Ti (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade–Giles: t'i) is the Chinese word for substance or body.[1] The philosopher Zhang Zai described the ti as "that which is never absent, that is, through all transformations."[1]

In Neo-Confucianism, this concept is often associated with yong, which means "use" or "function." Such function or how the yong of a thing is its activity or its response when stimulated underscores the link.[1] Like the concepts of nei-wai (inner-outer) and ben-mo (root-branch), ti-yong is central to Chinese metaphysics. [2] The link was adopted in order to manifest the actual meaning of the two truths and the relationship between them.[3]


  1. ^ a b c Cua, Antonio (2003). Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. New York: Routledge. p. 720. ISBN 0415939135.
  2. ^ Ruokanen, Miikka; Huang, Paulos (2010). Christianity and Chinese Culture. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 9780802865564.
  3. ^ Shih, Chang-qing (2004). The Two Truths in Chinese Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Pvt. Ltd. p. 158. ISBN 8120820355.