This article's images may require adjustment of image placement, formatting, and size. Please see the picture tutorial and the image placement policy for further information. (June 2022)

Location of (({official_name))}
Sovereign state China
31°N 89°E / 31°N 89°E / 31; 89
• Total
2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
• 2023 estimate
7,000,000 (Tibetan people)
Map of Greater Tibet consist of Ü-Tsang, Kham and Amdo. Modern states consist of Tibet Autonomous Region + Parts of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan. Also, a large part of present-day Uyghuristan and parts of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh were part of the Tibetan Empire in the past.

Cultural/historical, (highlighted) depicted with various competing territorial claims

              Greater Tibet as claimed by Tibetan exile groups
  Tibetan autonomous areas, as designated by China
  Tibet Autonomous Region, within China
Chinese-controlled, claimed by India as part of Ladakh
Indian-controlled, parts claimed by China as South Tibet
Other areas historically within the Tibetan cultural sphere
"Tibet" in the Tibetan (top) and Chinese (bottom) scripts
Chinese name
Literal meaning"Western Tsang"
Tibetan name

Tibet (/tɪˈbɛt/ ; Tibetan: བོད, Lhasa dialect: [pʰøːʔ˨˧˩] Böd; Chinese: 西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng)is a region in the western part of East Asia, covering much of the Tibetan Plateau and spanning about 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi). It is the homeland of the Tibetan people. Also resident on the plateau are some other ethnic groups such as the Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa and Lhoba peoples and, since the 20th century, considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui settlers. Since the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951, the entire plateau has been under the administration of the People's Republic of China. In the Qing Dynasty, the Tibetan area was divided administratively into Tibet (西藏), and parts of the Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan and Sichuan provinces. After establishment of the People's Republic of China, in 1965, Tibet Autonomous Region (西藏自治区) was created. Tibet is also constitutionally claimed by the Republic of China as the Tibet Area since 1912. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 4,380 m (14,000 ft).[1][2] Located in the Himalayas, the highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848.86 m (29,032 ft) above sea level.[3]

The Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century. At its height in the 9th century, the Tibetan Empire extended far beyond the Tibetan Plateau, from the Tarim Basin and Pamirs in the west, to Yunnan and Bengal in the southeast. It lasted for 220+ years, then divided into separate tribes and small kingdoms.[4] The bulk of western and central Tibet (Ü-Tsang) was often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations. The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling under Chinese rule; most of this area was eventually annexed into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai. The current borders of Tibet were generally established in the 18th century.[5]

Following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of the Tibet Area (Ü-Tsang). The region subsequently declared its independence in 1913, although this was not recognised by the subsequent Chinese Republican government.[6] Later, Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang. The region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of Chamdo, Tibet was occupied and annexed by the People's Republic of China. The Tibetan government was abolished after the failure of the 1959 Tibetan uprising.[7] The Tibetan independence movement[8] is principally led by the Tibetan diaspora.[9] Human rights groups have accused the Chinese government of abuses of human rights in Tibet, including torture.[10][11]

The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism; other religions include Bön, an indigenous religion similar to Tibetan Buddhism,[12] Islam, and Christianity. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art, music, and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, and butter tea. With the growth of tourism in recent years, the service sector has become the largest sector in Tibet, accounting for 50.1% of the local GDP in 2020.[13]

Names and etymologies

Map of the approximate extent of the three provinces, Ü-Tsang, Amdo, and Kham, of the Tibetan Empire (8th century) overlaid on a map of modern borders

Main article: Etymology of Tibet

The Tibetan name for their land, Bod (བོད་), means 'Tibet' or 'Tibetan Plateau', although it originally meant the central region around Lhasa, now known in Tibetan as Ü (དབུས).[citation needed] The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of Bod ([pʰøʔ˨˧˨]) is transcribed as: Bhö in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription; in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription; and Poi in Tibetan pinyin. Some scholars believe the first written reference to Bod ('Tibet') was the ancient Bautai people recorded in the Egyptian-Greek works Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE) and Geographia (Ptolemy, 2nd century CE),[14] itself from the Sanskrit form Bhauṭṭa of the Indian geographical tradition.[15]

The best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet is Tubo (Chinese: 吐蕃; or Tǔbō, 土蕃 or Tǔfān, 土番). This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century (Li Tai) and as 吐蕃 in the 10th century (Old Book of Tang, describing 608–609 emissaries from Tibetan King Namri Songtsen to Emperor Yang of Sui). In the Middle Chinese language spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter, 土番 was pronounced thux-phjon, and 吐蕃 was pronounced thux-pjon (with the x representing a shang tone).[16]

Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet include:

American Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in Chinese to revive the term Tubote (simplified Chinese: 图伯特; traditional Chinese: 圖伯特; pinyin: Túbótè) for modern use in place of Xizang, on the grounds that Tubote more clearly includes the entire Tibetan plateau rather than simply the Tibet Autonomous Region.[17]

The English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century.[18] Historical linguists generally agree that "Tibet" names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic Ṭībat or Tūbātt (Arabic: طيبة، توبات; Hebrew: טובּה, טובּת), itself deriving from Turkic Töbäd (plural of töbän), literally 'The Heights'.[19]


Main article: Standard Tibetan

Ethnolinguistic map of Tibet (1967)

Linguists generally classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family, although the boundaries between 'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be unclear. According to Matthew Kapstein:

From the perspective of historical linguistics, Tibetan most closely resembles Burmese among the major languages of Asia. Grouping these two together with other apparently related languages spoken in the Himalayan lands, as well as in the highlands of Southeast Asia and the Sino-Tibetan frontier regions, linguists have generally concluded that there exists a Tibeto-Burman family of languages. More controversial is the theory that the Tibeto-Burman family is itself part of a larger language family, called Sino-Tibetan, and that through it Tibetan and Burmese are distant cousins of Chinese.[20]

Tibetan family in Kham attending a horse festival

The language has numerous regional dialects which are generally not mutually intelligible. It is employed throughout the Tibetan plateau and Bhutan and is also spoken in parts of Nepal and northern India, such as Sikkim. In general, the dialects of central Tibet (including Lhasa), Kham, Amdo and some smaller nearby areas are considered Tibetan dialects. Other forms, particularly Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Sherpa, and Ladakhi, are considered by their speakers, largely for political reasons, to be separate languages. However, if the latter group of Tibetan-type languages are included in the calculation, then 'greater Tibetan' is spoken by approximately 6 million people across the Tibetan Plateau. Tibetan is also spoken by approximately 150,000 exile speakers who have fled from modern-day Tibet to India and other countries.[citation needed]

Although spoken Tibetan varies according to the region, the written language, based on Classical Tibetan, is consistent throughout. This is probably due to the long-standing influence of the Tibetan empire, whose rule embraced (and extended at times far beyond) the present Tibetan linguistic area, which runs from Gilgit Baltistan in the west to Yunnan and Sichuan in the east, and from north of Qinghai Lake south as far as Bhutan. The Tibetan language has its own script which it shares with Ladakhi and Dzongkha, and which is derived from the ancient Indian Brāhmī script.[21]

Starting in 2001, the local deaf sign languages of Tibet were standardized, and Tibetan Sign Language is now being promoted across the country.

The first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book was written by Alexander Csoma de Kőrös in 1834.[22]


Main article: History of Tibet

Further information: History of European exploration in Tibet and Foreign relations of Tibet

Early history

Main articles: Neolithic Tibet, Zhangzhung, and Pre-Imperial Tibet

Rishabhanatha, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, is considered to have attained nirvana near Mount Kailash in Tibet in Jain tradition.[23]
King Songtsen Gampo

Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least 21,000 years ago.[24] This population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic immigrants from northern China, but there is a partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and contemporary Tibetan populations.[24]

The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet.[25] Zhang Zhung is considered to be the original home of the Bön religion.[26] By the 1st century BCE, a neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung valley, and the Yarlung king, Drigum Tsenpo, attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang Zhung by expelling the Zhang's Bön priests from Yarlung.[27] He was assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region until it was annexed by Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century. Prior to Songtsen Gampo, the kings of Tibet were more mythological than factual, and there is insufficient evidence of their existence.[28]

Tibetan Empire

Main article: Tibetan Empire

Map of the Tibetan Empire at its greatest extent between the 780s and the 790s CE

The history of a unified Tibet begins with the rule of Songtsen Gampo (604–650 CE), who united parts of the Yarlung River Valley and founded the Tibetan Empire. He also brought in many reforms, and Tibetan power spread rapidly, creating a large and powerful empire. It is traditionally considered that his first wife was the Princess of Nepal, Bhrikuti, and that she played a great role in the establishment of Buddhism in Tibet. In 640, he married Princess Wencheng, the niece of the Chinese emperor Taizong of Tang China.[29]

Under the next few Tibetan kings, Buddhism became established as the state religion and Tibetan power increased even further over large areas of Central Asia, while major inroads were made into Chinese territory, even reaching the Tang's capital Chang'an (modern Xi'an) in late 763.[30] However, the Tibetan occupation of Chang'an only lasted for fifteen days, after which they were defeated by Tang and its ally, the Turkic Uyghur Khaganate.

Miran fort

The Kingdom of Nanzhao (in Yunnan and neighbouring regions) remained under Tibetan control from 750 to 794, when they turned on their Tibetan overlords and helped the Chinese inflict a serious defeat on the Tibetans.[31]

In 747, the hold of Tibet was loosened by the campaign of general Gao Xianzhi, who tried to re-open the direct communications between Central Asia and Kashmir. By 750, the Tibetans had lost almost all of their central Asian possessions to the Chinese. However, after Gao Xianzhi's defeat by the Arabs and Qarluqs at the Battle of Talas (751) and the subsequent civil war known as the An Lushan Rebellion (755), Chinese influence decreased rapidly and Tibetan influence resumed.

At its height in the 780s to 790s, the Tibetan Empire reached its highest glory when it ruled and controlled a territory stretching from modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.

In 821/822 CE, Tibet and Tang signed a peace treaty. A bilingual account of this treaty, including details of the borders between the two empires, is inscribed on a stone pillar called Tang–Tibet Treaty Inscription which stands outside the Jokhang temple in Lhasa.[32] Tibet continued as a Central Asian empire until the mid-9th century, when a civil war over succession led to the collapse of imperial Tibet. The period that followed is known traditionally as the Era of Fragmentation, when political control over Tibet became divided between regional warlords and tribes with no dominant centralized authority. An Islamic invasion from Bengal took place in 1206.

Yuan dynasty

Main articles: Mongol conquest of Tibet and Tibet under Yuan rule

The Mongol Yuan dynasty, c. 1294

The Mongol Yuan dynasty, through the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, or Xuanzheng Yuan, ruled Tibet through a top-level administrative department. One of the department's purposes was to select a dpon-chen ("great administrator"), usually appointed by the lama and confirmed by the Mongol emperor in Beijing.[33] The Sakya lama retained a degree of autonomy, acting as the political authority of the region, while the dpon-chen held administrative and military power. Mongol rule of Tibet remained separate from the main provinces of China, but the region existed under the administration of the Yuan dynasty. If the Sakya lama ever came into conflict with the dpon-chen, the dpon-chen had the authority to send Chinese troops into the region.[33]

Tibet retained nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols managed a structural and administrative[34] rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention. This existed as a "diarchic structure" under the Yuan emperor, with power primarily in favor of the Mongols.[33] Mongolian prince Khuden gained temporal power in Tibet in the 1240s and sponsored Sakya Pandita, whose seat became the capital of Tibet. Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Sakya Pandita's nephew became Imperial Preceptor of Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty.

Yuan control over the region ended with the Ming overthrow of the Yuan and Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen's revolt against the Mongols.[35] Following the uprising, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen founded the Phagmodrupa dynasty, and sought to reduce Yuan influences over Tibetan culture and politics.[36]

Phagmodrupa, Rinpungpa and Tsangpa dynasties

Main articles: Phagmodrupa dynasty, Rinpungpa, and Tsangpa

Further information: Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming dynasty

Gyantse Fortress

Between 1346 and 1354, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen toppled the Sakya and founded the Phagmodrupa dynasty. The following 80 years saw the founding of the Gelug school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the disciples of Je Tsongkhapa, and the founding of the important Ganden, Drepung and Sera monasteries near Lhasa. However, internal strife within the dynasty and the strong localism of the various fiefs and political-religious factions led to a long series of internal conflicts. The minister family Rinpungpa, based in Tsang (West Central Tibet), dominated politics after 1435. In 1565 they were overthrown by the Tsangpa dynasty of Shigatse which expanded its power in different directions of Tibet in the following decades and favoured the Karma Kagyu sect.

The Khoshut Khanate, 1642–1717
Tibet in 1734. Royaume de Thibet ("Kingdom of Tibet") in la Chine, la Tartarie Chinoise, et le Thibet ("China, Chinese Tartary, and Tibet") on a 1734 map by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, based on earlier Jesuit maps.
Tibet in 1892 during the Qing dynasty

Rise of Ganden Phodrang and Buddhist Gelug school

Main article: Ganden Phodrang

In 1578, Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols gave Sonam Gyatso, a high lama of the Gelugpa school, the name Dalai Lama, Dalai being the Mongolian translation of the Tibetan name Gyatso "Ocean".[37]

The 5th Dalai Lama (1617–1682) is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under the control of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, after defeating the rival Kagyu and Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa prince, in a prolonged civil war. His efforts were successful in part because of aid from Güshi Khan, the Oirat leader of the Khoshut Khanate. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state. This Tibetan regime or government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang.

Qing dynasty

Main articles: Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) and Tibet under Qing rule

Potala Palace

Qing dynasty rule in Tibet began with their 1720 expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars. Amdo came under Qing control in 1724, and eastern Kham was incorporated into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[38] Meanwhile, the Qing government sent resident commissioners called Ambans to Lhasa. In 1750, the Ambans and the majority of the Han Chinese and Manchus living in Lhasa were killed in a riot, and Qing troops arrived quickly and suppressed the rebels in the next year. Like the preceding Yuan dynasty, the Manchus of the Qing dynasty exerted military and administrative control of the region, while granting it a degree of political autonomy. The Qing commander publicly executed a number of supporters of the rebels and, as in 1723 and 1728, made changes in the political structure and drew up a formal organization plan. The Qing now restored the Dalai Lama as ruler, leading the governing council called Kashag,[39] but elevated the role of Ambans to include more direct involvement in Tibetan internal affairs. At the same time, the Qing took steps to counterbalance the power of the aristocracy by adding officials recruited from the clergy to key posts.[40]

For several decades, peace reigned in Tibet, but in 1792, the Qing Qianlong Emperor sent a large Chinese army into Tibet to push the invading Nepalese out. This prompted yet another Qing reorganization of the Tibetan government, this time through a written plan called the "Twenty-Nine Regulations for Better Government in Tibet". Qing military garrisons staffed with Qing troops were now also established near the Nepalese border.[41] Tibet was dominated by the Manchus in various stages in the 18th century, and the years immediately following the 1792 regulations were the peak of the Qing imperial commissioners' authority; but there was no attempt to make Tibet a Chinese province.[42]

In 1834, the Sikh Empire invaded and annexed Ladakh, a culturally Tibetan region that was an independent kingdom at the time. Seven years later, a Sikh army led by General Zorawar Singh invaded western Tibet from Ladakh, starting the Sino-Sikh War. A Qing-Tibetan army repelled the invaders but was in turn defeated when it chased the Sikhs into Ladakh. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Chushul between the Chinese and Sikh empires.[43]

Putuo Zongcheng Temple, a Buddhist temple complex in Chengde, Hebei, built between 1767 and 1771. The temple was modeled after the Potala Palace.

As the Qing dynasty weakened, its authority over Tibet also gradually declined, and by the mid-19th century, its influence was minuscule. Qing authority over Tibet had become more symbolic than real by the late 19th century,[44][45][46][47] although in the 1860s, the Tibetans still chose for reasons of their own to emphasize the empire's symbolic authority and make it seem substantial.[48]

In 1774, a Scottish nobleman, George Bogle, travelled to Shigatse to investigate prospects of trade for the East India Company. His efforts, while largely unsuccessful, established permanent contact between Tibet and the Western world.[49] However, in the 19th century, tensions between foreign powers and Tibet increased. The British Empire was expanding its territories in India into the Himalayas, while the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Russian Empire were both doing likewise in Central Asia.[citation needed]

In 1904, a British expedition to Tibet, spurred in part by a fear that Russia was extending its power into Tibet as part of the Great Game, was launched. Although the expedition initially set out with the stated purpose of resolving border disputes between Tibet and Sikkim, it quickly turned into a military invasion. The British expeditionary force, consisting of mostly Indian troops, quickly invaded and captured Lhasa, with the Dalai Lama fleeing to the countryside.[50] Afterwards, the leader of the expedition, Sir Francis Younghusband, negotiated the Convention Between Great Britain and Tibet with the Tibetans, which guaranteed the British great economic influence but ensured the region remained under Chinese control. The Qing imperial resident, known as the Amban, publicly repudiated the treaty, while the British government, eager for friendly relations with China, negotiated a new treaty two years later known as the Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet. The British agreed not to annex or interfere in Tibet in return for an indemnity from the Chinese government, while China agreed not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.[50]

In 1910, the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own under Zhao Erfeng to establish direct Manchu-Chinese rule and, in an imperial edict, deposed the Dalai Lama, who fled to British India. Zhao Erfeng defeated the Tibetan military conclusively and expelled the Dalai Lama's forces from the province. His actions were unpopular, and there was much animosity against him for his mistreatment of civilians and disregard for local culture.[citation needed]

Post-Qing period

Main article: Tibet (1912–1951)

Edmund Geer during the 1938–1939 German expedition to Tibet
Rogyapas, an outcast group, early 20th century. Their hereditary occupation included disposal of corpses and leather work.

After the Xinhai Revolution (1911–1912) toppled the Qing dynasty and the last Qing troops were escorted out of Tibet, the new Republic of China apologized for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama's title.[51] The Dalai Lama refused any Chinese title and declared himself ruler of an independent Tibet.[52] In 1913, Tibet and Mongolia concluded a treaty of mutual recognition.[53] For the next 36 years, the 13th Dalai Lama and the regents who succeeded him governed Tibet. During this time, Tibet fought Chinese warlords for control of the ethnically Tibetan areas in Xikang and Qinghai (parts of Kham and Amdo) along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.[54] In 1914, the Tibetan government signed the Simla Convention with Britain, which recognized Chinese suzerainty over Tibet in return for a border settlement. China refused to sign the convention and lost its suzerain rights.[55]

When in the 1930s and 1940s the regents displayed negligence in affairs, the Kuomintang Government of the Republic of China took advantage of this to expand its reach into the territory.[56] On December 20, 1941, Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-Shek noted in his diary that Tibet would be among the territories which he would demand as restitution for China following the conclusion of World War II.[57]

From 1950 to present

Main article: History of Tibet (1950–present)

A poster saying "Thank you India. 50 years in Exile." Manali, 2010.

Emerging with control over most of mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China annexed Tibet in 1950 and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned 14th Dalai Lama's government, affirming the People's Republic of China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy. Subsequently, on his journey into exile, the 14th Dalai Lama completely repudiated the agreement, which he has repeated on many occasions.[58][59] According to the CIA, the Chinese used the Dalai Lama to gain control of the military's training and actions.[60]

The Dalai Lama had a strong following as many people from Tibet looked at him not just as their political leader, but as their spiritual leader.[61] After the Dalai Lama's government fled to Dharamsala, India, during the 1959 Tibetan Rebellion, it established a rival government-in-exile. Afterwards, the Central People's Government in Beijing renounced the agreement and began implementation of the halted social and political reforms.[62] During the Great Leap Forward, between 200,000 and 1,000,000 Tibetans may have died[63] and approximately 6,000 monasteries were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution—destroying the vast majority of historic Tibetan architecture.[64]

In 1980, General Secretary and reformist Hu Yaobang visited Tibet and ushered in a period of social, political, and economic liberalization.[65] At the end of the decade, however, before the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, monks in the Drepung and Sera monasteries started protesting for independence. The government halted reforms and started an anti-separatist campaign.[65] Human rights organisations have been critical of the Beijing and Lhasa governments' approach to human rights in the region when cracking down on separatist convulsions that have occurred around monasteries and cities, most recently in the 2008 Tibetan unrest.

The central region of Tibet is now an autonomous region within China, the Tibet Autonomous Region. The Tibet Autonomous Region is a province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. It is governed by a People's Government, led by a chairman. In practice, however, the chairman is subordinate to the branch secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In 2010 it was reported that, as a matter of convention, the chairman had almost always been an ethnic Tibetan, while the party secretary had always been ethnically non-Tibetan.[66]


Main article: Geography of Tibet

Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas above 1600 m – topography.[67][68] Tibet is often called the "roof of the world".
Himalayas, on the southern rim of the Tibetan plateau

All of modern China, including Tibet, is considered a part of East Asia.[69] Historically, some European sources also considered parts of Tibet to lie in Central Asia. Tibet is west of the Central China plain. In China, Tibet is regarded as part of 西部 (Xībù), a term usually translated by Chinese media as "the Western section", meaning "Western China".

Mountains and rivers

View over Lhasa, 1993
Yarlung Tsangpo River

Tibet has some of the world's tallest mountains, with several of them making the top ten list. Mount Everest, located on the border with Nepal, is, at 8,848.86 metres (29,032 ft), the highest mountain on earth. Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau (mostly in present-day Qinghai Province). These include the Yangtze, Yellow River, Indus River, Mekong, Ganges, Salween and the Yarlung Tsangpo River (Brahmaputra River).[70] The Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River, is among the deepest and longest canyons in the world.

Tibet has been called the "Water Tower" of Asia, and China is investing heavily in water projects in Tibet.[71][72]

Yamdrok Lake

The Indus and Brahmaputra rivers originate from the vicinities of Lake Mapam Yumco in Western Tibet, near Mount Kailash. The mountain is a holy pilgrimage site for both Hindus and Tibetans. The Hindus consider the mountain to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The Tibetan name for Mount Kailash is Khang Rinpoche. Tibet has numerous high-altitude lakes referred to in Tibetan as tso or co. These include Qinghai Lake, Lake Manasarovar, Namtso, Pangong Tso, Yamdrok Lake, Siling Co, Lhamo La-tso, Lumajangdong Co, Lake Puma Yumco, Lake Paiku, Como Chamling, Lake Rakshastal, Dagze Co and Dong Co. The Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor) is the largest lake in the People's Republic of China.


The climate is severely dry nine months of the year, and average annual snowfall is only 46 cm (18 inches), due to the rain shadow effect. Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year but remain traversible all year round. Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, where bleak desolation is unrelieved by any vegetation bigger than a low bush, and where the wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain. The Indian monsoon exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Northern Tibet is subject to high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter.

Climate data for Lhasa (1986−2015 normals, extremes 1951−2022)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.5
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −7.4
Record low °C (°F) −16.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.6 1.2 2.1 5.4 9.0 14.0 19.4 19.9 14.6 4.1 0.6 0.4 91.3
Average relative humidity (%) 26 25 27 36 41 48 59 63 59 45 34 29 41
Mean monthly sunshine hours 250.9 231.2 253.2 248.8 280.4 260.7 227.0 214.3 232.7 280.3 267.1 257.2 3,003.8
Percent possible sunshine 78 72 66 65 66 61 53 54 62 80 84 82 67
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration,[73] all-time extreme temperature[74][75]
Source 2: China Meteorological Administration National Meteorological Information Center
Climate data for Leh (1951–1980)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.3
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −2.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −14.4
Record low °C (°F) −28.3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.5
Average rainy days 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.4 2.1 1.9 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 13.0
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 51 51 46 36 30 26 33 34 31 27 40 46 38
Source: India Meteorological Department[76][77]


Sus scrofa expanded from its origin in southeast Asia into the Plateau, acquiring and fixing adaptive alleles for the high-altitude environment.[78] The forests of Tibet are home to black bears, red pandas, musk deer, barking deer, and squirrels. Monkeys such as rhesus macaques and langurs live in the warmer forest zones. Tibetan antelopes, gazelles, and kiangs gaze on the grasslands of the Tibetan plateau. There are more than 500 bird species in Tibet. Because of the high altitude and harsh climate, there are few insects in Tibet.[79]

Snow leopards are hunted for their fur and the eggs of black-necked cranes have been collected as a delicacy food.


Basum Tso in Gongbo'gyamda County, eastern Tibet

Cultural Tibet consists of several regions. These include Amdo (A mdo) in the northeast, which is administratively part of the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, and Sichuan. Kham (Khams) in the southeast encompasses parts of western Sichuan, northern Yunnan, southern Qinghai, and the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region. Ü-Tsang (dBus gTsang) (Ü in the center, Tsang in the center-west, and Ngari (mNga' ris) in the far west) covered the central and western portion of Tibet Autonomous Region.[80]

Tibetan cultural influences extend to the neighboring states of Bhutan, Nepal, regions of India such as Sikkim, Ladakh, Lahaul, and Spiti, Northern Pakistan Baltistan or Balti-yul in addition to designated Tibetan autonomous areas in adjacent Chinese provinces.

Cities, towns and villages

Further information: List of populated places in the Tibet Autonomous Region

Looking across the square at Jokhang temple, Lhasa

There are over 800 settlements in Tibet. Lhasa is Tibet's traditional capital and the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region.[79] It contains two world heritage sites – the Potala Palace and Norbulingka, which were the residences of the Dalai Lama. Lhasa contains a number of significant temples and monasteries, including Jokhang and Ramoche Temple.

Shigatse is the second largest city in the Tibet AR, west of Lhasa. Gyantse and Qamdo are also amongst the largest.

Other cities and towns in cultural Tibet include Shiquanhe (Gar), Nagchu, Bamda, Rutog, Nyingchi, Nedong, Coqên, Barkam, Sagya, Gertse, Pelbar, Lhatse, and Tingri; in Sichuan, Kangding (Dartsedo); in Qinghai, Jyekundo (Yushu), Machen, and Golmud; in India, Tawang, Leh, and Gangtok, and in Pakistan, Skardu, Kharmang, and Khaplu.


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2021)

Main article: Economy of Tibet

The Tibetan yak is an integral part of Tibetan life.

The Tibetan economy is dominated by subsistence agriculture. Due to limited arable land, the primary occupation of the Tibetan Plateau is raising livestock, such as sheep, cattle, goats, camels, yaks, dzo, and horses.

The main crops grown are barley, wheat, buckwheat, rye, potatoes, and assorted fruits and vegetables. Tibet is ranked the lowest among China's 31 provinces[81] on the Human Development Index according to UN Development Programme data.[82] In recent years, due to increased interest in Tibetan Buddhism, tourism has become an increasingly important sector, and is actively promoted by the authorities.[83] Tourism brings in the most income from the sale of handicrafts. These include Tibetan hats, jewelry (silver and gold), wooden items, clothing, quilts, fabrics, Tibetan rugs and carpets. The Central People's Government exempts Tibet from all taxation and provides 90% of Tibet's government expenditures.[84][85][86][87] However, most of this investment goes to pay migrant workers who do not settle in Tibet and send much of their income home to other provinces.[88]

Pastoral nomads constitute about 40% of the ethnic Tibetan population.[89]

Forty percent of the rural cash income in the Tibet Autonomous Region is derived from the harvesting of the fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (formerly Cordyceps sinensis); contributing at least 1.8 billion yuan, (US$225 million) to the region's GDP.[90]

Tromzikhang market in Lhasa

The Qingzang railway linking the Tibet Autonomous Region to Qinghai Province was opened in 2006, but it was controversial.[91][92][93]

In January 2007, the Chinese government issued a report outlining the discovery of a large mineral deposit under the Tibetan Plateau.[94] The deposit has an estimated value of $128 billion and may double Chinese reserves of zinc, copper, and lead. The Chinese government sees this as a way to alleviate the nation's dependence on foreign mineral imports for its growing economy. However, critics worry that mining these vast resources will harm Tibet's fragile ecosystem and undermine Tibetan culture.[94]

On January 15, 2009, China announced the construction of Tibet's first expressway, the Lhasa Airport Expressway, a 37.9 km (23.5 mi) stretch of controlled-access highway in southwestern Lhasa. The project will cost 1.55 billion yuan (US$227 million).[95]

From January 18–20, 2010, a national conference on Tibet and areas inhabited by Tibetans in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai was held in China and a plan to improve development of the areas was announced. The conference was attended by General secretary Hu Jintao, Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Li Changchun, Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, He Guoqiang and Zhou Yongkang, all members of Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. The plan called for improvement of rural Tibetan income to national standards by 2020 and free education for all rural Tibetan children. China has invested 310 billion yuan (about 45.6 billion U.S. dollars) in Tibet since 2001.[96][better source needed]

Development zone

The State Council approved Tibet Lhasa Economic and Technological Development Zone as a state-level development zone in 2001. It is located in the western suburbs of Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region. It is 50 kilometres (31 miles) away from the Gonggar Airport, and 2 km (1.2 mi) away from Lhasa Railway Station and 2 km (1.2 mi) away from 318 national highway.

The zone has a planned area of 5.46 km2 (2.11 sq mi) and is divided into two zones. Zone A developed a land area of 2.51 km2 (0.97 sq mi) for construction purposes. It is a flat zone, and has the natural conditions for good drainage.[97]


See also: History of Tibet (1950–present) and Demographics of Tibet Autonomous Region

The Flag of Tibet, also known as the "Snow Lion flag" (gangs seng dar cha), was used by the de facto independent state of Tibet as the national flag. It continues to be used by the Tibetan government-in-exile and by supporters of the Tibetan independence movement.
Tibetan Lamanis, c. 1905
An elderly Tibetan woman in Lhasa
Tibetan Women Help Line supported initiative 'October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month'

Historically, the population of Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans and some other ethnic groups. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag, are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group residing in Tibet (excluding a disputed area with India) include Bai people, Blang, Bonan, Dongxiang, Han, Hui people, Lhoba, Lisu people, Miao, Mongols, Monguor (Tu people), Menba (Monpa), Mosuo, Nakhi, Qiang, Nu people, Pumi, Salar, and Yi people.

The proportion of the non-Tibetan population in Tibet is disputed. On the one hand, the Central Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama accuses China of actively swamping Tibet with migrants in order to alter Tibet's demographic makeup.[98] On the other hand, according to the 2010 Chinese census ethnic Tibetans comprise 90% of a total population of 3 million in the Tibet Autonomous Region.[99][better source needed]


Main article: Tibetan culture

Tibetan cultural zone


Main article: Religion in Tibet


Main article: Tibetan Buddhism

Monkhood in Tibet, Xigatse area, August 2005
The Phugtal Monastery in south-east Zanskar
Buddhist monks practicing debate in Drepung Monastery

Religion is extremely important to the Tibetans and has a strong influence over all aspects of their lives. Bön is the indigenous religion of Tibet, but has been almost eclipsed by Tibetan Buddhism, a distinctive form of Mahayana and Vajrayana, which was introduced into Tibet from the Sanskrit Buddhist tradition of northern India.[100] Tibetan Buddhism is practiced not only in Tibet but also in Mongolia, parts of northern India, the Buryat Republic, the Tuva Republic, and in the Republic of Kalmykia and some other parts of China. During China's Cultural Revolution, nearly all Tibet's monasteries were ransacked and destroyed by the Red Guards.[101][102][103] A few monasteries have begun to rebuild since the 1980s (with limited support from the Chinese government) and greater religious freedom has been granted – although it is still limited. Monks returned to monasteries across Tibet and monastic education resumed even though the number of monks imposed is strictly limited.[101][104][105] Before the 1950s, between 10 and 20% of males in Tibet were monks.[106]

Tibetan Buddhism has five main traditions (the suffix pa is comparable to "er" in English):

The Chinese government continued to pursue a strategy of forced assimilation and suppression of Tibetan Buddhism, as demonstrated by the laws designed to control the next reincarnation of the Dalai Lama and those of other Tibetan eminent lamas. Monks and nuns who refused to denounce the Dalai Lama have been expelled from their monasteries, imprisoned, and tortured.[108]

It was reported in June 2021 that amidst the 2020–2022 China–India skirmishes, the People's Liberation Army had been forming a new unit for Tibetans who would be taken to Buddhist monks for religious blessings after completing their training.[109]


See also: Catholic Church in Tibet

The first Christians documented to have reached Tibet were the Nestorians, of whom various remains and inscriptions have been found in Tibet. They were also present at the imperial camp of Möngke Khan at Shira Ordo, where they debated in 1256 with Karma Pakshi (1204/6-83), head of the Karma Kagyu order.[110][111] Desideri, who reached Lhasa in 1716, encountered Armenian and Russian merchants.[112]

Roman Catholic Jesuits and Capuchins arrived from Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Portuguese missionaries Jesuit Father António de Andrade and Brother Manuel Marques first reached the kingdom of Gelu in western Tibet in 1624 and was welcomed by the royal family who allowed them to build a church later on.[113][114] By 1627, there were about a hundred local converts in the Guge kingdom.[115] Later on, Christianity was introduced to Rudok, Ladakh and Tsang and was welcomed by the ruler of the Tsang kingdom, where Andrade and his fellows established a Jesuit outpost at Shigatse in 1626.[116]

In 1661 another Jesuit, Johann Grueber, crossed Tibet from Sining to Lhasa (where he spent a month), before heading on to Nepal.[117] He was followed by others who actually built a church in Lhasa. These included the Jesuit Father Ippolito Desideri, 1716–1721, who gained a deep knowledge of Tibetan culture, language and Buddhism, and various Capuchins in 1707–1711, 1716–1733 and 1741–1745,[118] Christianity was used by some Tibetan monarchs and their courts and the Karmapa sect lamas to counterbalance the influence of the Gelugpa sect in the 17th century until in 1745 when all the missionaries were expelled at the lama's insistence.[119][120][121][122][123][124]

In 1877, the Protestant James Cameron from the China Inland Mission walked from Chongqing to Batang in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan province, and "brought the Gospel to the Tibetan people." Beginning in the 20th century, in Dêqên Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, a large number of Lisu people and some Yi and Nu people converted to Christianity. Famous earlier missionaries include James O. Fraser, Alfred James Broomhall and Isobel Kuhn of the China Inland Mission, among others who were active in this area.[125][126]

Proselytising has been illegal in China since 1949. But as of 2013, many Christian missionaries were reported to be active in Tibet with the tacit approval of Chinese authorities, who view the missionaries as a counterforce to Tibetan Buddhism or as a boon to the local economy.[127]


Main article: Islam in Tibet

The Lhasa Great Mosque

Muslims have been living in Tibet since as early as the 8th or 9th century. In Tibetan cities, there are small communities of Muslims, known as Kachee (Kache), who trace their origin to immigrants from three main regions: Kashmir (Kachee Yul in ancient Tibetan), Ladakh and the Central Asian Turkic countries. Islamic influence in Tibet also came from Persia. A Muslim Sufi Syed Ali Hamdani preached to the people of Baltistan, then known as little Tibet. After 1959, a group of Tibetan Muslims made a case for Indian nationality based on their historic roots to Kashmir and the Indian government declared all Tibetan Muslims Indian citizens later on that year.[128] Other Muslim ethnic groups who have long inhabited Tibet include Hui, Salar, Dongxiang and Bonan. There is also a well established Chinese Muslim community (gya kachee), which traces its ancestry back to the Hui ethnic group of China.

Tibetan art

Main article: Tibetan art

Tibetan representations of art are intrinsically bound with Tibetan Buddhism and commonly depict deities or variations of Buddha in various forms from bronze Buddhist statues and shrines, to highly colorful thangka paintings and mandalas.[citation needed] Thangkas are Tibet's traditional cloth paintings. Rendered on cotton cloth with a thin rod at the top, they portray Buddhist deities or themes in color and detail.[79]


Main article: Tibetan culture § Architecture

Tibetan architecture contains Chinese and Indian influences, and reflects a deeply Buddhist approach. The Buddhist wheel, along with two dragons, can be seen on nearly every Gompa in Tibet. The design of the Tibetan Chörtens can vary, from roundish walls in Kham to squarish, four-sided walls in Ladakh.

The most distinctive feature of Tibetan architecture is that many of the houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing the south, and are often made out of a mixture of rocks, wood, cement and earth. Little fuel is available for heat or lighting, so flat roofs are built to conserve heat, and multiple windows are constructed to let in sunlight. Walls are usually sloped inwards at 10 degrees as a precaution against the frequent earthquakes in this mountainous area.

Standing at 117 metres (384 feet) in height and 360 metres (1,180 feet) in width, the Potala Palace is the most important example of Tibetan architecture. Formerly the residence of the Dalai Lama, it contains over one thousand rooms within thirteen stories, and houses portraits of the past Dalai Lamas and statues of the Buddha. It is divided between the outer White Palace, which serves as the administrative quarters, and the inner Red Quarters, which houses the assembly hall of the Lamas, chapels, 10,000 shrines, and a vast library of Buddhist scriptures. The Potala Palace is a World Heritage Site, as is Norbulingka, the former summer residence of the Dalai Lama.


Main article: Music of Tibet

The music of Tibet reflects the cultural heritage of the trans-Himalayan region, centered in Tibet but also known wherever ethnic Tibetan groups are found in India, Bhutan, Nepal and further abroad. First and foremost Tibetan music is religious music, reflecting the profound influence of Tibetan Buddhism on the culture.

Tibetan music often involves chanting in Tibetan or Sanskrit, as an integral part of the religion. These chants are complex, often recitations of sacred texts or in celebration of various festivals. Yang chanting, performed without metrical timing, is accompanied by resonant drums and low, sustained syllables. Other styles include those unique to the various schools of Tibetan Buddhism, such as the classical music of the popular Gelugpa school, and the romantic music of the Nyingmapa, Sakyapa and Kagyupa schools.[129]

Nangma dance music is especially popular in the karaoke bars of the urban center of Tibet, Lhasa. Another form of popular music is the classical gar style, which is performed at rituals and ceremonies. Lu are a type of songs that feature glottal vibrations and high pitches. There are also epic bards who sing of Gesar, who is a hero to ethnic Tibetans.


Main article: Tibetan festivals

The Monlam Prayer Festival

Tibet has various festivals, many for worshipping the Buddha,[130] that take place throughout the year. Losar is the Tibetan New Year Festival. Preparations for the festive event are manifested by special offerings to family shrine deities, painted doors with religious symbols, and other painstaking jobs done to prepare for the event. Tibetans eat Guthuk (barley noodle soup with filling) on New Year's Eve with their families. The Monlam Prayer Festival follows it in the first month of the Tibetan calendar, falling between the fourth and the eleventh days of the first Tibetan month. It involves dancing and participating in sports events, as well as sharing picnics. The event was established in 1049 by Tsong Khapa, the founder of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama's order.


Main article: Tibetan cuisine

See also: List of Tibetan dishes

Thukpa with Momo – Tibetan Style

The most important crop in Tibet is barley, and dough made from barley flour—called tsampa—is the staple food of Tibet. This is either rolled into noodles or made into steamed dumplings called momos. Meat dishes are likely to be yak, goat, or mutton, often dried, or cooked into a spicy stew with potatoes. Mustard seed is cultivated in Tibet, and therefore features heavily in its cuisine. Yak yogurt, butter and cheese are frequently eaten, and well-prepared yogurt is considered something of a prestige item. Butter tea is a very popular drink.


See also: Traditional games of Tibet

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2024)

See also



  1. ^ "Altitude sickness may hinder ethnic integration in the world's highest places". Princeton University. July 1, 2013. Archived from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  2. ^ Wittke, J.H. (February 24, 2010). "Geology of the Tibetan Plateau". Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  3. ^ US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "What is the highest point on Earth as measured from Earth's center?". Archived from the original on May 28, 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  4. ^ Shakabpa 2010, p. 177
  5. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn, C., Change, Conflict and Continuity among a Community of Nomadic Pastoralist: A Case Study from Western Tibet, 1950–1990, 1994: "What is Tibet? – Fact and Fancy", pp. 76–87
  6. ^ Clark, Gregory, "In fear of China", 1969, saying: ' Tibet, although enjoying independence at certain periods of its history, had never been recognized by any single foreign power as an independent state. The closest it has ever come to such recognition was the British formula of 1943: suzerainty, combined with autonomy and the right to enter into diplomatic relations. '
  7. ^ "Q&A: China and the Tibetans". BBC News. August 15, 2011. Archived from the original on July 16, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  8. ^ Lee, Peter (May 7, 2011). "Tibet's only hope lies within". The Asia Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. Robin [alias of a young Tibetan in Qinghai] described the region as a cauldron of tension. Tibetans still were infuriated by numerous arrests in the wake of the 2008 protests. But local Tibetans had not organized themselves. 'They are very angry at the Chinese government and the Chinese people,' Robin said. 'But they have no idea what to do. There is no leader. When a leader appears and somebody helps out they will all join.' We ... heard tale after tale of civil disobedience in outlying hamlets. In one village, Tibetans burned their Chinese flags and hoisted the banned Tibetan Snow Lion flag instead. Authorities ... detained nine villagers ... One nomad ... said 'After I die ... my sons and grandsons will remember. They will hate the government.'
  9. ^ "Regions and territories: Tibet". BBC News. December 11, 2010. Archived from the original on April 22, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2011.
  10. ^ Wong, Edward (February 18, 2009). "China Adds to Security Forces in Tibet Amid Calls for a Boycott". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 16, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  11. ^ "China: Tibetan Detainees at Serious Risk of Torture and Mistreatment". March 19, 2008. Archived from the original on March 7, 2023. Retrieved March 7, 2023.
  12. ^ "Bon". ReligionFacts. Archived from the original on May 9, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  13. ^ "2020年西藏自治区国民经济和社会发展统计公报". State Ethnic Affairs Commission. Archived from the original on March 20, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  14. ^ Beckwith (1987), pg. 7
  15. ^ Étienne de la Vaissière, "The Triple System of Orography in Ptolemy's Xinjiang", Exegisti Monumenta: Festschrif in Honour of Nicholas Sims-Williams, eds. Werner Sundermann, Almut Hintze & François de Blois (Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2009), 532.
  16. ^ Baxter, William H. (March 30, 2001). "An Etymological Dictionary of Common Chinese Characters". Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
  17. ^ Elliot Sperling. "Tubote, Tibet, and the Power of Naming". Tibetan Political Review. Archived from the original on March 28, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  18. ^ The word Tibet was used in the context of the first British mission to this country under George Bogle in 1774. See Markham, Clements R., ed. [1876] 1971. Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa. New Delhi: Manjushri Publishing House.
  19. ^ Behr, Wolfgang, 1994. "Stephan V. Beyer 'The Classical Tibetan Language' (book review)." Pp. 558–59 in Oriens 34, edited by R. Sellheim. Leiden: E.J. Brill. Archived from the original Archived March 26, 2023, at the Wayback Machine on October 16, 2015.
  20. ^ Kapstein 2006, pg. 19
  21. ^ Kapstein 2006, p. 22.
  22. ^ Essay towards a Dictionary, Tibetan and English. Prepared, with assistance of Bandé Sangs-rgyas Phuntshogs ... by Alexander Csoma de Kőrös, etc., Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1834 Archived March 26, 2023, at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ Jain, Arun Kumar (2009). Faith & Philosophy of Jainism. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7835-723-2. Archived from the original on April 14, 2023. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  24. ^ a b Zhao, M; Kong, QP; Wang, HW; Peng, MS; Xie, XD; Wang, WZ; Jiayang, Duan JG; Cai, MC; Zhao, SN; Cidanpingcuo, Tu YQ; Wu, SF; Yao, YG; Bandelt, HJ; Zhang, YP (2009). "Mitochondrial genome evidence reveals successful Late Paleolithic settlement on the Tibetan Plateau". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106 (50): 21230–21235. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10621230Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907844106. PMC 2795552. PMID 19955425.
  25. ^ Norbu 1989, pp. 127–128
  26. ^ Helmut Hoffman in McKay 2003 vol. 1, pp. 45–68
  27. ^ Karmay, Samten Gyaltsen (2005). The Treasury of Good Sayings: A Tibetan History of Bon. Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. pp. 66ff. ISBN 978-81-208-2943-5. Archived from the original on December 3, 2022. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
  28. ^ Haarh, Erik: Extract from "The Yar Lun Dynasty", in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 147; Richardson, Hugh: The Origin of the Tibetan Kingdom, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 159 (and list of kings p. 166-167).
  29. ^ Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2011). 'The First Tibetan Empire' in: China's Ancient Tea Horse Road. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B005DQV7Q2
  30. ^ Beckwith 1987, pg. 146
  31. ^ Marks, Thomas A. (1978). "Nanchao and Tibet in South-western China and Central Asia." The Tibet Journal. Vol. 3, No. 4. Winter 1978, pp. 13–16.
  32. ^ A Corpus of Early Tibetan Inscriptions. H. E. Richardson. Royal Asiatic Society (1985), pp. 106–43. ISBN 0-947593-00-4.
  33. ^ a b c Dawa Norbu. China's Tibet Policy Archived April 14, 2023, at the Wayback Machine, p. 139. Psychology Press.
  34. ^ Wylie. p.104: 'To counterbalance the political power of the lama, Khubilai appointed civil administrators at the Sa-skya to supervise the mongol regency.'
  35. ^ Rossabi 1983, p. 194
  36. ^ Norbu, Dawa (2001) p. 57
  37. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 142–143.
  38. ^ Wang Jiawei, "The Historical Status of China's Tibet", 2000, pp. 162–6.
  39. ^ Kychanov, E.I. and Melnichenko, B.I. Istoriya Tibeta s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei [History of Tibet since Ancient Times to Present]. Moscow: Russian Acad. Sci. Publ., p.89-92
  40. ^ Goldstein 1997, pg. 18
  41. ^ Goldstein 1997, pg. 19
  42. ^ Goldstein 1997, pg. 20
  43. ^ The Sino-Indian Border Disputes, by Alfred P. Rubin, The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1. (Jan. 1960), pp. 96–125.
  44. ^ Goldstein 1989, pg. 44
  45. ^ Goldstein 1997, pg. 22
  46. ^ Brunnert, H. S. and Hagelstrom, V. V. _Present Day Political Organization of China_, Shanghai, 1912. p. 467.
  47. ^ Stas Bekman: stas (at) "What was Tibet's status during China's Qing dynasty (1644–1912)?". Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  48. ^ The Cambridge History of China, vol. 10, p. 407.
  49. ^ Teltscher 2006, pg. 57
  50. ^ a b Smith 1996, pp. 154–6
  51. ^ Mayhew, Bradley and Michael Kohn. (2005). Tibet, p. 32. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74059-523-8.
  52. ^ Shakya 1999, pg. 5
  53. ^ "". Archived from the original on October 30, 2012.
  54. ^ Wang Jiawei, "The Historical Status of China's Tibet", 2000, p. 150.
  55. ^ Fisher, Margaret W.; Rose, Leo E.; Huttenback, Robert A. (1963), Himalayan Battleground: Sino-Indian Rivalry in Ladakh, Praeger, pp. 77–78 – via, By refusing to sign it, however, the Chinese lost an opportunity to become the acknowledged suzerain of Tibet. The Tibetans were therefore free to make their own agreement with the British.
  56. ^ Isabel Hilton (2001). The Search for the Panchen Lama. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-393-32167-8. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  57. ^ Mitter, Rana (2020). China's good war : how World War II is shaping a new nationalism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-674-98426-4. OCLC 1141442704. Archived from the original on April 2, 2023. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  58. ^ "The 17-Point Agreement" The full story as revealed by the Tibetans and Chinese who were involved Archived on September 28, 2011.
  59. ^ Dalai Lama, Freedom in Exile Harper San Francisco, 1991
  60. ^ "1.Chinese Communist Troops in Tibet, 2. Chinese Communist Program for Tibet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  61. ^ "Notes for DCI briefing of Senate Foreign Relations Committee on 28 April 1959" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  62. ^ Rossabi, Morris (2005). "An Overview of Sino-Tibetan Relations". Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers. University of Washington Press. p. 197.
  63. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – China : Tibetans". Minority Rights Group International. July 2008. Archived from the original on November 1, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  64. ^ Boyle, Kevin; Sheen, Juliet (2003). Freedom of religion and belief: a world report. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-15977-7.
  65. ^ a b Bank, David; Leyden, Peter (January 1990). "As Tibet Goes...". Mother Jones. Vol. 15, no. 1. ISSN 0362-8841.
  66. ^ "Leadership shake-up in China's Tibet: state media". France: France 24. Agence France-Presse. January 15, 2010. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  67. ^ National Geophysical Data Center, 1999. Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1. Hastings, D. and P.K. Dunbar. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA Archived February 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. doi:10.7289/V52R3PMS [access date: March 16, 2015]
  68. ^ Amante, C. and B.W. Eakins, 2009. ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA Archived June 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. doi:10.7289/V5C8276M [access date: March 18, 2015].
  69. ^ "plateaus". Archived from the original on April 1, 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2009.
  70. ^ "Circle of Blue, 8 May 2008 China, Tibet, and the strategic power of water". May 8, 2008. Archived from the original on July 2, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  71. ^ "The Water Tower Function of the Tibetan Autonomous Region". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  72. ^ "China to spend record amount on Tibetan water projects". August 16, 2011. Archived from the original on December 27, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  73. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  74. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  75. ^ "55591: Lhasa (China)". OGIMET. March 28, 2022. Archived from the original on March 29, 2022. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
  76. ^ "Leh Climatological Table Period: 1951–1980". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on February 25, 2018. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  77. ^ "Leh Climatological Table Period: 1951–1980". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  78. ^ Frantz, Laurent; Meijaard, Erik; Gongora, Jaime; Haile, James; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Larson, Greger (February 15, 2016). "The Evolution of Suidae". Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. 4 (1). Annual Reviews: 61–85. doi:10.1146/annurev-animal-021815-111155. ISSN 2165-8102. PMID 26526544.
  79. ^ a b c Heinrichs, Ann (1996). Enchantment of the World: Tibet. Children's Press. pp. 19–20, 62, 143. ISBN 0-516-20155-7.
  80. ^ Petech, L., China and Tibet in the Early XVIIIth Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, p51 & p98
  81. ^ Tsering, Tashi. "Globalization To Tibet" (PDF). Tibet Justice Center. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  82. ^ "Tibet Environmental Watch – Development". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  83. ^ "China TIBET Tourism Bureau". Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  84. ^ Grunfeld 1996, p. 224.
  85. ^ Xu Mingxu, "Intrugues and Devoutness", Brampton, p. 134, ISBN 1-896745-95-4
  86. ^ The 14th Dalai Lama affirmed that Tibetans within the TAR have never paid taxes to the Central People's Government, see Donnet, Pierre-Antoine, "Tibet mort ou vif", 1994, p104 [Taiwan edition], ISBN 957-13-1040-9
  87. ^ "Tibet's economy depends on Beijing". NPR News. August 26, 2002. Archived from the original on December 26, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2006.
  88. ^ Brown, Kerry (January 11, 2014). "How Xi Can Solve The Tibet Problem". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on January 11, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  89. ^ In pictures: Tibetan nomads Archived July 19, 2018, at the Wayback Machine BBC News
  90. ^ Daniel Winkler (November 2008). "Yartsa Gunbu (Cordyceps sinensis) and the Fungal Commodification of Tibet's Rural Economy". Economic Botany. 62 (3): 291–305. doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9038-3. S2CID 29381859.
  91. ^ "China opens world's highest railway". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. July 1, 2005. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  92. ^ "China completes railway to Tibet". BBC News. October 15, 2005. Archived from the original on August 23, 2006. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
  93. ^ "Dalai Lama Urges 'Wait And See' On Tibet Railway". Deutsche Presse Agentur. June 30, 2006. Archived from the original on May 22, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
  94. ^ a b "Valuable mineral deposits found along Tibet railroad route". New York Times. January 25, 2007. Archived from the original on July 24, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  95. ^ Peng, James (January 16, 2009). "China Says 'Sabotage' by Dalai Lama Supporters Set Back Tibet". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved February 7, 2009.
  96. ^ "China to achieve leapfrog development, lasting stability in Tibet" Archived January 27, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ "Lhasa Economic & Technology Development Zone". Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2010.
  98. ^ "Population Transfer Programmes". Central Tibetan Administration. 2003. Archived from the original on July 30, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  99. ^ "Tibet's population tops 3 million; 90% are Tibetans". Xinhua News Agency. May 4, 2011. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  100. ^ Conze, Edward (1993). A Short History of Buddhism. Oneworld. ISBN 978-1-85168-066-5.
  101. ^ a b Tibetan monks: A controlled life Archived February 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. March 20, 2008.
  102. ^ Tibet During the Cultural Revolution Pictures from a Tibetan People's Liberation Army's officer Archived copy at the Library of Congress (May 5, 2010).
  103. ^ The last of the Tibetans Los Angeles Times. March 26, 2008.
  104. ^ Gargan, Edward A. (June 14, 1987). "Tibet's Buddhist Monks Endure to Rebuild a Part of the Past". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 14, 2023.
  105. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 351, 352
  106. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. (2007). A History of Modern Tibet: Volume 2 The Calm before the Storm, 1951–1955. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  107. ^ Avalokitesvara, Chenrezig
  108. ^ "USCIRF 2020 Annual Report on International Religious Freedoms" (PDF). United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. April 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  109. ^ Rezaul H Laskar (June 22, 2021). "China raises new militias of Tibetan youth, deploys 1st batch in Chumbi Valley". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  110. ^ Kapstein 2006, pp. 31, 71, 113.
  111. ^ Stein 1972, pp. 36, 77–78.
  112. ^ Françoise Pommaret, Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda (2003). Lhasa in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas Archived March 28, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. BRILL. p. 159. ISBN 90-04-12866-2
  113. ^ Graham Sanderg, The Exploration of Tibet: History and Particulars (Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973), pp. 23–26; Thomas Holdich, Tibet, The Mysterious (London: Alston Rivers, 1906), p. 70.
  114. ^ Sir Edward Maclagan, The Jesuits and The Great Mogul (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne Ltd., 1932), pp. 344–345.
  115. ^ Lettera del P. Alano Dos Anjos al Provinciale di Goa, 10 Novembre 1627, quoted from Wu Kunming, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi (Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe, 1992), p. 163.
  116. ^ Extensively using Italian and Portuguese archival materials, Wu's work gives a detailed account of Cacella's activities in Tsang. See Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, esp. chapter 5.
  117. ^ Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet, and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa, pp. 295–302. Clements R. Markham. (1876). Reprint Cosmo Publications, New Delhi. 1989.
  118. ^ Stein 1972, p. 85.
  119. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin. "When Christianity and Lamaism Met: The Changing Fortunes of Early Western Missionaries in Tibet". Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  120. ^ "BBC News Country Profiles Timeline: Tibet". November 5, 2009. Archived from the original on March 11, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
  121. ^ Lettera del P. Antonio de Andrade. Giovanni de Oliveira. Alano Dos Anjos al Provinciale di Goa, 29 Agosto, 1627, quoted from Wu, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, p. 196; Maclagan, The Jesuits and The Great Mogul, pp. 347–348.
  122. ^ Cornelius Wessels, Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia, 1603–1721 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1924), pp. 80–85.
  123. ^ Maclagan, The Jesuits and The Great Mogul, pp. 349–352; Filippo De Filippi ed., An Account of Tibet, pp. 13–17.
  124. ^ Relação da Missão do Reino de Uçangue Cabeça dos do Potente, Escrita pello P. João Cabral da Comp. de Jesu. fol. 1, quoted from Wu, Zaoqi Chuanjiaoshi jin Zang Huodongshi, pp. 294–297; Wang Yonghong, "Luelun Tianzhujiao zai Xizang di Zaoqi Huodong", Xizang Yanjiu, 1989, No. 3, pp. 62–63.
  125. ^ "Yunnan Province of China Government Web". Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
  126. ^ Kapstein 2006, pp. 31, 206
  127. ^ Kaiman, Jonathan (February 21, 2013). "Going undercover, the evangelists taking Jesus to Tibet". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  128. ^ Masood Butt, 'Muslims of Tibet' Archived September 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Government of Tibet in exile, January/February 1994
  129. ^ Crossley-Holland, Peter. (1976). "The Ritual Music of Tibet." The Tibet Journal. Vol. 1, Nos. 3 & 4, Autumn 1976, pp. 47–53.
  130. ^ Chiley Chudza (2007). "A Brief Introduction of Tibet Seasonal Festival Folklore - CNKI" 西藏岁时节日民俗概述 [A Brief Introduction of Tibet Seasonal Festival Folklore]. Journal of Tibet University (Chinese Version) (in Chinese) (2): 26–32. doi:10.16249/j.cnki.1005-5738.2007.02.006.


Further reading

  • Allen, Charles (2004). Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5427-6.
  • Bell, Charles (1924). Tibet: Past & Present. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Dowman, Keith (1988). The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London, ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. New York, ISBN 0-14-019118-6.
  • Feigon, Lee. (1998). Demystifying Tibet: unlocking the secrets of the land of the snows. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-196-3. 1996 hardback, ISBN 1-56663-089-4
  • Gyatso, Palden (1997). The Autobiography of a Tibetan Monk. Grove Press. NY, NY. ISBN 0-8021-3574-9
  • Human Rights in China: China, Minority Exclusion, Marginalization and Rising Tensions, London, Minority Rights Group International, 2007
  • Le Sueur, Alec (2013). The Hotel on the Roof of the World – Five Years in Tibet. Chichester: Summersdale. ISBN 978-1-84024-199-0. Oakland: RDR Books. ISBN 978-1-57143-101-1
  • McKay, Alex (1997). Tibet and the British Raj: The Frontier Cadre 1904–1947. London: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-0627-5.
  • Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1968). Tibet: Its History, Religion and People. Reprint: Penguin Books (1987).
  • Pachen, Ani; Donnely, Adelaide (2000). Sorrow Mountain: The Journey of a Tibetan Warrior Nun. Kodansha America, Inc. ISBN 1-56836-294-3.
  • Petech, Luciano (1997). China and Tibet in the Early XVIIIth Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. T'oung Pao Monographies, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-03442-0.
  • Rabgey, Tashi; Sharlho, Tseten Wangchuk (2004). Sino-Tibetan Dialogue in the Post-Mao Era: Lessons and Prospectsv (PDF). Washington: East-West Center. ISBN 978-1-932728-22-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  • Samuel, Geoffrey (1993). Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies. Smithsonian ISBN 1-56098-231-4.
  • Schell, Orville (2000). Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas to Hollywood. Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-4381-0.
  • Smith, Warren W. (1996). History of Tibet: Nationalism and Self-determination. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3155-3.
  • Smith, Warren W. (2004). China's Policy on Tibetan Autonomy – EWC Working Papers No. 2 (PDF). Washington: East-West Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
  • Smith, Warren W. (2008). bChina's Tibet?: Autonomy or Assimilation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-3989-1.
  • Sperling, Elliot (2004). The Tibet-China Conflict: History and Polemics (PDF). Washington: East-West Center. ISBN 978-1-932728-13-2. ISSN 1547-1330. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008. – (online version)
  • Thurman, Robert (2002). Robert Thurman on Tibet. DVD. ASIN B00005Y722.
  • Van Walt van Praag, Michael C. (1987). The Status of Tibet: History, Rights, and Prospects in International Law. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Wilby, Sorrel (1988). Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1,900-mile (3,060 km) Trek Across the Rooftop of the World. Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-4608-2.
  • Wilson, Brandon (2004). Yak Butter Blues: A Tibetan Trek of Faith. Pilgrim's Tales. ISBN 0-9770536-6-0, ISBN 0-9770536-7-9. (second edition 2005)
  • Wang Jiawei (2000). The Historical Status of China's Tibet. ISBN 7-80113-304-8.
  • Tibet wasn't always ours, says Chinese scholar Archived May 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis, February 22, 2007
  • Wylie, Turrell V. "The First Mongol Conquest of Tibet Reinterpreted", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies (Volume 37, Number 1, June 1977)
  • Zenz, Adrian (2014). Tibetanness under Threat? Neo-Integrationism, Minority Education and Career Strategies in Qinghai, P.R. China. Global Oriental. ISBN 978-90-04-25796-2.