Tiksi
Тикси
Other transcription(s)
 • YakutТиксии
View of Tiksi
Location of Tiksi
Tiksi
Tiksi
Location of Tiksi
Tiksi
Tiksi
Tiksi (Sakha Republic)
Coordinates: 71°39′N 128°52′E / 71.650°N 128.867°E / 71.650; 128.867Coordinates: 71°39′N 128°52′E / 71.650°N 128.867°E / 71.650; 128.867
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSakha Republic[2]
Administrative districtBulunsky District[2]
SettlementSettlement of Tiksi[2]
Founded1933Edit this on Wikidata
Urban-type settlement status since1939[2]
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 • Total5,063
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
4,537 (−10.4%)
 • Capital ofBulunsky District[2], Settlement of Tiksi[2]
 • Municipal districtBulunsky Municipal District[5]
 • Urban settlementTiksi Urban Settlement[5]
 • Capital ofBulunsky Municipal District[6], Tiksi Urban Settlement[5]
Time zoneUTC+9 (MSK+6 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
678400, 678403, 678409
Dialing code(s)+7 41167
OKTMO ID98612151051
Tiksi population
2010 Census5,063[3]
2002 Census5,873[9]
1989 Census11,649[10]
1979 Census9,505[11]

Tiksi (Russian: Ти́кси, IPA: [ˈtʲiksʲɪ]; Yakut: Тиксии, Tiksii – lit. a moorage place) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Bulunsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, southeast of the delta of the Lena River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 5,063.[3] Tiksi is the northernmost port of Russia.

History

In August 1901, Russian Arctic ship Zarya headed across the Laptev Sea, searching for the legendary Sannikov Land but was soon blocked by floating drift ice in the New Siberian Islands. During 1902, the attempts to reach Sannikov Land continued while Zarya was trapped in fast ice. Leaving the ship, Russian Arctic explorer Baron Eduard Toll and three companions vanished forever in November 1902 while traveling away from Bennett Island towards the south on loose ice floes. Zarya was finally moored close to Brusneva Island in the Tiksi Bay, never to leave the place again. The remaining members of the expedition returned to St. Petersburg, while Captain Fyodor Matisen went to Yakutsk.

Modern Tiksi was founded in 1933;[citation needed] urban-type settlement status was granted to it in 1939.[2] During the Cold War, Tiksi saw military construction projects at Tiksi North and Tiksi West airfields. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Tiksi's population has declined markedly and many of its apartment blocks have been abandoned. Despite its rapid population decline, it remains the world's most northerly settlement with a population of over 5,000.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, the urban-type settlement of Tiksi[1] serves as the administrative center of Bulunsky District.[2] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Bulunsky District as the Settlement of Tiksi.[2] As a municipal division, the Settlement of Tiksi is incorporated within Bulunsky Municipal District as Tiksi Urban Settlement.[5]

Economy

Transportation

Tiksi serves as one of the principal ports for accessing the Laptev Sea. It is served by the Tiksi Airport, which was shut down by the Defense Ministry on October 1, 2012 except for helicopters.[12] Tiksi was connected only by helicopter flights and winter roads. The closure was harshly criticized by Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Following an agreement between the Defense Ministry and the Government of the Sakha Republic in April 2013, the airfield re-opened to passenger traffic in June 2013. In December 2013, President Vladimir Putin announced that the Tiksi airport would be "rehabilitated" along with others beyond the Arctic Circle.[13]

The Lena River is navigable in the summer months. There is infrequent passenger navigation from Yakutsk.

Climate

Tiksi has a tundra climate (Köppen ET). Winters are similar to those of the inland subarctic regions, and have frequent and occasionally heavy snowfalls. Temperature normals and extremes are slightly less severe than in the southerly interior, but the winter length is longer courtesy of the higher latitude. The very short summers are generally cooler than inland regions (although in 1991 a temperature as high as +34 °C (93 °F) was reported) and see rainfall on most days. The polar night lasts from November 19 to January 24, and the period with continuous daylight, the midnight sun, lasts a bit longer, from May 11 to August 3.

The growing season in Tiksi lasts for 74 days usually from around June 23 to September 5.[14]

Climate data for Tiksi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −7.6
(18.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
1.6
(34.9)
9.6
(49.3)
23.6
(74.5)
32.8
(91.0)
34.3
(93.7)
29.8
(85.6)
23.0
(73.4)
6.1
(43.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
−4.9
(23.2)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) −26.7
(−16.1)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
7.2
(45.0)
12.1
(53.8)
11.1
(52.0)
4.2
(39.6)
−7.9
(17.8)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−9.1
(15.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −30.2
(−22.4)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
3.2
(37.8)
7.6
(45.7)
7.7
(45.9)
1.6
(34.9)
−10.8
(12.6)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−12.8
(9.0)
Average low °C (°F) −33.8
(−28.8)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−9.7
(14.5)
0.1
(32.2)
3.9
(39.0)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−14.3
(6.3)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−31.9
(−25.4)
−16.4
(2.5)
Record low °C (°F) −48
(−54)
−50.5
(−58.9)
−47.2
(−53.0)
−46.9
(−52.4)
−32.2
(−26.0)
−15.8
(3.6)
−4
(25)
−4
(25)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−35
(−31)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−48.8
(−55.8)
−50.5
(−58.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.3)
22
(0.9)
16
(0.6)
10
(0.4)
13
(0.5)
27
(1.1)
45
(1.8)
50
(2.0)
27
(1.1)
16
(0.6)
21
(0.8)
42
(1.7)
321
(12.6)
Average rainy days 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 12 20 20 9 0.1 0.0 0.0 62.1
Average snowy days 23 21 21 19 20 5 0.2 0.3 10 25 23 23 190.5
Average relative humidity (%) 82 82 83 83 85 82 83 83 82 83 82 81 83
Mean monthly sunshine hours 0.0 40.0 176.9 276.5 199.0 238.2 246.4 132.6 86.8 52.9 4.0 0.0 1,453.3
Source 1: погода и климат[15]
Source 2: (sunshine only)[16]
Coastal temperature data for Tiksi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) -1.8
(28.76)
-1.8
(28.76)
-1.8
(28.76)
-1.8
(28.76)
-1.5
(29.3)
.4
(32.72)
3.9
(39.02)
7.6
(45.68)
4.8
(40.64)
0.7
(30.74)
-1.7
(28.94)
-1.8
(28.76)
0.317
(32.57)
Source:[17]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b According to Article 7 of the Law #77-I, lower-level administrative divisions with the status of a settlement have their administrative centers in an inhabited locality with the status of an urban-type settlement. According to the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic, Tiksi is the administrative center of the Settlement of Tiksi.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  3. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Law #173-Z #353-III
  6. ^ Law #172-Z #351-III
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  12. ^ Якутский аэропорт Тикси закрыт для приёма и отправки рейсов до декабря, причины не названы. Газета.ru (in Russian). Moscow. October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
  13. ^ "Putin orders Arctic military boost". BBC News. December 11, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  14. ^ "Average Weather in Tiksi, Russia, Year Round - Weather Spark".
  15. ^ Погода в Тикси
  16. ^ "Tiksi, Russia Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  17. ^ "Температура воды в Тикси сейчас. Средняя температура воды в море по месяцам. Ежедневные показатели за 2020-2021 год".

Sources

Further reading