion Cellar: A Dark Rock Musical Archived 20 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine