TotalEnergies SE
FormerlyTotal SE
Company typePublic
IndustryEnergy: Oil and gas
PredecessorOmnium Français des Petroles
Elf Aquitaine
Petrofina Edit this on Wikidata
Founded28 March 1924; 100 years ago (1924-03-28)
SuccessorArkema Edit this on Wikidata
HeadquartersTour Total, Courbevoie, France
Area served
Key people
Patrick Pouyanné (chairman & CEO)
ServicesFuel stations
RevenueDecrease US$237.1 billion (2023)[1]
Decrease US$33.43 billion (2023)[1]
Increase US$21.51 billion (2023)[1]
Total assetsDecrease US$283.6 billion (2023)[1]
Total equityIncrease US$119.4 billion (2023)[1]
Number of employees
102,579 (2023)[1]

TotalEnergies SE is a French multinational integrated energy and petroleum company founded in 1924 and is one of the seven supermajor oil companies. Its businesses cover the entire oil and gas chain, from crude oil and natural gas exploration and production to power generation, transportation, refining, petroleum product marketing, and international crude oil and product trading. TotalEnergies is also a large-scale chemicals manufacturer.

TotalEnergies has its head office in the Tour Total in La Défense district in Courbevoie, west of Paris. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[2] In the 2023 Forbes Global 2000, TotalEnergies was ranked as the 21st largest public company in the world.[3]


1924–1985: Compagnie française des pétroles

The company was founded after World War I, when petrol was seen as vital in case of a new war with Germany. The then-French President Raymond Poincaré rejected the idea of forming a partnership with Royal Dutch Shell in favour of creating an entirely French oil company. At Poincaré's behest, Col. Ernest Mercier, with the support of 90 banks and companies, founded Total in 1924, as the Compagnie française des pétroles (CFP) (in English, the French Petroleum Company).

As per the agreement reached during the San Remo conference of 1920, the French state received the 25% share held by Deutsche Bank in the Turkish Petroleum Company (TPC) as part of the compensation for war damages caused by Germany during World War I. The French government's stake in TPC was transferred to CFP,[4] and the Red Line agreement in 1928 rearranged the shareholding of CFP in TPC (later renamed the Iraq Petroleum Company in 1929) to 23.75%.[5] The company from the start was regarded as a private sector company in view of its listing on the Paris Stock Exchange in 1929.

During the 1930s, the company was engaged in exploration and production, primarily from the Middle East. Its first refinery began operating in Normandy in 1933. After World War II, CFP engaged in oil exploration in Venezuela, Canada, and Africa while pursuing energy sources within France. Exploration in Algeria, then a French colony, began in 1946, with Algeria becoming a leading source of oil in the 1950s.[6]

In 1954, CFP introduced its downstream product – Total brand of gasoline in Africa and Europe.[6][7]

Total entered the United States in 1971 by acquiring Leonard Petroleum of Alma, Michigan and several Standard Oil of Indiana stations in Metro Detroit.[8]

In 1980, Total Petroleum (North America) Ltd., a company controlled 50% by CFP, bought the American refining and marketing assets of Vickers Petroleum as part of a sell-off by Esmark of its energy holdings. This purchase gave Total refining capacity, transportation, and a network of 350 service stations in 20 states.[9][10][11]

1985–2003: Total CFP and rebranding to Total

Total Plaza, the headquarters of the subsidiary Total Petrochemicals USA, in Downtown Houston

Total's leadership had been aware of the deleterious effects of global warming since at least 1971; The company nevertheless openly denied the findings of climate science until the 1990s; Total also pursued a number of strategies to cover up the threat and contribution to the climate crisis.[12]

The company renamed itself Total CFP in 1985, to build on the popularity of its gasoline brand.[7] Later in 1991, the name was changed to Total, when it became a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1991, the French government held more than 30 percent of the company's stock but by 1996 had reduced its stake to less than 1 percent.[7][13] In the period between 1990 and 1994, foreign ownership of the firm increased from 23 percent to 44 percent.

Meanwhile, Total continued to expand its retail presence in North America under several brand names. In 1989, Denver, Colorado–based Total Petroleum, Total CFP's North American unit, purchased 125 Road Runner retail locations from Texarkana, Texas–based Truman Arnold Companies.[14] By 1993, Total Petroleum was operating 2,600 retail stores under the Vickers, Apco, Road Runner, and Total brands. That year, the company began remodeling and rebranding all of its North American gasoline and convenience stores to use the Total name.[15] Four years later, Total sold its North American refining and retail operations to Ultramar Diamond Shamrock for $400 million in stock and $414 million in assumed debt.[16]

After Total's takeover of Petrofina of Belgium in 1999, it became known as Total Fina. Afterwards, it also acquired Elf Aquitaine. First named TotalFinaElf after the merger in 2000, its name reverted to Total in 2003. During that rebranding, the globe logo was unveiled.[17]

Big Oil companies[a]
Company Revenue (USD)[18] Profit (USD) Brands
ExxonMobil $286 billion $23 billion Mobil
Imperial Oil
Shell plc $273 billion $20 billion Jiffy Lube
TotalEnergies $185 billion $16 billion Elf Aquitaine
BP $164 billion $7.6 billion Amoco
Aral AG
Chevron $163 billion $16 billion Texaco
Marathon $141 billion $10 billion ARCO[19]
Phillips 66 $115 billion $1.3 billion 76
Valero $108 billion $0.9 billion
Eni $77 billion $5.8 billion
ConocoPhillips $48.3 billion $8.1 billion


In 2003, Total signed for a 30% stake in the gas exploration venture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) – South Rub' al-Khali joint venture along with Royal Dutch Shell and Saudi Aramco.[20] The stake was later bought out by its partners.

In 2006, Saudi Aramco and Total signed a memorandum of understanding to develop the Jubail Refinery and Petrochemical project in Saudi Arabia which targeted 400,000 barrels per day (bpd). Two years later, the two companies officially established a joint venture called Saudi Aramco Total Refining and Petrochemical Company (SATORP)- in which a 62.5% stake was held by Saudi Aramco and the balance 37.5% held by Total.[21][22]

Total withdrew in 2006 from all Iranian development work because of United Nations concerns that resulted in sanctions over possible weaponization of the Nuclear program of Iran.[23]

During the 2009–2010 Iraqi oil services contracts tender, a consortium led by CNPC (37.5%), which also included TOTAL (18.75%) and Petronas (18.75%) was awarded a production contract for the "Halfaya field" in the south of Iraq, which contains an estimated 4.1 billion barrels (650,000,000 m3) of oil.[24][25]

In 2010 Total and Erg merged their respective subsidiaries Total Italia and Erg Petroli, forming TotalErg, 49% controlled by the French group and 51% by the Italian one.[26][27][28][29][30]

As of 2010, Total had over 96,000 employees and operated in more than 130 countries.[31] In 2010, Total announced plans to pull out of the forecourt market in the United Kingdom.[32]

In 2012, Total announced it was selling its 20% stake and operating mandate in its Nigerian offshore project to a unit of China Petrochemical Corp for $2.5 billion.[33]

In 2013, Total started the operation at Kashagan with North Caspian Operating Company.[34] It is the biggest discovery of oil reserves since 1968. In 2013, Total increased its stake in Novatek to 16.96%.[35][36] In 2013, Total and its joint venture partner agreed to buy Chevron Corporation's retail distribution business in Pakistan for an undisclosed amount.[37]

In January 2014, Total became the first major oil and gas firm to acquire exploration rights for shale gas in the UK after it bought a 40 percent interest in two licences in the Gainsborough Trough area of northern England for $48 million.[38] In July 2014, the company disclosed it was in talks to sell its LPG distribution business in France to Pennsylvania-based UGI Corporation for €450 million ($615 million).[39]

On 20 October 2014, at 23:57 MST, a Dassault Falcon 50 business jet heading to Paris caught fire and exploded during takeoff after colliding with a snow removal vehicle in Vnukovo International Airport, killing four, including three crew members and CEO of Total S.A. Christophe de Margerie on board. Alcohol presence was confirmed in the blood of the driver of the vehicle on the ground.[citation needed] Patrick Pouyanne, who was Total's Refining Chief at that time, was appointed as CEO,[40] and also as chairman of Total in 2015.

In 2015, Total unveiled plans to cut 180 jobs in the United Kingdom, reduce refinery capacity and slow spending on North Sea fields after it fell to a $5.7bn final-quarter loss. The company said it would also sell off $5bn worth of assets worldwide and cut exploration costs by 30%.[41]

In 2016, Total signed a $224M deal to buy Lampiris, the third-largest Belgian supplier of gas and renewable energy to expand its gas and power distribution activities.[42]

In 2016, Total bought French battery maker Saft Groupe S.A. in a $1.1bn deal, to boost its development in renewable energy and electricity businesses.[43]

In 2016, Total agreed to acquire $2.2-billion in upstream and downstream assets from Petrobras as part of the firms' strategic alliance announced earlier that year.[44] For Total, these new partnerships with Petrobras reinforce Total's position in Brazil through access to new fields in the Santos Basin while entering the gas value chain.

Between 2013 and 2017, Total organized the ARGOS Challenge, a robotic competition with the aim to develop robots for their oil and gas production sites.[45] It was won by an Austrian-German team using a variant of the taurob tracker robot.[46]

In 2017, Total signed a deal for a total amount of $4.8b with Iran for the development and production of South Pars, the world's largest gas field.[47][48] The deal was the first foreign investment in Iran since in the 2015 sanctions over Iran's nuclear weaponisation were lifted by the JCPOA.[48]

In 2017, Total announced the acquisition of Maersk Oil for $7.45 billion in a share and debt transaction.[49] This deal positioned Total as the second operator in the North Sea.[50]

In 2017, Total signed an agreement with EREN Renewable energy to acquire an interest of 23% in EREN RE for an amount of €237.5 million.[51]

In November 2017, Total announced the launch on the French residential market of Total Spring, a natural gas and green power offering that is 10% cheaper than regulated tariffs. Total is thus pursuing its strategy of downstream integration in the gas and power value chain in Europe.[52]

On 10 January 2018 TotalErg was acquired by Gruppo API,[53][54] with the exception of the Special Fluids division, acquired by the newly formed Total Italia.[55]

In 2018, Total officially withdrew from the Iranian South Pars gas field because of sanctions pressure from the US.[56]

In 2019, Total announced the sale of a 30% stake in the Trapil pipeline network to crude oil storage operator Pisto SAS for €260 million.[57] Later that year, Total signed deals to transfer 30% and 28.33% of its assets in Namibia's Block 2913B and Block 2912 respectively to QatarEnergy. The company will also transfer 40% of its existing 25% interests in the Orinduik and Kanuku blocks of Guyana and 25% interest in Blocks L11A, L11B, and L12 of Kenya to QatarEnergy.[58]

In July 2020 the company changed its name from Total SA to Total SE as part of registration as a European company.[59]

In 2020, the company announced its intention to cut 500 voluntary jobs in France.[60]

In 2021, Total left the American Petroleum Institute lobby, due to differences in the common vision of how to tackle the fight against climate change.[61][62]

In 2021, Total said that it had registered an income of $3 billion for the period of January–March, which is close to the levels registered before the pandemic.[63]

2021–present: Rebranding to TotalEnergies

In 2021, the company announced a name change to TotalEnergies as an intended illustration of its investments in the production of green electricity.[64][65] At the Ordinary and Extraordinary Shareholders’ Meeting in May of that year, shareholders approved the name change to TotalEnergies.[66]

In 2022, TotalEnergies announced it would end all operations in Myanmar, citing rampant human rights abuses and deteriorating rule of law since the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état and has also called for international sanctions targeting the oil and gas sector in the country, which is one of the main sources of revenue for Myanmar's government.[67]

As of 11 March 2022, Total was one of the only Western oil companies to continue operating in Russia after the Russian Invasion of Ukraine.[68][69]

In June 2022, TotalEnergies signed a partnership with QatarEnergy for the worlds largest LNG expansion project, the North Field East (NFE). Holding the largest stake, 6.25%, TotalEnergies will hold the equivalent of one of the four trains.[70] In September 2022, an additional agreement was signed to include the North Field South (NFS) which is the second phase of the NFE. This gave TotalEnergies a stake of 9.375% of the 25% stakes available to international companies.[71][72]

On 30 March 2023, Total sold a shipment of LNG which it sourced from UAE to CNOOC on the Shanghai Petroleum and Natural Gas Exchange. It was reportedly the first trade to be settled in the renminbi (Chinese yuan) currency on the SHPGX.[73][74]

In July 2023, Iraq signed a $27 billion energy agreement with TotalEnergies to develop the country’s energy sector and boost output of oil, gas and renewables.[75] Additionally, Indian Oil Corp, has signed liquefied natural gas (LNG) import deals with ADNOC LNG and TotalEnergies in the same month.[76]

In October 2023, TotalEnergies sold its Canadian operations to Suncor Energy for C$1.47 billion($1.07 billion).[77] TotalEnergies has agreed to buy liquefied natural gas from Qatar for 27 years, cementing the European nation’s commitment to fossil fuels beyond 2050.[78]

In 2023, Total invested $300 million in a renewable energy joint venture with Adani Green Energy. The joint venture's portfolio capacity is 1,050 MW - 300 MW of operating capacity, 500 MW of solar projects under construction and 250 MW of projects under development, as well as solar and wind power projects in India.[79] At the end of January 2024, TotalEnergies reached an agreement with OMV to purchase a 50% stake in its joint venture in Malaysia (SapuraOMV) for $903 million. The deal includes the repayment of a $350 million loan from OMV to the joint venture.[80]

On 21 February 2024, TotalEnergies and Airbus entered a strategic partnership to meet emission-reduction goals through the use of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF). TotalEnergies will provide more than 50% of Airbus’ European fuel requirements. Compared to fossil fuels, SAF can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 90%.[81][82]

TotalEnergies and QatarEnergy entered an agreement on 6 March 2024 to purchase participating interests in South Africa’s Orange Basin offshore oil field. Under the agreement, TotalEnergies will have the exclusive right to operate its wells in Block 3B/4B with a 33% interest holding, while QatarEnergy will receive a 24% interest in the same block.[83][84]

In 22 April 2024, OmanLNG and TotalEnergies signed a deal in which OmanLNG will provide 800,000 metric tons of liquified natural gas.[85]


See also: Subsidiaries and affiliates of TotalEnergies

Business trends

The key trends of TotalEnergies are (as at the financial year ending December 31):[86][87]

Year Revenue
(US$ bn)
Net income
(US$ bn)
(US$ bn)
2011 228 16.8 224 96,104
2012 249 14.6 235 97,126
2013 235 11.5 237 98,799
2014 212 4.2 229 100,307
2015 143 5.0 224 96,019
2016 127 6.1 230 102,168
2017 149 8.6 242 98,277
2018 184 11.4 256 104,460
2019 176 11.2 273 107,776
2020 119 –7.2 266 105,476
2021 184 16.0 293 101,309
2022 263 20.5 303 101,279
2023 237 21.3 283 101,279

Business segments

Headquarters of Total Cambodia in Phnom Penh (Cambodia)

In 2016, Total set up a new organization to achieve its ambition to become a responsible energy major.[88] It is composed of the following segments: Exploration & Production;[89] Gas, Renewables & Power; Refining & Chemicals; Trading & Shipping; Marketing & Services; and Total Global Services.

In 2016 Total created two new corporate divisions: People & Social Responsibility (Human Resources; Health, Safety & Environment; the Security Division; and a new Civil Society Engagement Division) and Strategy & Innovation (Strategy & Climate Division, responsible for ensuring that strategy incorporates the 2 °C global warming scenario, Public Affairs, Audit, Research & Development, the Chief Digital Officer and the Senior Vice President Technology).[88]

Head office

A total filling station in Wetherby, West Yorkshire

The company's headquarters is in the Tour Total in the La Défense district in Courbevoie, France, near Paris.[90][91] The building was originally constructed between 1983 and 1985 for Elf Aquitaine; Total SA acquired the building after its merger with Elf in 2000.[91]


In May 2014, the company shelved its Joslyn North oil sands project in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada indefinitely, citing concerns about operating costs. An estimated $11 billion has been spent on the project, in which Total is the largest shareholder with 38.5%. Suncor Energy holds 36.75%, Occidental Petroleum owns 15% and Japan's Inpex has a 10% interest.[92]

Total is involved in 23 projects of exploration and production[93] in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Russia.


In 1937, Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), 23.75 percent owned by Total,[94] signed an oil concession agreement with the Sultan of Muscat. IPC offered financial support to raise an armed force that would assist the Sultan in occupying the interior region of Oman, an area that geologists believed to be rich in oil. This led to the 1954 outbreak of Jebel Akhdar War in Oman that lasted for more than 5 years.[95]

Total has been a significant investor in the Iranian energy sector since 1990.[96] In 2017, Total and the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) signed a contract for the development and production of South Pars, the world's largest gas field. The project will have a production capacity of 2 billion cubic feet per day. The produced gas will supply the Iranian domestic market starting in 2021.[47]

During the European Union's sanctions against the military dictatorship Myanmar, Total is able to operate the Yadana natural gas pipeline from Burma to Thailand. Total is currently the subject of a lawsuit in French and Belgian courts for the condoning and use of the country's civilian slavery to construct the pipeline. The documentary 'Total Denial' shows the background of this project.[97] The NGO Burma Campaign UK is currently[when?] campaigning against this project.


In 2011, Total agreed to buy 60% of photovoltaics company SunPower for US$1.38 billion.[98] By the 2013 annual reporting date, Total owned 64.65%.

In 2016, Total agreed to purchase French battery maker Saft Groupe S.A. for 1.1 billion euros.[99]

In 2016, Total signed a $224M deal to buy Lampiris, the third-largest Belgian supplier of gas and renewable energy to expand its gas and power distribution activities.[100]

In December 2016, Total acquired about 23% of Tellurian for an amount of 207 million dollars, to develop an integrated gas project.[101]

In 2017, Total announced it would buy Maersk Oil from A.P. Moller-Maersk in a deal expected to close in the first quarter of 2018.[102]

In 2018, Total announced it was buying 74% of the French electricity and gas provider Direct Énergie from their main stockholders, for 1.4 billion euros.[103]

In 2022, Total announced it had added 4GW to its renewable energy portfolio through the acquisition of the Austin-based company, Core Solar.[104] The following month, Total entered an agreement with GIP to acquire a 50% stake in Clearway, one of the largest renewable energy owners in the United States.[105] As part of the transaction, GIP took a 50% minus one share stake in SunPower.[106]

In October 2023, TotalEnergies announced it was purchasing Quadra, a Germany based clean energy aggregator, for an undisclosed amount.[107]

In 2023, TotalEnergies acquired three gas-fired power plants with a total capacity of 1.5 GW in Texas from TexGen for $635 million.[108]

Western Sahara oil exploration

In 2001, Total signed a contract for oil-reconnaissance in areas offshore Western Sahara (near Dakhla), with the Moroccan "Office National de Recherches et d’Exploitations Petrolières" (ONAREP). In 2002, Hans Corell (the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs) stated in a letter to the president of the Security Council that whenever the contracts are only for exploration they're not illegal, but if further exploration or exploitation are against the interests and wishes of the people of Western Sahara, they would be in violation of the principles of international law.[109] Finally, Total decided to not renew their license off Western Sahara.[110]

Energy Deal with ADNOC

In a move to cope with the 2021-2022 global energy crisis, which started with the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic and aggravated with Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, France’s TotalEnergies and UAE’s ADNOC signed a strategic deal to partner on energy projects “for cooperation in the area of energy supplies”.

The deal was secured on the second day of the UAE leader Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al-Nahyan’s visit to Paris in 2022. The visit marked the UAE president’s first overseas state visit since assuming the post earlier that year.

The deal was aimed at identifying and targeting potential joint investment projects in the UAE, France, and elsewhere in the sectors of renewables, hydrogen, and nuclear energy, as told by the French government in one of its statements. According to French President Emmanuel Macron’s aides, France had been eager to secure diesel supply from the UAE.[111]

The deal also received criticism from human rights groups that persisted Macron not to give the-then “crown prince a pass on the UAE’s atrocious human rights record”, as per the statement published by Human Rights Watch on its website.[112]


Environmental and safety records

In 1999, the Total SA company was fined €375,000 for the MV Erika oil spill that stretched 400 kilometers from La Rochelle to the western tip of Brittany. The company was only fined that amount because they were only partially liable because Total SA did not own the ship. The plaintiffs had sought more than $1.5 billion in damages. More than 100 groups and local governments joined in the suit. The Total company was fined just over $298,000. The majority of the money will go to the French government, several environmental groups, and various regional governments. The Total SA company was also fined $550,000 for the amount of marine pollution that came from it. After the oil spill they tried to restore their image and have opened a sea turtle conservation project in Masirah in recent years.[citation needed]

Prior to the verdict in which Total was found guilty one of the counterparts in the incident, Malta Maritime Authority (MMA), was not to be tried for having any hand in the incident. In 2005, Total submitted a report to the Paris courts which stated that Total had gathered a group of experts which stated the tanker was corroded and that Total was responsible for it. The courts sought a second expert reviewing this information, which was turned down.[113]

In 2001, the AZF chemical plant exploded in Toulouse, France, while belonging to the Grande Paroisse branch of Total.[citation needed]

In 2008, Total was required to pay €192 million in compensation to victims of the pollution caused by the sinking of the ship Erika. This was in addition to the €200 million that Total spent to help clean up the spill. The company appealed twice against the verdict, losing both times.

In 2016, Total was ranked as the second-best of 92 oil, gas, and mining companies on indigenous rights in the Arctic.[114] According to the CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017, the company was one of the top 100 companies producing carbon emissions globally, responsible for .9% of global emissions from 1998 to 2015.[115] In 2021, Total was ranked as the 2nd most environmentally responsible company out of 120 oil, gas, and mining companies involved in resource extraction north of the Arctic Circle in the Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index (AERI).[116]

According to a 2021 study, Total personnel were aware about the role that their products played in global warming as early as 1971, as well as throughout the 1980s. Despite this awareness, the company promoted doubt regarding the science of global warming by the late 1980s, and ultimately settled on a position in the late 1990s of publicly accepting climate science, while still promoting doubt and trying to delay climate action.[117]


Total has been accused of bribery on multiple occasions.

Total is being implicated in a bribe commission scandal which is currently[when?] emerging in Malta. It has emerged that Total had told Maltese agents that it would not be interested in doing business with them unless their team included George Farrugia, who is under investigation in the procurement scandal. George Farrugia has recently been given a presidential pardon in exchange for information about this scandal. Enemalta, Malta's energy supplier, swiftly barred Total and its agents, Trafigura from bidding and tenders. An investigation is currently underway and three people have been arraigned.[118][citation needed]

On 16 December 2008, the managing director of the Italian division of Total, Lionel Levha, and ten other executives were arrested by the public Prosecutor's office of Potenza, Italy, for a corruption charge of €15 million to undertake the oilfield in Basilicata on contract. Also arrested was the local deputy of Partito Democratico Salvatore Margiotta and an Italian entrepreneur.[119][120]

In 2010, Total was accused of bribing Iraqi officials during former president Saddam Hussein's regime to secure oil supplies. A United Nations report later revealed that Iraqi officials had received bribes from oil companies to secure contracts worth over $10bn.[121] On 26 February 2016, the Paris Court of Appeals considered Total guilty and ordered the company to pay a fine of €750,000 for corrupting Iraqi civil servants. The court's ruling overturns an earlier acquittal in the case.

In 2013, a case was settled that concerned charges that Total bribed an Iranian official with $60 million, which they documented as a "consulting charge," and which unfairly gave them access to Iran's Sirri A and Sirri E oil and gas fields. The bribery gave them a competitive advantage, earning them an estimated $150 million in profits. The Securities Exchange Commission and the Department of Justice settled the charges, expecting Total to pay $398 million.[122]

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine which began on February 24, many international, particularly Western companies pulled out of Russia. On March 1, TotalEnergies announced it "will no longer provide capital for new projects in Russia" but has retained ownership of its 19.4% stake in privately owned Novatek, 20% stake in the Yamal project and 10% stake in Arctic LNG 2.[123] This has led to criticism as insufficient, particularly given complete divestment of other major Western energy companies, and the European Union announcement of becoming more energy independent from Russia.[124][125][126] Similarly in August 2022, an investigation by Global Witness showed that a Siberian gas field part-owned by TotalEnergies has been supplying a refinery, which is producing jet fuel for Russian warplanes. This contradicts Total´s claims that this was unrelated to Russian military operations in Ukraine.[127]


In December 2022, the NGOs Friends of the Earth, Survie and four Ugandan NGOs sent the oil group Total to court and accused it of violating the law on the duty of vigilance of large French companies in terms of human rights and environment.[128] The Tilenga Project, which TotalEnergies is undertaking in conjunction with China National Offshore Oil Corporation consists of drilling for oil in the Murchison Falls National Park, a habitat for diverse species of birds and animals.[129] The project also involves building a pipeline from the site in land-locked Uganda to Tanga in Tanzania. Critics of the project are concerned that, since the proposed pipeline passes through Lake Victoria and close to a number of wildlife areas in Tanzania and Kenya, oil spills could threaten the lake and could have adverse effects on the wildlife, some of which is endangered, in various national parks.[130]

Automobile and motorcycle OEM partnerships

TotalEnergies is an official recommended fuel and lubricants for all prominent Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance members, including Renault (shared with BP), Nissan (shared with ExxonMobil), Infiniti, Dacia, Alpine and Datsun, Kia, three Stellantis marques (Citroën, Peugeot and DS), Honda (including Acura, shared with BP and ExxonMobil), Aston Martin, Mazda (shared with BP and its subsidiary Castrol), Sany and Tata Motors (shared with Petronas) for automobiles only as well as Peugeot Motocycles, Kawasaki Motors (fuel only), Energica, and Honda for motorcycles only.


Sébastien Loeb car with total sponsorship

Total has provided fuel and lubricants to professional auto racing teams.[citation needed]

Total has been a longtime partner of Citroën Sport in the World Rally Championship, Dakar Rally and World Touring Car Championship. Sébastien Loeb won nine WRC drivers titles, whereas Ari Vatanen and Pierre Lartigue won four editions of the Dakar Rally.[citation needed]

Total has been a partner of Peugeot Sport in Formula One from 1995 to 2000, the British Touring Car Championship in 1995 and 1996 and since 2001 in the World Rally Championship, Intercontinental Rally Challenge, 24 Hours of Le Mans, Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, Dakar Rally and Pikes Peak International Hill Climb.[citation needed] Total is also a partner of Peugeot Sport for its customer racing TCR Touring Car programme[citation needed] and its Le Mans Hypercar project in the FIA World Endurance Championship.[131]

Total was a partner of Renault Sport in Formula One from 2009 to 2016. Their logo appeared on the Red Bull Racing cars between 2009 and 2016, the Renault F1 cars in 2009, 2010 and 2016, and the Lotus F1 cars from 2011 to 2014. Total also partnered Caterham F1 Team in 2011–2014, Scuderia Toro Rosso in 2014–2015 and Williams F1 Team in 2012–2013.[citation needed]

Also, Total was the title sponsor of the Copa Sudamericana football tournament in 2013 and 2014.[citation needed]

In 2017, Total was appointed by FIA and ACO as official fuel supplier of the World Endurance Championship and 24 Hours of Le Mans from 2018–19 season onwards.[132]

Total is one of the official sponsors from 2013 to 2022 for one of the most popular and influential Mexican football teams, Club America.[133]

In terms of educational development, Total provides scholarships worth millions of euros annually to international students to study in France. These programs are mainly for master's degrees. Doctoral scholarships are also offered but in limited numbers. The students mainly come from Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East where Total Operates. Students from Africa are mainly from Nigeria. The scholarship involves the payment of Tuition and a monthly allowance of 1400 Euros (2014 disbursement). The allowance is able to cater for feeding, transportation, and accommodation for the students. The drop in oil prices in 2015 has led to the reduction of the number of scholars.[citation needed]

In 2016, Total secured an eight-year sponsorship package from the Confederation of African Football (CAF) to support 10 of its principal competitions. Total will start with the Africa Cup of Nations to be held in Gabon, therefore, renaming it Total Africa Cup of Nations.[citation needed]

Following Total's purchase of Direct Énergie in the summer of 2018, the Direct Énergie cycling team changed its name the following year to Total Direct Énergie ahead of that year's edition of Paris–Roubaix.[134] In 2021 the team changed its name again to Team TotalEnergies in time for that year's Tour de France.[135]

In 2019, the company's Chief Executive Officer, Patrick Pouyanne pledged that Total would make a €100 million contribution to the reconstruction of the Notre-Dame cathedral after it was extensively damaged in a fire.[136]

In 2020, the company confirmed a two-year sponsorship deal with CR Flamengo, being the first time a partner of a Brazilian football team.[137]

See also


  1. ^ Data is based on the 2022 Fortune 500.


  1. ^ a b c d e f 2023 Annual Report (Form 20-F) (Report). US Securities and Exchange Commission. March 29, 2024. pp. F-9, F-11, F-58. Retrieved March 20, 2024.
  2. ^ "Euro Stoxx 50 | Index | 965814 | EU0009658145 | Börse Frankfurt (Frankfurt Stock Exchange)". Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  3. ^ "Forbes Global 2000". Forbes. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  4. ^ "MILESTONES: 1921–1936, the 1928 Red Line Agreement". US Department of State. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  5. ^ "An Administrative/Biographical History of Iraq Petroleum Company". Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Compagnie Française des Pétroles and Its Contribution to the Re-establishment of France's Position among the Oil Countries after the Second World War" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2012. by Mohamed Sassi, Research associate at Université de Paris-IV (Sorbonne)
  7. ^ a b c "Total company info on Britannica". Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  8. ^ "French toehold". The New York Times. May 16, 1971. Retrieved July 8, 2022.
  9. ^ Atlas, Terry (27 August 1980). "Esmark will sell TransOcean oil, gas unit to Mobil". Chicago Tribune. pp. 4–3. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  10. ^ Cole, Robert J. (22 August 1980). "Mobil high bidder for Esmark oil holdings". Lawrence (KS) Journal-World. New York Times News Service. p. 24. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  11. ^ "Jack Vickers". Colorado Business Hall of Fame. 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  12. ^ Bonneuil, Christophe; Choquet, Pierre-Louis; Franta, Benjamin (2021-11-01). "Early warnings and emerging accountability: Total's responses to global warming, 1971–2021". Global Environmental Change. 71: 102386. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102386. ISSN 0959-3780. S2CID 239563490.
  13. ^ "Chapter 2". Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  14. ^ "About Road Runner". Road Runner Stores. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  15. ^ "Total Petroleum to rebrand and restructure its stores throughout the Midwest" (Press release). PR Newswire. 14 January 1993. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  16. ^ Salpukas, Algis (16 April 1997). "Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Is to Acquire a Unit of Total". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  17. ^ Spaeth, Tony. "Review of Total logo". Identityworks. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  18. ^ "Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  19. ^ "Marathon Petroleum". Marathon Petroleum Corporation . Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  20. ^ "Shell and Total sign a natural gas agreement – South Rub Al-Khali – Gas Processing". Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  21. ^ "Saudi Aramco Total Refining and Petrochemical Company (SATORP) completes US$8.5 Billion project financing for Jubail Refinery". Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  22. ^ "History of Saudi Aramco Total Refining and Petrochemical Company (SATORP)". Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  23. ^ "Iran says China's state oil firm withdraws from US$5-billion natural gas deal; U.S. sanctions may be to blame". The Globe and Mail Inc. Associated Press. 6 October 2019.
  24. ^ "Shell walks away with Majnoon". 11 December 2009.
  25. ^ "Halfaya trio sign on dotted line". 27 January 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  26. ^ "Storia - Chi siamo - TotalErg". TotalErg (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-04-19.
  27. ^ "TOTAL e ERG creano TotalErg, nuova joint-venture nel settore della Raffinazione e Marketing in Italia". ERG Site (in Italian). Retrieved 2014-09-27.
  28. ^ Industria (2010-01-29). "Compagnie petrolifere - NASCE LA TOTALERG". (in Italian). Retrieved 2014-09-27.
  29. ^ "Nasce TotalErg, terzo gruppo dei distributori". Retrieved 2014-09-27.
  30. ^ "Microsoft Word - Comunicato Stampa TotalErg.doc" (PDF). TotalErg (in Italian). Retrieved 2010-12-23.
  31. ^ " – Businesses of the Total Group". Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  32. ^ "Total to sell 500 UK petrol stations". The independent. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  33. ^ "Total Sells Stake in Nigerian Project to Sinopec for $2.5 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. United States. 2012.
  34. ^ "Global Experience of Total – key to success in Kazakhstan". Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  35. ^ "Press Center : Press Releases and Events | Total increased its stake in NOVATEK". Archived from the original on October 7, 2013.
  36. ^ Registration Document 2013
  37. ^ Louise Heavens (18 September 2013). "France's Total snaps up Chevron's Pakistan retail network". Reuters.
  38. ^ "Total deal speeds up UK shale gas race". International: Reuters. 2014.
  39. ^ "Total to sell LPG distribution business in France to UGI Corp unit for 450mn euros". Pennsylvania Sun. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  40. ^ "Total appoints Patrick Pouyanne as CEO after Christophe de Margerie dies in plane crash". The Daily Telegraph. Finance. 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-10-22.
  41. ^ Terry Macalister (12 February 2015). "Total to cut 180 UK jobs after $5.7bn loss | Business". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  42. ^ "Total Acquires Lampiris to Expand Its Gas and Power Distribution Activities". 14 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
  43. ^ "Total to Buy Battery Maker Saft in Push to Expand Clean Energy". 2016-05-09. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
  44. ^ "Total to buy $2.2 billion in Petrobras upstream, downstream assets". 21 December 2016. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
  45. ^ "Argos Challenge Website". ARGOS Challenge. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  46. ^ "The Argonauts Robot Wins the ARGOS Challenge!". Total Group Website. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  47. ^ a b Reed, Stanley (2017-07-03). "Total Signs Deal With Iran, Exposing It to Big Risks and Rewards". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  48. ^ a b "Iran Signs a $5 Billion Energy Deal With France's Total". The Atlantic. 3 July 2017.
  49. ^, Mærsk -. "Total S.A. to acquire Mærsk Olie og Gas A/S for USD 7.45bn and make Denmark a regional hub". Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  50. ^ "Total & Maersk Oil: combining the best of our expertise | Exploration & Production". Archived from the original on 2018-05-20.
  51. ^ "Total buys 23% stake in renewable energy company Eren". Financial Times. 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  52. ^ "Total ready for price war as it enters French retail power market". U.S. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  53. ^ "Governance TotalErg - Chi siamo". TotalErg (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  54. ^ "2018%2001%2010%20-%20CS%20closing%20api%20TE.pdf" (PDF). Gruppo API (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  55. ^ "Comunicato stampa". Total Italia (in Italian). Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  56. ^ "French energy giant Total officially pulls out of Iran". 20 August 2018.
  57. ^ "Total Sells Trapil Stake for $290MM". Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  58. ^ "French oil major Total signs asset transfer deals with Qatar Petroleum". Reuters. 27 August 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  59. ^ "Total becomes European company, changes name". S&P Global. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  60. ^ Bloomberg (2020-12-13). "Total in talks over 500 voluntary job cuts in France, CEO says". Energy Voice. Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  61. ^ "Total withdraws from the American Petroleum Institute | Total.Com". 15 January 2021.
  62. ^ Takahashi, Paul (2021-01-15). "Total to leave American Petroleum Institute over climate 'divergences'". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  63. ^ "Total back to pre-pandemic profit levels as oil prices rise". Reuters. 2021-04-29. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  64. ^ "French oil giant Total rebrands as Total Energies in climate push". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 21 May 2021.
  65. ^ "French oil giant Total rebrands in Shift to Renewables". Mackinnon and Partners. 21 June 2021.
  66. ^ "Total is Transforming and Becoming TotalEnergies" (Press release). TotalEnergies. 2021-05-28.
  67. ^ "2 big energy firms exit Myanmar over human rights abuses by the military government". NPR. Associated Press. 2022-01-21. Retrieved 2022-01-21.
  68. ^ White, Sarah; Abboud, Leila (2022-03-06). "Oil major Total sticks with Russia despite exit of rivals". Financial Times. Retrieved 2022-03-12.
  69. ^ Jessop, Simon; Mallet, Benjamin (2022-03-11). "EXCLUSIVE Activist Clearway urges TotalEnergies to exit Russia or face vote". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-03-12.
  70. ^ Dahan, Maha El (2022-06-12). "QatarEnergy signs deal with TotalEnergies for North Field East project". Reuters. Retrieved 2023-07-28.
  71. ^ Mills, Andrew; Dahan, Maha El (2022-09-24). "QatarEnergy signs deal with TotalEnergies for North Field South expansion". Reuters. Retrieved 2023-07-28.
  72. ^ "ExxonMobil wins North Field East LNG stake". MEED. 2022-06-22. Retrieved 2023-07-28.
  73. ^ "China, France companies complete first cross-border Yuan settlement of LNG trade". Daily Times. 30 March 2023. Archived from the original on 2023-03-30. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
  74. ^ Shardul Sharma (March 29, 2023). "China completes 1st LNG cross-border yuan settlement deal". Archived from the original on 2023-03-29. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
  75. ^ "Iraq, TotalEnergies sign massive oil, gas, renewables deal". Reuters. 10 July 2023.
  76. ^ Verma, Nidhi (17 July 2023). "Indian Oil signs long term LNG import deals with ADNOC LNG, TotalEnergies". Reuters.
  77. ^ "Suncor Energy to acquire TotalEnergies' Canadian oil sands stake for C$1.47 bln". Reuters. 2023-10-04. Retrieved 2023-10-05.
  78. ^ "France's Total signs 27-year LNG deal with Qatar".
  79. ^ "OMV to Sell Stake in Malaysian JV to TotalEnergies for $903 Mln". MarketWatch. Archived from the original on 2024-01-31. Retrieved 2024-02-07.
  80. ^ "Total Invests USD 300 Million In Joint Venture With Adani Green Energy". Outlook. 28 December 2023. Archived from the original on 2024-02-07. Retrieved 2024-02-07.
  81. ^ "TotalEnergies, Airbus sign partnership in sustainable aviation fuel". Reuters. 2024-02-21. Retrieved 2024-04-17.
  82. ^ Segal, Mark (2024-02-21). "Airbus, TotalEnergies Launch New Sustainable Aviation Fuel Partnership". ESG Today. Retrieved 2024-04-17.
  83. ^ "TotalEnergies, Qatar expand Orange Basin holdings to South Africa". Reuters. 2024-03-06. Retrieved 2024-04-17.
  84. ^ "TotalEnergies and QatarEnergy to foray into South Africa's Block 3B/4B". NS Energy. 2024-04-07. Retrieved 2024-04-17.
  85. ^
  86. ^ "Totalenergies (ex Total) Fundamentalanalyse | KGV | Kennzahlen". (in German). Retrieved 2024-04-06.
  87. ^ "Totalenergies (ex Total) 2013-2020". (in German). Archived from the original on 17 August 2022. Retrieved 2024-04-06.
  88. ^ a b "Total Presents New Organization to Achieve Its Ambition of Becoming the Responsible Energy Major". 2016-04-19.
  89. ^ "Exploration-Production". Exploration-Production (in French). Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  90. ^ "Total: Main indicators". Reuters. 15 October 2009. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
  91. ^ a b "Total: l'héritage de la fusion". Le Journal du Net. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
  92. ^ "Cost escalation leads Total to put Joslyn oil sands project on hold". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  93. ^ "Projects". Exploration & Production. 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  94. ^ "Milestones: 1921–1936 - Office of the Historian".
  95. ^ Peterson, J. E. (2 January 2013). Oman's Insurgencies: The Sultanate's Struggle for Supremacy. Saqi. ISBN 9780863567025. Retrieved 29 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  96. ^ "GAO-10-515R Iran's Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical Sectors" (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. 23 March 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  97. ^ "". Archived from the original on 23 September 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  98. ^ Herndon, Andrew; Martin, Christopher; Goossen, Ehren (29 April 2011). "Total Agrees to Buy SunPower for $1.38 Billion in Renewable-Energy Push". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  99. ^ "Total to Buy Saft to Boost Renewable Energy Business". 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  100. ^ "Total to buy Belgian green energy provider Lampiris – De Standaard". Reuters. 2017-06-14. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
  101. ^ "Ogfj.Com domain name is for sale. Inquire now".
  102. ^ CNBC (2017-08-21). "Maersk agrees to sell oil unit to Total in $7.45 bln deal". CNBC. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
  103. ^ Nabil Wakim (2018-04-18). "Total va acheter Direct Energie et espère bousculer le marché de l'électricité". Le (in French). Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  104. ^ "TotalEnergies adds 4GW to renewable energy portfolio with U.S. acquisition". 27 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
  105. ^ Release, Press. "TotalEnergies acquires 50% of Clearway, the 5th-largest U.S. renewable energy player". POWER Magazine. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  106. ^ "United States: TotalEnergies acquires 50% of Clearway, the 5th largest U.S. renewable energy player". 25 May 2022. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  107. ^ Akella, Surya (2023-10-27). "TotalEnergies to buy German clean energy aggregator Quadra". Power Technology. Retrieved 2024-05-21.
  108. ^ "TotalEnergies acquires three TexGen gas-fired power plants for $635 million". Reuters. 2023-11-13. Retrieved 2023-11-13.
  109. ^ "Letter dated 29 January 2002 from the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel, addressed to the President of the Security Council" (PDF). UN. 12 February 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  110. ^ "Upstream Online: Total turns its back on Dakhla block, 2004". Western Sahara Resource Watch. 3 December 2004. Retrieved 2 September 2010.unreliable?
  111. ^ "France, UAE sign strategic deal to partner on energy projects". France24. 18 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  112. ^ "France's Energy Plans Should Not Include Ignoring UAE Abuses". Human Rights Watch. 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  113. ^ "The Malta Financial&Business Times". 2005-02-23. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  114. ^ Overland, Indra (2016). "Ranking Oil, Gas and Mining Companies on Indigenous Rights in the Arctic". ResearchGate. Arran. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  115. ^ The Carbon Majors Database CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017 (PDF). CDP and Climate Accountability Institute. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-12-04. Retrieved 2021-04-09.
  116. ^ Overland, Indra; Bourmistrov, Anatoli; Dale, Brigt; Irlbacher-Fox, Stephanie; Juraev, Javlon; Podgaiskii, Eduard; Stammler, Florian; Tsani, Stella; Vakulchuk, Roman; Wilson, Emma C. (2021). "The Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index : A method to rank heterogenous extractive industry companies for governance purposes". Business Strategy and the Environment. 30 (4): 1623–1643. doi:10.1002/bse.2698. hdl:11250/2832230. ISSN 0964-4733. S2CID 233618866.
  117. ^ Bonneuil, Christophe; Choquet, Pierre-Louis; Franta, Benjamin (2021). "Early warnings and emerging accountability: Total's responses to global warming, 1971–2021". Global Environmental Change. 71: 102386. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102386. ISSN 0959-3780. S2CID 239563490.
  118. ^ "Murder in Malta". The New Yorker. 11 December 2020.
  119. ^ "Tangenti per il petrolio in Basilicata: arrestati l'ad Total e un deputato del Pd". il Giornale (in Italian). 16 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  120. ^ "Tangenti, arrrestato l'amministratore delegato di Total Italia". La7 (in Italian). 16 December 2008. Archived from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  121. ^ "Total faces corruption investigation". 7 April 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
  122. ^ "Total to Pay $398 Million for Corrupt Practices". JD Journal. 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
  123. ^ Mallet, Benjamin; Lough, Richard (2022-03-01). "TotalEnergies stays put in Russia, but no capital for new projects". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  124. ^ "Exclusive-Activist Clearway urges TotalEnergies to exit Russia or face vote". euronews. 2022-03-12. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  125. ^ Clinch, Matt (2022-03-01). "'History will judge them': Ukraine foreign minister slams Big Oil's links to Russia". CNBC. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  126. ^ Thomas, Allister (2022-03-02). "'Toothless, useless': TotalEnergies slammed by former Shell Ukraine boss". Energy Voice. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  127. ^ "French cash, Russian fuel, Ukrainian blood". Global Witness. August 24, 2022. Retrieved 2022-09-08.
  128. ^ "TotalEnergies de nouveau face à la justice pour son mégaprojet d'exploitation pétrolière en Ouganda". Le 7 December 2022.
  129. ^ Moisan, Dorothée (19 April 2022). "Uganda oil project casts shadow over Total's eco-friendly image". The Guardian.
  130. ^ Latif Dahir, Abdi (14 March 2023). "An Oil Rush Threatens Natural Splendors Across East Africa". The New York Times.
  131. ^ "Team Peugeot TotalEnergies unveils its driver line-ups at Le Mans". Retrieved 2023-08-07.
  132. ^ "FIA WEC Secures Five Year Total Deal". 20 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  133. ^ "Bienvenido Total * Club América - Sitio Oficial". Club América - Sitio Oficial (in Spanish). 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2023-09-20.
  134. ^ Long, Jonny (11 April 2019). "Total Direct Energie reveal new kit after title sponsor change". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  135. ^ Bonville-Ginn, Tim (16 June 2021). "Total Direct Energie change name and kit design after sponsor rebrand". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  136. ^ "Total CEO says company pledges 100 million euro to rebuild Notre-Dame". Reuters. 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2023-07-11.
  137. ^ "Total fecha patrocínio com o Clube de Regatas do Flamengo". Total Brasil | Postos de Combustível, Oléos lubrificantes automotivos e industriais. (in Brazilian Portuguese). 2020-01-17. Retrieved 2020-01-19.