Tiphiid wasps
Tiphia sp.
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfamily: Tiphioidea
Family: Tiphiidae
Subfamilies

Brachycistidinae
Tiphiinae

The Tiphiidae (also known as the tiphiid wasps) are a family of large, solitary wasps whose larvae are parasitoids of various beetle larvae, especially those in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Until recently, this family contained several additional subfamilies, but multiple studies have independently confirmed that these comprise a separate lineage, and are now classified in the family Thynnidae.[1][2]

The females of some Brachycistidinae are wingless, and hunt ground-dwelling (fossorial) beetle larvae. The prey is paralysed with the female's sting, and an egg is lain on it so the wasp larva has a ready supply of food. As some of the ground-dwelling scarab species attacked by tiphiids are pests, some of these wasps are considered beneficial as biological control agents.

Taxonomy

Tiphiid genera are classified as follows: [3][4][5]

The male of a species of Brachycistidinae photographed in Nevada
The male of a species of Brachycistidinae photographed in Nevada
A female Tiphia femorata photographed in Italy
A female Tiphia femorata photographed in Italy

Subfamily Brachycistidinae

Subfamily Tiphiinae

Examples

References

  1. ^ Pilgrim, E.; von Dohlen, C.; Pitts, J. (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies". Zoologica Scripta. 37 (5): 539–560. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00340.x. S2CID 85905070.
  2. ^ Johnson, B.R.; et al. (2013). "Phylogenomics Resolves Evolutionary Relationships among Ants, Bees, and Wasps". Current Biology. 23 (20): 2058–2062. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050. PMID 24094856.
  3. ^ "Taxonomy for Tiphiinae". insectoid.info. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Tiphiinae". Fauna Europaea. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  5. ^ Lynn S. Kimsey; Marius Wasbauer (2006). "Phylogeny and Checklist of the Nocturnal Tiphiids of the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae: Brachycistidinae)". Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 15 (1): 9–25.

Further reading