Yura
Thura-Yura
Geographic
distribution
South Australia
Linguistic classificationPama–Nyungan
  • Arandic–Thura-Yura
    • Yura
Subdivisions
  • Yura proper
  • Kadli
  • Wirangu
Glottologthur1253
Yura languages.png
Thura-Yura languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan). The two groups are Nangga (west) and Yura–Kadli (east)

The Yura or Thura-Yura languages are a group of Australian Aboriginal languages surrounding Spencer Gulf and Gulf St Vincent in South Australia, that comprise a genetic language family of the Pama–Nyungan family.

Name

The name Yura comes from the word for "person" in the northern languages; this is a lenited form of the thura found in other languages, hence Thura-Yura. Similar words for "person" are found in languages outside the group, however (for example 'yura' - 'person' in the Sydney language).[1]

Languages

The following classification is proposed by Bowern & Koch (2004):[2]

A Nukunu speaker reported that the Nukunu could understand Barngarla and Kuyani, but not more distant varieties.[2]

Peramangk may have been a southern Thura-Yura language, close to Kaurna.

Dixon (2002) lists a Nantuwara language, but there is no data for it.

Proto-language

Proto-Thura-Yura
Reconstruction ofThura-Yura languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Reconstructed Thura-Yura vocabulary by Simpson and Hercus (2004):[3]

Spelling conventions
gloss Proto-Thura-Yura Proto-Core Thura-Yura Northern Thura-Yura Southern Thura-Yura
all wapu; kurru
all, many, big *marna
ashes *muru thimpa
ashes (charcoal) piirla
bad *wadLV
bad (without) *wakV-Na
bark ?*yulti
beard ngaNka yaNka
beard, cheek, hair *maLTa
belly warna munthu
belly (abdomen) ?*TiDLi
big ngarla
bird THirta
black maṟu
blood ?*kaaṟu; *karti
body: muscle, sinew *THiltya *thiltya
bone *waLpu *waLpu warlpu
breast *ngamV
camp (house) *warDli
camp (house, ?from “join”) *karrpa *karrpa
camp (hut) karnku
chest *kuntu
child, baby wa(L)kuwa(L)ku
child, small *kitya yakaCV; waNi
child, voice of infant *kunga
cloud *ma(L)ku
cloud (low, fog) *putyi
cold (cough) *kuLTV-
cold, frost *pakaDla
cold (in head) (y)urrkV-
cold (weather) *paya-; *mVnyV *manya payala (Probably derived from “to bite”)
come here! *paNi; *ka *kawayi
dog *wiLka wiLka (domestic dog) kadli (domestic dog)
down, below ?*warta- wartathi
dry *muDLa murdla
dry, dust *puthV-RV
ear *yuṟi
earth *yarta
egg pipi muka
elbow *thiDNngi K/NGuNaN-
eye *mii-na
eyebrow *piiku
far (stranger) yampa
fat *mVrnV *marni
feather ?*paDLu
fingernail *pirri
fire *karDla
fish *kuya
fly *thapu
fly (big fly) *thumpV-Ca *thupV(-Ra)
food *mayi
foot *THiDna *thidna
good *wayV-
hair, feather *puthi
hand *maṟa
head *kaka
heart thurlku
hungry karnpa
knee ?*puṟV *mampa puṟa
knee (kneecap) *maTa
leaf karlpi
liver *Tangka thangka; ngaLTi
louse *kuDLu *kuDlu
man (boy after circumcision) pardnaapa
man (companion) *Nipu
man (grown-up) *miṟu (grownup man)
man (husband) marni
man (initiand) ?*wilya-ṟu ?*ngulta
man (male, husband) *yarDli
man (person) ?*Tuṟa *thuṟa
meat *paRu
meat, flesh, heart *puLTHA *puLTHa *pultha
moon *piṟa
mouth *Taa
mouth, lip Nimi
name *mityi
nape, neck ngurnti, nhurnti; wakarra
neck *waLTu
night *nguLTi maLTi
night, yesterday *wiltya
north wind, hot weather *pukarra
north-east wind ngarnara karnaRa
nose *muDlha *mudlha
not, do not *madLa mardla; kuta
now *kaRi
now, again ?*nhaTa
now, morning ?*panyi
now, soon yatha
old man *puLka
one *kuma
other, another, the rest *kutyu
penis *waRi
pigface, plant food type (?Carpobrotus_rossii sp.) ?*kaCkaLa *karrkaLa
red ?*TVLTV- *TaLTHa- thaltha-
red ochre *miLTi; *karrku
rib *TiNinyV
rib, side, flank *pantyi
road ?*Tapa *Tapa thapa
root
rotten, bad-smelling ?*puka *thungkV
shit, faeces *kuDna *kudna
shoulder piLpi-
shoulder, wing *wiṟi
sick, ill ?*ngaNDa-N
sick, wound *mingka
skin ?*paLpa piyi paLpa
skin, clothes *palhtha
sky *NayirrV iLkaRV
sky, cloud and dust ?*wirra
smoke *puyu
smoke (stuff for producing smoke) ?*Tumpu
snake ?*TuDNu wapma
snake, carpet snake muDLV-
south and south wind *parrpa
southerly wind *walypi waitpi
spear (large) *wiNTa wirnta
spear (small) *kVya *kaya
spit *THaDlhi *THadlhi ngapalya; ngalytya
star *purDli
stone, adze THurdla
stone, cooking stone ?*kaDnya
stone, hill, grinding stone, kneecap *puRi
stone, limestone *parnta
stone, quartz-like stone, ice *makV
sun *THirntu *thirntu
tail kaDLHa
testicles *kaDLu *kadLu kardlu
that (near) *pa- *pa- pa-nha
that (remote) *ngu- ngunha
thigh *kaNTHi *kaNTHi kanthi
thigh, flank, groin ?*paLTi
this (nearest) *iNHa
throat *yurDni
to bite *paya-
to burn tr. *kampa-
to burn intr. *ngaDLi-
to climb ?*warnta-
to come ?*puDNa-
to cry, call *kaLTa-
to cry, tears *muLka
to cry, to scream *ngaTV-
to cut ?*waNi-
to die *paDLu- thinta-; padlu-
to die, dead *kuDnyu kupa
to dig *paNi-; ?*paka- pani-
to drink, to kiss, to manipulate with mouth *THapa- *Tapa- thapa-
to eat *ngaLku-
to enter *ngaLpa-
to fall *warDni-
to get *manku-
to get, pick up, lead, bring *kaNka- *kangka-
to get, take away *mama-
to give *yungkV- nhungku-
to go ?*wiNV- nguka-
to go, walk ?*padNV-
to hear *yuri- See “ear”.
to hit with hand *paLTa-
to hit with missile *nguṟV- nguṟa-
to hit, cause break in material integrity *pungku-
to hit, kill *kuNTa- kurnta-
to know, see *THiLka- *thiLka-
to leave it *wVNTV- *waNTa- wanthV-
to lie down *waNTi- wanti-
to put, to get used to ila-
to see *nhaku-
to sit *Tika- thika-
to sleep, asleep *miya
to speak *wangka-
to spear wiTi-
to stand *yuwa-
to throw *paTV- patha-
to tie, support, build ?*karrpV- karrpV-
tomorrow ?*TarrkV-
tongue *THa(a)LiN tha(a)rli tha(d)lVnya
tooth yira Tiya
tree *wadLa; *wira wardla
two *puLa puDla; kalypilV purla
up, above ?*kaNka kanka
up, above, high *karra
urine, piss *kumpu
warm (weather) *warlta
water *kawi; *kapi
west *wangka
what (how many) *-miNV [-]minha
what? *Na-, ?*Nawi
when? *nhaDLa-TV
where? ?*wa-THa *wa-(nha)
white *paLkV *paLka paLka-ra
who? (Ergative, Instrumental) *ngaNTu
who? (Nominative) *ngaNa *ngaNa
who? (Possessive) *ngaNku
wind *wari
woman *pa(a)rla ngangki
woman, girl *mankarra
woman, mother, female *ngamV-THV
woman, wife *kartu
yam, edible root, plant food type *ngampa
yesterday *puki
young one papa

References

  1. ^ Macquarie Dictionary Aboriginal Words, 1994; p. 66
  2. ^ a b Bowern & Koch (2004) Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method
  3. ^ Simpson, Jane and Luise Hercus. 2004. Thura-Yura as a Subgroup. In Claire Bowern and Harold Koch (eds.), Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method, 179-206, 580-645. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.