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This is a record of notable programming languages, by decade.


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
1804 Jacquard machine Joseph Marie Jacquard none (unique language)
1879 Begriffsschrift Gottlob Frege none (unique language)
1943–45 Plankalkül (year of conceptualization) Konrad Zuse none (unique language)
1943–46 ENIAC coding system John von Neumann, John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert and Herman Goldstine after Alan Turing. The first programmers of ENIAC were Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Meltzer, Fran Bilas, and Ruth Lichterman. none (unique language)
1946 ENIAC Short Code Richard Clippinger and John von Neumann after Alan Turing none (unique language)
1947–52 ARC/Birkbeck Assembler Kathleen Booth ENIAC Short Code[1]
1948 Plankalkül (year of concept publication) Konrad Zuse none (unique language)
1949 EDSAC Initial Orders David Wheeler ENIAC coding system
1949 Short Code (originally known as Brief Code) John Mauchly and William F. Schmitt ENIAC Short Code
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
1950 Short Code (for UNIVAC I) William F. Schmitt Short Code
1951 Superplan Heinz Rutishauser Plankalkül
1951 ALGAE Edward A. Voorhees and Karl Balke none (unique language)
1951 Intermediate Programming Language Arthur Burks Short Code
1951 Boehm unnamed coding system Corrado Böhm CPC Coding scheme
1951 Klammerausdrücke Konrad Zuse Plankalkül
1951 Stanislaus (Notation) Fritz Bauer none (unique language)
1951 Sort Merge Generator Betty Holberton none (unique language)
1952 Short Code (for UNIVAC II) Albert B. Tonik,[2] J. R. Logan Short Code (for UNIVAC I)
1952 A-0 Grace Hopper Short Code
1952 Glennie Autocode Alick Glennie after Alan Turing CPC Coding scheme
1952 Operator programming Alexey Andreevich Lyapunov with the participation Kateryna Yushchenko MESM
1952 Editing Generator Milly Koss SORT/MERGE
1952 COMPOOL RAND/SDC none (unique language)
1953 Speedcoding John W. Backus none (unique language)
1953 READ/PRINT Don Harroff, James Fishman, George Ryckman none (unique language)
1954 Laning and Zierler system Laning, Zierler, Adams at MIT Project Whirlwind none (unique language)
1954 Mark I Autocode Tony Brooker Glennie Autocode
1954–55 FORTRAN (concept) Team led by John W. Backus at IBM Speedcoding
1954 ARITH-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC A-0
1954 MATH-MATIC Team led by Charles Katz A-0
1954 MATRIX MATH H G Kahrimanian none (unique language)
1954 IPL I (concept) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simon none (unique language)
1955 Address programming language Kateryna Yushchenko Operator programming – Alexey Andreevich Lyapunov & Kateryna Yushchenko & MESM
1955 FLOW-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC A-0
1955 BACAIC M. Grems and R. Porter
1955 Freiburger Code[3][4] University of Freiburg
1955–56 Sequentielle Formelübersetzung Fritz Bauer and Karl Samelson Boehm
1955–56 IT Team led by Alan Perlis Laning and Zierler
1958 IPL II (implementation) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simon IPL I
1956–58 LISP (concept) John McCarthy IPL
1957 GEORGE Charles Leonard Hamblin none (unique language)
1957 FORTRAN I (implementation) John W. Backus at IBM FORTRAN
1957–58 UNICODE Remington Rand UNIVAC MATH-MATIC
1957 COMIT (concept) Victor Yngve none (unique language)
1958 FORTRAN II Team led by John W. Backus at IBM FORTRAN I
1958 ALGOL 58 (IAL) ACM/GAMM FORTRAN, IT, Sequentielle Formelübersetzung
1958 IPL V Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simon IPL II
1959 APT Douglas T. Ross
1959 FACT Fletcher R. Jones, Roy Nutt, Robert L. Patrick none (unique language)
1959 COBOL (concept) The CODASYL Committee FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN, FACT
1959 JOVIAL Jules Schwartz at SDC ALGOL 58
1959 LISP (implementation) John McCarthy IPL
1959 MAD – Michigan Algorithm Decoder Bruce Arden, Bernard Galler, and Robert M. Graham ALGOL 58
1959 TRAC (concept) Calvin Mooers
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
1960 ALGOL 60 ALGOL 58
1960 COBOL 61 (implementation) The CODASYL Committee FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN
1961 COMIT (implementation) Victor Yngve none (unique language)
1961 GPSS Geoffrey Gordon, IBM none (unique language)
1962 APL (concept) Kenneth E. Iverson none (unique language)
1962 Simula (concept) Ole-Johan Dahl (mostly) ALGOL 60
1962 SNOBOL Ralph Griswold, et al. FORTRAN II, COMIT
1963 Combined Programming Language (CPL) (concept) Barron, Christopher Strachey, et al. ALGOL 60
1963 SNOBOL3 Griswold, et al. SNOBOL
1963 ALGOL 68 (concept) Adriaan van Wijngaarden, et al. ALGOL 60
1963 JOSS I Cliff Shaw, RAND ALGOL 58
1964 MIMIC H. E. Petersen, et al. MIDAS
1964 COWSEL Rod Burstall, Robin Popplestone CPL, LISP
1964 PL/I (concept) IBM ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1964 Basic Assembly Language IBM Assembly language
1964 BASIC John George Kemeny, Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College FORTRAN II, JOSS
1964 Mark-IV Informatics
1964 Speakeasy-2 Stanley Cohen at Argonne National Laboratory Speakeasy
1964 TRAC (implementation) Calvin Mooers
1964 P′′ Corrado Böhm none (unique language)
1964? IITRAN
1965 MAD/I (concept) University of Michigan MAD, ALGOL 60, PL/I
1965 Atlas Autocode Tony Brooker, Derrick Morris at Manchester University ALGOL 60, Autocode
1965 PL360 (concept) Niklaus Wirth ALGOL 60, ESPOL
1966 JOSS II Chuck Baker, RAND JOSS I
1966 ALGOL W Niklaus Wirth, C. A. R. Hoare ALGOL 60
1966 FORTRAN 66 John Backus and his team FORTRAN IV
1966 ISWIM (concept) Peter J. Landin LISP
1966 CORAL 66 I. F. Currie, M. Griffiths ALGOL 60
1966 APL (implementation)[5] Kenneth E. Iverson none (unique language)
1967 BCPL Martin Richards CPL
1967 MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital FORTRAN, TELCOMP
1967 Simula 67 (implementation) Ole-Johan Dahl, Bjørn Myhrhaug, Kristen Nygaard at Norsk Regnesentral ALGOL 60
1967 Interlisp D.G. Bobrow and D.L. Murphy Lisp
1967 EXAPT Herwart Opitz, Wilhelm Simon, Günter Spur, and Gottfried Stute at RWTH Aachen University and TU Berlin APT
1967 SNOBOL4 Ralph Griswold, et al. SNOBOL3
1967 XPL William M. McKeeman, et al. at University of California, Santa Cruz
J. J. Horning, et al. at Stanford University
1968 ALGOL 68 (UNESCO/IFIP standard) Adriaan van Wijngaarden, Barry J. Mailloux, John E. L. Peck and Cornelis H. A. Koster, et al. ALGOL 60
1968 POP-1 Rod Burstall, Robin Popplestone COWSEL
1968 Forth (concept) Moore
1968 Logo Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, Cynthia Solomon LISP
1968 MAPPER Unisys CRT RPS
1968 REFAL (implementation) Valentin Turchin none (unique language)
1968 TTM (implementation) Steven Caine and E. Kent Gordon, California Institute of Technology GAP, GPM
1968 PILOT John Amsden Starkweather, University of California, San Francisco Computest
1968 PL360 (implementation) Niklaus Wirth ALGOL 60, ESPOL
1968 PL/S (as Basic Systems Language) IBM Assembly language
1969 PL/I (implementation) IBM ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1969 B Ken Thompson, with contributions from Dennis Ritchie BCPL
1969 Polymorphic Programming Language (PPL) Thomas A. Standish at Harvard University
1969 SETL Jack Schwartz at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences ALGOL 60
1969 TUTOR Paul Tenczar & University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
1969 Edinburgh IMP Edinburgh University ALGOL 60, Autocode, Atlas Autocode
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
1970 Forth (implementation) Charles H. Moore
1970 POP-2 Robin Popplestone POP-1
1970 SAIL Dan Swinehart, Bob Sproull ALGOL 60
1970 Pascal Niklaus Wirth, Kathleen Jensen ALGOL 60, ALGOL W
1970 BLISS Wulf, Russell, Habermann at Carnegie Mellon University ALGOL
1971 KRL Daniel G. Bobrow at Xerox PARC, Terry Winograd at Stanford University KM, FRL (MIT)
1971 Compiler Description Language (CDL) Cornelis H.A. Koster at University of Nijmegen
1972 Smalltalk-72 Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, Dan Ingalls, Xerox PARC Simula 67
1972 PL/M Gary Kildall at Digital Research PL/I, ALGOL, XPL
1972 C Dennis Ritchie B, BCPL, ALGOL 68
1972 INTERCAL Don Woods, James M. Lyon none (unique language)
1972 Prolog Alain Colmerauer 2-level W-Grammar
1972 Structured Query language (SQL) IBM ALPHA, Quel (Ingres)
1972 SASL David Turner at University of St Andrews ISWIM
1973 COMAL Børge Christensen, Benedict Løfstedt Pascal, BASIC
1973 ML Robin Milner
1973 LIS Jean Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell Bull Pascal, Sue
1973 Speakeasy-3 Stanley Cohen, Steven Pieper at Argonne National Laboratory Speakeasy-2
1974 CLU Barbara Liskov ALGOL 60, Lisp, Simula
1974 GRASS Thomas A. DeFanti BASIC
1974 BASIC FOUR MAI BASIC Four Inc. Business BASIC
1974 PROSE modeling language CDC 6600 Cybernet Services SLANG, FORTRAN
1974 sed Lee E. McMahon of Bell Labs ed
1975 ABC Leo Geurts and Lambert Meertens SETL
1975 PROSE modeling language Time-Sharing Version CDC 6400 Cybernet KRONOS Services SLANG, FORTRAN
1975 Scheme Gerald Jay Sussman, Guy L. Steele Jr. LISP
1975 Altair BASIC Bill Gates, Paul Allen BASIC
1975 Modula Niklaus Wirth Pascal
1976 Smalltalk-76 Xerox PARC Smalltalk-72
1976 Mesa Xerox PARC ALGOL
1976 Ratfor Brian Kernighan C, FORTRAN
1976 S John Chambers at Bell Labs APL, PPL, Scheme
1976 SAS SAS Institute
1976 Integer BASIC Steve Wozniak BASIC
1977 FP John Backus none (unique language)
1977 Bourne Shell (sh) Stephen R. Bourne none (unique language)
1977 Commodore BASIC Jack Tramiel BASIC
1977 IDL David Stern of Research Systems Inc Fortran
1977 Standard MUMPS MUMPS
1977 Icon (concept) Ralph Griswold SNOBOL
1977 Euclid Butler Lampson at Xerox PARC, Ric Holt and James Cordy at University of Toronto
1977 Applesoft BASIC Marc McDonald and Ric Weiland BASIC
1978 RAPT Pat Ambler and Robin Popplestone APT
1978 C shell Bill Joy C
1978 HAL/S designed by Intermetrics for NASA XPL
1978 Applesoft II BASIC Marc McDonald and Ric Weiland Applesoft BASIC
1978? MATLAB Cleve Moler at the University of New Mexico Fortran
1978? SMALL Nevil Brownlee at the University of Auckland Algol60
1978 VisiCalc Dan Bricklin, Bob Frankston marketed by VisiCorp none (unique language)
1979 TI BASIC (TI 99/4A) Texas Instruments BASIC
1979 Modula-2 Niklaus Wirth Modula, Mesa
1979 REXX Mike Cowlishaw at IBM PL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2
1979 AWK Alfred Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, Brian Kernighan C, SNOBOL
1979 Icon (implementation) Ralph Griswold SNOBOL
1979 Vulcan dBase-II Wayne Ratliff none (unique language)
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
1980 Ada 80 (MIL-STD-1815) Jean Ichbiah at CII Honeywell Bull ALGOL 68, Green
1980 C with classes Bjarne Stroustrup[6] C, Simula 67
1980 Applesoft III Apple Computer Applesoft II BASIC
1980 Apple III Microsoft BASIC Microsoft Microsoft BASIC
1980–81 CBASIC Gordon Eubanks BASIC, Compiler Systems, Digital Research
1980 Smalltalk-80 Adele Goldberg at Xerox PARC Smalltalk-76
1981 TI Extended BASIC Texas Instruments TI BASIC (TI 99/4A)
1981 BBC BASIC Acorn Computers, Sophie Wilson BASIC
1981 IBM BASICA Microsoft BASIC
1982? Speakeasy-IV Stanley Cohen, et al. at Speakeasy Computing Corporation Speakeasy-3
1982? Draco Chris Gray Pascal, C, ALGOL 68
1982 PostScript Warnock InterPress
1982 Turing Ric Holt and James Cordy, at University of Toronto Euclid
1983 GW-BASIC Microsoft IBM BASICA
1983 Turbo Pascal Hejlsberg at Borland Pascal
1983 Ada 83 (ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A) Jean Ichbiah at Alsys Ada 80, Green
1983 Objective-C Brad Cox Smalltalk, C
1983 C++[7] Bjarne Stroustrup C with Classes
1983 True BASIC John George Kemeny, Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College BASIC
1983 occam David May EPL
1983 KornShell (ksh) David Korn sh
1983 Clascal Apple Computer Pascal
1984 CLIPPER Nantucket dBase
1984 Common Lisp Guy L. Steele, Jr. and many others LISP
1984 Coq INRIA
1984 RPL Hewlett-Packard Forth, Lisp
1984 Standard ML ML
1984 Redcode Alexander Dewdney and D.G. Jones
1984 OPL Psion BASIC
1985 PARADOX Borland dBase
1985 QuickBASIC Microsoft BASIC
1986 Clarion Bruce Barrington
1986 CorVision Cortex INFORM
1986 Eiffel Bertrand Meyer Simula 67, Ada
1986 GFA BASIC Frank Ostrowski BASIC
1986 Informix-4GL Informix
1986 LabVIEW National Instruments
1986 Miranda David Turner at University of Kent SASL
1986 Object Pascal Apple Computer Pascal
1986 Erlang Joe Armstrong and others in Ericsson PLEX, Prolog
1987 Ada ISO 8652:1987 ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A unchanged Ada 83
1987 Self (concept) Sun Microsystems Inc. Smalltalk
1987 occam 2 David May and INMOS occam
1987 HyperTalk Apple Computer none (unique language)
1987 Clean Software Technology Research Group of Radboud University Nijmegen none (unique language)
1987 Perl Larry Wall C, sed, awk, sh
1987 Oberon Niklaus Wirth Modula-2
1987 Turbo Basic Robert 'Bob' Zale BASIC/Z
1988 Mathematica (Wolfram Language) Wolfram Research none (unique language)
1988 Octave MATLAB
1988 Tcl John Ousterhout Awk, Lisp
1988 STOS BASIC François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos BASIC
1988 Actor Charles Duff, the Whitewater Group Forth, Smalltalk
1988 Object REXX Simon C. Nash REXX, Smalltalk
1988 SPARK Bernard A. Carré Ada
1988 A+ Arthur Whitney APL, A
1988 Hamilton C shell Nicole Hamilton C shell
1988–1989 C90 C90 ISO/IEC 9899:1990 C
1989 Turbo Pascal OOP Anders Hejlsberg at Borland Turbo Pascal, Object Pascal
1989 Modula-3 Cardeli, et al. DEC and Olivetti Modula-2
1989 PowerBASIC Robert 'Bob' Zale Turbo Basic
1989 VisSim Peter Darnell, Visual Solutions
1989 LPC Lars Pensjö
1989 Bash Brian Fox Bourne shell, C shell, KornShell
1989 Magik Arthur Chance, of Smallworld Systems Ltd Smalltalk
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
1990 Sather Steve Omohundro Eiffel
1990 AMOS BASIC François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos STOS BASIC
1990 AMPL Robert Fourer, David Gay and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories
1990 Object Oberon H Mössenböck, J Templ, R Griesemer Oberon
1990 J Kenneth E. Iverson, Roger Hui at Iverson Software APL, FP
1990 Haskell Miranda, Clean
1990 EuLisp Common Lisp, Scheme
1990 Z shell (zsh) Paul Falstad at Princeton University ksh
1990 SKILL T. J. Barnes at Cadence Design Systems Franz Lisp
1991 GNU E David J. DeWitt, Michael J. Carey C++
1991 Oberon-2 Hanspeter Mössenböck, Niklaus Wirth Object Oberon
1991 Oz Gert Smolka and his students Prolog
1991 Q Albert Gräf
1991 Python Guido van Rossum Perl, ABC, C
1991 Visual Basic Alan Cooper, sold to Microsoft QuickBASIC
1992 Borland Pascal Turbo Pascal OOP
1992 Dylan Many people at Apple Computer Common Lisp, Scheme
1992 S-Lang John E. Davis PostScript
1993? Self (implementation) Sun Microsystems Smalltalk
1993 Amiga E Wouter van Oortmerssen DEX, C, Modula-2
1993 Brainfuck Urban Müller P'′
1993 LiveCode Transcript HyperTalk
1993 AppleScript Apple Computer HyperTalk
1993 K Arthur Whitney APL, Lisp
1993 Lua Roberto Ierusalimschy et al. at Tecgraf, PUC-Rio Scheme, SNOBOL, Modula, CLU, C++
1993 R Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka S
1993 ZPL Chamberlain et al. at University of Washington C
1993 NewtonScript Walter Smith Self, Dylan
1993 Euphoria Robert Craig SNOBOL, AWK, ABC, Icon, Python
1994 Claire Yves Caseau Smalltalk, SETL, OPS5, Lisp, ML, C, LORE, LAURE
1994 ANSI Common Lisp Common Lisp
1994 Pike Fredrik Hübinette et al. at Linköping University LPC, C, μLPC
1994 ANS Forth Elizabeth Rather, et al. Forth
1995 Ada 95 S. Tucker Taft, et al. at Intermetrics Ada 83
1995 Borland Delphi Anders Hejlsberg at Borland Borland Pascal
1995 ColdFusion (CFML) Allaire
1995 Java James Gosling at Sun Microsystems C, Simula 67, C++, Smalltalk, Ada 83, Objective-C, Mesa
1995 LiveScript Brendan Eich at Netscape Self, C, Scheme
1995 Mercury Zoltan Somogyi at University of Melbourne Prolog, Hope, Haskell
1995 PHP Rasmus Lerdorf Perl
1995 Ruby Yukihiro Matsumoto Smalltalk, Perl
1995 JavaScript Brendan Eich at Netscape LiveScript
1995 Racket Matthew Flatt at Rice University Scheme, Lisp
1996 CSS Håkon Wium Lie and Bert Bos SGML
1996 Curl David Kranz, Steve Ward, Chris Terman at MIT Lisp, C++, Tcl/Tk, TeX, HTML
1996 Lasso Blue World Communications
1996 Perl Data Language (PDL) Karl Glazebrook, Jarle Brinchmann, Tuomas Lukka, and Christian Soeller APL, Perl
1996 VBScript Microsoft Visual Basic
1996 OCaml INRIA Caml Light, Standard ML
1996 NetRexx Mike Cowlishaw REXX
1997 Component Pascal Oberon Microsystems Oberon-2
1997 E Mark S. Miller Joule, Original-E
1997 Pico Free University of Brussels Scheme
1997 Squeak Alan Kay, et al. at Apple Computer Smalltalk-80, Self
1997 ECMAScript ECMA TC39-TG1 JavaScript
1997 F-Script Philippe Mougin Smalltalk, APL, Objective-C
1997 ISLISP ISO Standard ISLISP Common Lisp
1997 Tea Jorge Nunes Java, Scheme, Tcl
1997 REBOL Carl Sassenrath, Rebol Technologies Self, Forth, Lisp, Logo
1998 Logtalk Paulo Moura (then at University of Coimbra) Prolog
1998 ActionScript Gary Grossman ECMAScript
1998 Standard C++ ANSI/ISO Standard C++ C++, Standard C, C
1998 M2001 Ronald E. Prather, Trinity University (Texas) none (unique language)
1998 PureBasic Frederic Laboureur, Fantaisie Software
1998 UnrealScript Tim Sweeney at Epic Games C++, Java
1998 XSLT (+ XPath) W3C, James Clark DSSSL
1998 Xojo (REALbasic at the time) Xojo, Andrew Barry Visual Basic
1999 C99 C99 ISO/IEC 9899:1999 C90
1999 Gambas Benoît Minisini Visual Basic, Java
1999 Game Maker Language (GML) Mark Overmars Game Maker
1999 Harbour Antonio Linares dBase, Clipper
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
2000 Join Java G Stewart von Itzstein Java
2000 DarkBASIC The Game Creators
2000 C# Anders Hejlsberg, Microsoft (ECMA) C, C++, Java, Delphi, Modula-2
2001 Joy Manfred von Thun FP, Forth
2001 AspectJ Gregor Kiczales, Xerox PARC Java, Common Lisp
2001 D Walter Bright, Digital Mars C, C++, C#, Java
2001 Processing Casey Reas and Benjamin Fry Java, C, C++[8]
2001 Visual Basic .NET Microsoft Visual Basic
2001 GDScript (GDS) Juan Linietsky, Ariel Manzur (OKAM Studio) Godot
2001 Shakespeare Programming Language Jon Åslund, Karl Hasselström
2002 Io Steve Dekorte Self, NewtonScript, Lua
2002 Gosu Guidewire Software GScript
2002 Scratch Mitchel Resnick, John Maloney, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Tammy Stern, Amon Millner, Jay Silver, and Brian Silverman Logo, Smalltalk, Squeak, E-Toys, HyperCard, AgentSheets, StarLogo, Tweak
2003 Nix Eelco Dolstra Miranda/SASL, Haskell
2003 Nemerle University of Wrocław C#, ML, MetaHaskell
2003 Factor Slava Pestov Joy, Forth, Lisp
2003 Scala Martin Odersky Smalltalk, Java, Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml
2003 C++03 C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2003 C++, Standard C, C
2003 Squirrel Alberto Demichelis Lua
2003 Boo Rodrigo B. de Oliveira Python, C#
2004 Subtext Jonathan Edwards none (unique language)
2004 Alma-0 Krzysztof Apt, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica none (unique language)
2004 FreeBASIC Andre Victor QBasic
2004 Groovy James Strachan Java
2004 Little b Aneil Mallavarapu, Harvard Medical School, Department of Systems Biology Lisp
2005 Fantom Brian Frank, Andy Frank C#, Scala, Ruby, Erlang
2005 F# Don Syme, Microsoft Research OCaml, C#, Haskell
2005 Haxe Nicolas Cannasse ActionScript, OCaml, Java
2005 Oxygene RemObjects Software Object Pascal, C#
2005 PWCT Mahmoud Samir Fayed none (unique language)
2005 Seed7 Thomas Mertes none (unique language)
2005 fish Thomas Mertes none (unique language)
2006 Cobra Chuck Esterbrook Python, C#, Eiffel, Objective-C
2006 Windows PowerShell Microsoft C#, ksh, Perl, CL, DCL, SQL
2006 OptimJ Ateji Java
2006 Fortress Guy L. Steele Jr. Scala, ML, Haskell
2006 Vala GNOME C#
2007 Ada 2005 Ada Rapporteur Group Ada 95
2007 Agda Ulf Norell Coq, Epigram, Haskell
2007 QB64 Galleon, QB64Team QBasic
2007 Clojure Rich Hickey Lisp, ML, Haskell, Erlang
2007 LOLCODE Adam Lindsay none (unique language)
2007 Oberon-07 Wirth Oberon
2007 Swift (parallel scripting language) University of Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory
2008 Nim Andreas Rumpf Python, Lisp, Object Pascal
2008 Genie Jamie McCracken Python, Boo, D, Object Pascal
2008 Pure Albert Gräf Q
2009 Chapel Brad Chamberlain, Cray Inc. HPF, ZPL
2009 Go Google C, Oberon, Limbo, Smalltalk
2009 CoffeeScript Jeremy Ashkenas JavaScript, Ruby, Python, Haskell
2009 Idris Edwin Brady Haskell, Agda, Coq
2009 Parasail S. Tucker Taft, AdaCore Modula, Ada, Pascal, ML
2009 Whiley David J. Pearce Java, C, Python
2009 Dafny K. Rustan M. Leino Java, Spec#
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
2010 Rust Graydon Hoare, Mozilla Alef, C++, Camlp4, Erlang, Hermes, Limbo, Napier, Napier88, Newsqueak, NIL, Sather, Standard ML
2011 C11 C11 ISO/IEC 9899:2011 C99
2011 Ceylon Gavin King, Red Hat Java
2011 Dart Google Java, JavaScript, CoffeeScript, Go
2011 C++11 C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2011 C++, Standard C, C
2011 Kotlin JetBrains Java, Scala, Groovy, C#, Gosu
2011 Red Nenad Rakočević Rebol, Scala, Lua
2011 Opa MLstate OCaml, Erlang, JavaScript
2012 Elixir José Valim Erlang, Ruby, Clojure
2012 Elm Evan Czaplicki Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml, F#
2012 TypeScript Anders Hejlsberg, Microsoft JavaScript, CoffeeScript
2012 Julia Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral Shah, Alan Edelman, MIT MATLAB, Lisp, C, Fortran, Mathematica[9] (strictly its Wolfram Language), Python, Perl, R, Ruby, Lua[10]
2012 P Vivek Gupta, Ethan Jackson, Shaz Qadeer, Sriram Rajamani, Microsoft
2012 Ada 2012 ARA and Ada Europe (ISO/IEC 8652:2012) Ada 2005, ISO/IEC 8652:1995/Amd 1:2007
2013 P4 P4 Language Consortium (
2013 PureScript Phil Freeman Haskell
2013 Hopscotch Hopscotch Technologies Scratch
2013 Cuneiform Jörgen Brandt Swift (the parallel scripting language)
2013 Lean Microsoft Research ML, Coq, Haskell, Agda
2013 Hy Paul Tagliamonte Python, Lisp, Clojure
2014 Crystal Ary Borenszweig, Manas Technology Solutions Ruby, C, Rust, Go, C#, Python
2014 Hack Facebook PHP
2014 Swift Apple Inc. Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU
2014 C++14 C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2014 C++, Standard C, C
2014 Solidity Gavin Wood, Ethereum JavaScript, C++, Python
2015 Raku Larry Wall, The Rakudo Team Perl, Haskell, Python, Ruby
2015 Zig Andrew Kelley C, C++, LLVM IR, Go, Rust
2016 Reason Jordan Walke JavaScript, OCaml[11]
2016 Ring Mahmoud Samir Fayed Lua, Python, Ruby, C, C#, BASIC, QML, xBase, Supernova[12]
2017 C++17 C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2017 C++, Standard C, C
2017 Ballerina WSO2, Open Source[13] Java, Javascript, Go, Rust, C#
2017 Q# Microsoft C#, F#, Python
2018 C17 ISO/IEC 9899:2018 C11
2018 Fortran 2018 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG5 N2150:2018 Fortran 2008
2019 Bosque Mark Marron, Microsoft JavaScript, TypeScript, ML
2019 V (Vlang) Alexander Medvednikov Go, Kotlin, Oberon, Python, Rust, Swift
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)


Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)
2020 C++20 C++ ISO/IEC 14882:2020 C++, Standard C, C
2021 Microsoft Power Fx Vijay Mital, Robin Abraham, Shon Katzenberger, Darryl Rubin, Microsoft Excel formulas
2022 Carbon Google C++, Rust
2023 Mojo Modular Python
2023 Fortran 2023 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22 2023 Fortran 2018
2024 Gleam Louis Pilfold, Go, Rust, Erlang, Elixir, C++
Year Name Chief developer, company Predecessor(s)

See also


  1. ^ "ARC - Assembler for Booth". Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  2. ^ UNIVAC conference, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. 171-page transcript of oral history with computer pioneers, including Albert B. Tonik, involved with the Univac computer, held on 17–18 May 1990.
  3. ^ "Der Freiburger Code auf der Zuse" (in German). Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  4. ^ H. Zuse. "Z22". Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  5. ^ Smillie, Keith. "Kenneth E. Iverson – A.M. Turing Award Winner". ACM.
  6. ^ "Tour : Standard C++".
  7. ^ Stroustrup, Bjarne (7 March 2010). "Bjarne Stroustrup's FAQ: When was C++ invented?". Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  8. ^ "Arduino Reference".
  9. ^ "Why We Created Julia". Julia website. February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  10. ^ "Introduction". The Julia Manual. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016.
  11. ^ Simple, fast & type safe code that leverages the JavaScript & OCaml ecosystems: facebook/reason, Facebook, 24 March 2019, retrieved 24 March 2019
  12. ^ Ring Team (23 October 2021). "The Ring programming language and other languages".
  13. ^ "GitHub - ballerina-platform/ballerina-lang: The Ballerina Programming Language". 25 November 2019 – via GitHub.