2013 was the year in which the jihadist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL or ISIS) adopted that name. The group expanded its territorial control in Syria and began to do so in Iraq also, and committed acts of terrorism in both countries and in Turkey.

Timeline

References

  1. ^ "ISI Confirms That Jabhat Al-Nusra Is Its Extension in Syria, Declares 'Islamic State of Iraq And Al-Sham' As New Name of Merged Group". MEMRI. 8 April 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
  2. ^ "Key Free Syria Army rebel 'killed by Islamist group'". BBC News. 12 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Al-Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra Front is part of its network". Al Arabiya. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  4. ^ Gul Tuysuz; Raja Razek; Nick Paton Walsh (6 November 2013). "Al Qaeda-linked group strengthens hold in northern Syria". CNN. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  5. ^ "Death toll rises to 42 as explosions hit Turkish town on border with Syria". Hürriyet Daily News. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  6. ^ "Deadliest Terror Attack in Turkey's History Might Be Another Attempt to Derail Peace Talks? But Which One? Syria or PKK?". The Istanbulian. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  7. ^ Hacaoglu, Selcan; El Baltaji, Dana (12 May 2013). "Turkey Holds Nine Suspects in Deadly Attack Blamed on Syria". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 8 June 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  8. ^ Kodmani, Bassma; Legrand, Félix (14 October 2013). "Empowering the democratic resistance in Syria". Arab Reform Initiative.
  9. ^ Morris, Loveday; DeYoung, Karen (12 July 2013). "Al-Qaeda-affiliated gunmen kill Syrian rebel commander, rebels say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  10. ^ "Al Qaeda in Iraq Resurgent" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. September 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Al Qaeda says it freed 500 inmates in Iraq jail-break". Reuters. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Iraq:hundreds escape from Abu Ghraib jail". The Guardian. Associated Press. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  13. ^ a b Schreck, Adam (23 July 2013). "Abu Ghraib Prison Break: Al Qaeda in Iraq Claims Responsibility for Raid". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  14. ^ Lake, Eli (29 July 2013). "Al Qaeda in Iraq Abu Ghraib Jailbreak a Counterterrorism Nightmare". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  15. ^ Malas, Nour; Abushakra, Rima (6 August 2013). "Islamists Seize Airbase Near Aleppo". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 July 2014. Accessible via Google.
  16. ^ Luca, Ana Maria (11 November 2013). "Message from Ayman al-Zawahiri". NOW News. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  17. ^ Loyd, Anthony (20 September 2013). "Will I die today? Face to face with jihadists fuelled by hate". The Australian. Retrieved 16 July 2014. Accessible via Google.
  18. ^ Burch, Jonathon; Dziadosz, Alexander (19 September 2013). "Syrian rebels, Qaeda group clash near Turkish border crossing". Reuters. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  19. ^ Al-Qaeda group and FSA declare truce as Turkey keeps Syria border gate closed Hürriyet Daily News, 19 September 2013
  20. ^ "Syrian al-Qaeda prepares to launch attack in Turkey's big cities". Today's Zaman. 4 November 2013. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  21. ^ "Reyhanlı saldırısını El Kaide üstlendi" [Reyhanlı attack was by Al Qaeda]. Oda TV (in Turkish). 1 October 2013.
  22. ^ "Al-Qaeda Claims Responsibility for Reyhanlı". Aydınlık. 2 October 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  23. ^ "ISIL threatens Erdoğan with suicide bombings in Ankara, İstanbul". Today's Zaman. 30 September 2013. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  24. ^ "'El Kaide, Reyhanlı'yı üstlendi' iddiası" (in Turkish). CNN Türk. 1 October 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
  25. ^ "Battles rage around Damascus, jihadists slay rival rebel leader". The Daily Star. Beirut. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  26. ^ Surk, Barbara (10 December 2013). "Syrian army pounds rebels near Lebanon border". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  27. ^ "Al Qaeda Is Taking Over Whole Cities in Iraq - VICE Canada". Vice.com. Retrieved 16 October 2014.