This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Transcription into Korean" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Foreign words when used in Korean undergoes transcription, to make them pronounceable and memorable. Transcription into Korean, for the most part, is very similar to or even influenced by transcription into Japanese, although the number of homophones resulted by imperfect mapping of foreign sounds onto native sounds is significant smaller, as Korean has a larger phoneme inventory and a more inclusive phonotactic.

Practicalities of transcription

The typical syllable structure of Korean is CGVC, with C being "consonant", G "glide", and V "vowel". Consonants and glides are optional. A few English words may get irregular transcription treatment, likely due to the influence of Japanese. Eg: shirt → 샤츠 sya-cheu (Japanese シャツ sha-tsu); mother → 마더 ma-deo (Japanese マザー ma-za-a); dragon → 드래곤 deu-rae-gon (Japanese ドラゴン do-ra-gon); level → 레벨 re-bel (Japanese レベル re-be-ru).

For the most part, transcription into Korean is phonemic, i.e., based on the phonologies of both the source and the target languages (Korean itself). However, [l], an allophone of /r/ in Korean, is utilized syllable-finally and intervocalically to transcribe the foreign sound /l/. This makes the foreign sound /l/ more transcribable into Korean than it is into Japanese, which has no strategic differences between [l] and /r/. E.g.: ball → 볼 bol (Japanese ボール bo-o-ru); gallon → 갤런 gal-leon (Japanese ガロン ga-ron). Note that [l] is always geminated intervocallically in transcriptions. E.g.: Hellen → 헬렌 Hel-len. Syllable-initially, the foreign liquid sounds /r/ and /l/ are rendered as /r/. E.g.: right and light → 라이트 ra-i-teu (Japanese ライト ra-i-to)

Consonants and vowels are transcribed to the native ones that approximate them the most, because, of course, Korean does not have all the sounds of all languages, nor has it developed any new sounds due to recent linguistic contact like Japanese with new sounds like /f/ or even /v/. E.g.: father → 파더 pa-deo (Japanese ファザー fa-za-a. Particularly, transcription into Korean tend to be more conservative as it only employs available hangul syllables, rather than establishing new, non-native combinations like Japanese. For example, the English word "warrior" is transcribed into Korean as 워리어 wo-ri-eo using 워, a pre-existing syllable composed of ᅮ u and ᅥ eo, rather than with a combination of u and o; in contrast, it is transcribed into Japanese as ウォリアー wo-ri-a-a, using ウォ, a non-native combination. On another note, the foreign phoneme /v/ is always transcribed as ᆸ b(eu) (native) into Korean, but as either b(u) (native) or v(u) (non-native) into Japanese.

Consonants

Like Japanese, Korean does not allow any consonant clusters other than CG, therefore, when foreign words with such clusters are transcribed, the clusters are broken down and distributed among several syllables. For example, the English word brand is transcribed into Korean as 브랜드 beu-raen-deu (compare Japanese ブランド bu-ra-n-do), wherein the sequence bran is broken down into two syllables, beu-raen. In these cases, a vowel ㅡ eu is inserted in between the consonants of the cluster (compare Japanese u, o).

Korean has seven consonants that can occur at the end of a syllable and that are used in transcriptions. Those are /p/, /t/, /k/, /r/, /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/. /p/, /t/ and /k/ generally represent foreign voiceless consonants, although /p/ and /k/ (rendered using jamo ㅂ and ㄱ) occasionally denote voiced consonants, too. E.g.: lab and lap → 랩 raep; deck → 덱 dek. Foreign /t/ is variously rendered as ㅅ or 트 teu. E.g.: secret → 시크릿 si-keu-rit; set → 세트 se-teu. Foreign /p/, /t/, /k/ are rendered using jamo ㅂ, ㅅ, ㄱ if the preceding foreign vowel is short, but generally using 프 peu, 트 teu, 크 keu if that vowel is long or a diphthong. E.g.: map → 맵 maep (Japanese マップ ma-p-pu), but mark → 마크 ma-keu (Japanese マーク ma-a-ku) and type → 타이프 ta-i-peu (but also 타입 ta-ip) (Japanese タイプ ta-i-pu). Foreign /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/ are always rendered using jamo ㄹ, ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ, regardless of the quality of the preceding vowel. E.g.: Tom → 톰 Tom; time → 타임 ta-im.

Syllable-finally, foreign consonants not covered by the seven sounds above are transcribed as Cㅡ Ceu (C for "consonant"). E.g.: dead → 데드 de-deu (Japanese デッド de-d-do); speedseu-pi-deu (Japanese スピード su-pi-i-do); five → 파이브 pa-i-beu (Japanese ファイブ fa-i-bu); life → 라이프 ra-i-peu (Japanese ライフ ra-i-fu).

Vowels

Also, like Japanese, modern Korean lacks diphthongs (ancient diphthongs have all developed into monophthongs). Likewise, foreign diphthongs are broken down and distributed among two syllables. For example, English eye is transcribed into Korean as 아이 a-i (compare Japanese アイ a-i), wherein the diphthong /aɪ/ is rendered as a-i.

Korean has a larger phoneme inventory than Japanese, which allows broader coverage when transcribing foreign sounds. Whereas Japanese uses a single "a" sound for various English sounds such as /æ/, /ɑː/, /ə/, /ʌ/, Korean uses ㅐ ae for /æ/, ㅏ a for /ɑː/, ㅓ eo for /ə/ and /ʌ/. E.g.: hand → 핸드 haen-deu; card → 카드 ka-deu; hunter → 헌터 heon-teo. Occasionally, however, the choice of sounds for transcription is influenced by Japanese. E.g.: brother → 브라더 beu-ra-deo (Japanese ブラザー bu-ra-za-a); dragon → 드래곤 deuraegon (Japanese ドラゴン do-ra-go-n).

Like Japanese, transcription from English into Korean is largely based on Received Pronunciation (non-rhotic). However, while Japanese still denotes English vowels like /ɑː/ in car, /ɔː/ in course, /ə/ in monster as lengthened vowels (a-a, o-o, a-a respectively), Korean ignores vowel length almost entirely, although such length is still indirectly denoted in some cases mentioned above with the use of 프 peu, 트 teu, 크 keu. E.g.: car → 카 ka (Japanese カー ka-a); card → 카드 ka-deu (Japanese カード ka-a-do); course → 코스 ko-seu (Japanese コース ko-o-su); monster → 몬스터 mon-seu-teo (Japanese モンスター mo-n-su-ta-a).

Table of transcription from English

English phonemes Common English graphemes Korean transcription jamo with Revised Romanization in italics Examples
Received Pronunciation General American If the English consonant is prevocalic and not postvocalic If the English consonant is intervocalic If the English consonant is not prevocalic
/æ/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ae⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩ ae; ㅏ a 핸드 haendeu "hand"; 양키 Yangki "Yankee"
/ɒ/ /ɑː/; /ɔː/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ach⟩; ⟨au⟩; ⟨o⟩; ⟨ou⟩ o; ㅏ a Tom "Tom"; 톱 top, 탑 tap "top"; 복스 bokseu, 박스 bakseu "box"
/ɑː/ /æ/; /ɑː/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩ a 하프 hapeu "half"; 파더 padeo "father"
/ɑː(ɹ)/ /ɑːɹ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨ear⟩; ⟨er⟩ ㅏㄹ ar a 카드 kadeu "card"
/aɪ/ ⟨ai⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨eigh⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨ic⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨igh⟩; ⟨is⟩; ⟨oy⟩; ⟨uy⟩; ⟨y⟩; ⟨ye⟩ ㅏ이 ai 다이스 daiseu "dice"; 타임 taim "time"
/aɪə(ɹ)/ /aɪɚ/; /aɪ/ ⟨ia(r)⟩; ⟨igher⟩; ⟨ire⟩; ⟨iro⟩ ㅏ이어ㄹ aieor ㅏ이어 aieo; ㅏ이아 aia 파이어 paieo "fire"; 다이어리 daieori "diary"; 다이아몬드 daiamondeu "diamond"
/aɪl/ /l/ ⟨ile⟩ ㅏ일 ail 미사일 misail "missile"
/aʊ/ ⟨au⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨ow⟩ ㅏ우 au 타운 taun "town"
/aʊə(ɹ)/ /aʊɚ/ ⟨our⟩; ⟨ower⟩ ㅏ워ㄹ awor ㅏ워 awo 파워 pawo "power"
/b/ ⟨b⟩; ⟨bb⟩; ⟨be⟩; ⟨pb⟩ b p; 브 beu 벤치 benchi "bench"; 래빗 raebit "rabbit"; 레이크 beureikeu "brake"; 랩 raep "lab"; 태 taebeu "tab"; 테이블 teibeul "table"
/d/ ⟨d⟩; ⟨dd⟩; ⟨de⟩ d deu 도어 do-eo; 페이딩 peiding "fading"; 레이크 deureikeu "drake"; 베 bedeu "bed"; 미들 mideul "middle"
/djuː/ /duː/ ⟨dew⟩; ⟨du⟩; ⟨due⟩ dyu dyueol "dual", "duel"; dyu "dew", "due"
/dz/ ⟨ds⟩; ⟨dds⟩ jeu 에이 eijeu "AIDS"
/dʒ/ ⟨di⟩; ⟨dg⟩; ⟨dge⟩; ⟨g⟩; ⟨ge⟩; ⟨j⟩ j j ji 점프 jeompeu "jump"; 버짓 beojit "budget"; 솔저 soljeo "soldier"; 에 eji "edge"; 에인절 einjeol "angel"
/ð/ ⟨th⟩; ⟨the⟩ d deu deo, 디 di "the"; 마더 madeo "mother"; 알고리듬 algorideum "algorithm"
/ɛ/ ⟨e⟩; ⟨ea⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨oe⟩ e 엔드 endeu "end"; 프렌드 peurendeu "friend"
/ɛə(ɹ)/ /ɛɹ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨aer⟩; ⟨air⟩; ⟨are⟩; ⟨ear⟩; ⟨eir⟩; ⟨ere⟩; ⟨ey're⟩ ㅔ어ㄹ eeor ㅔ어 eeo 에어 eeo "air"; 에어리어 eeorieo "area"
/ə/ ⟨a⟩ eo; ㅏ a; ㅐ ae 멀리건 meolligeon "mulligan"; 고섬 Goseom "Gotham"; 바우트 eobauteu "about"; 에어리 eeorieo "area"; 아칸소 Akanso "Arkansas"; 오스트레일리 Oseuteureillia "Australia"; 크리스마스 Keuriseumaseu "Christmas"; 잉글랜드 Inggeullaendeu "England"
⟨e⟩; ⟨gh⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨u⟩ eo 테스타먼트 teseutameonteu "testament"; 세일럼 Seilleom "Salem"; 서러 seoreo "thorough"; 에든버러 Edinbeoreo "Edinburgh"; 앨범 aelbeom "album"; 바이러스 baireoseu "virus"; 앨버커키 Albeokeoki "Albuquerque"; 뉴펀들랜드 Nyupeondeullaendeu "Newfoundland"
⟨o⟩ eo; ㅗ o 커먼 keomeon "common"; 세컨드 sekeondeu "second"; 다이너소어 daineosoeo "dinosaur"; 킹덤 kingdeom "kingdom"; 오브 obeu; 포테이토 poteito "potato"; 스켈레톤 seukelleton "skeleton"; 드래곤 deuraegon "dragon"
/ə(ɹ)/ /ɚ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨er⟩; ⟨or⟩; ⟨our⟩; ⟨ure⟩ ㅓㄹ eor eo; ㅓ르 eoreu 컴퓨터 kompyuteo "computer"; 컬러 keolleo "color"; 커서 keoseo "cursor"; 멜버른 Melbeoreun "Melbourne"
/əl/; /l/ ⟨ael⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨el⟩; ⟨le⟩ eol; eul; el 스페셜 seupesyeol "special"; 패널 paeneol "panel"; 머슬 meoseul "muscle"; 사이클 saikeul "cycle"; 배틀 baeteul "battle"; 스테이플 seuteipeul; 퍼즐 peojeul "puzzle"; 마이클 Maikeul "Michael"; 레벨 rebel "level", "revel", "rebel"
/ən/; /n/ ⟨ain⟩ in; eun 마운틴 mauntin; 브리튼 Beuriteun "Britain"
⟨en⟩ eun; in 하이픈 haipeun "hyphen"; 세븐 sebeun "seven"; 토큰 tokeun "token"; 서든 seodeon "sudden"; 시즌 sijeun; 치킨 chikin "chicken"; 키친 kichin "kitchen"
/əʊ/ /oʊ/ ⟨au⟩; ⟨eau⟩; ⟨eaux⟩; ⟨o⟩; ⟨oa⟩; ⟨oe⟩; ⟨oh⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨ow⟩; ⟨owe⟩ o; ㅗ우 ou syo "show"; 포니 poni; 오하이오 Ohaio "Ohio"; 솔 sol, 소울 soul "soul"
/ɜː(ɹ)/ /ɜːɹ/ ⟨ear⟩; ⟨er⟩; ⟨ir⟩; ⟨olo⟩; ⟨ur⟩ ㅓㄹ eor eo 어스 eoseu "earth"; 웜 wom "worm"; 퍼리 peori "furry"
/eɪ/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ae⟩; ⟨ai⟩; ⟨ait⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩; ⟨ay⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨eigh⟩; ⟨et⟩; ⟨ey⟩ ㅔ이 ei 게임 geim "game"
/f/ ⟨f⟩; ⟨fe⟩; ⟨ff⟩; ⟨gh⟩; ⟨ph⟩; ⟨u⟩ p peu 파울 paul "foul"; 이펙트 ipekteu "effect"; 러 reopeu "rough"; 러플 reopeul "ruffle"; peullik "flick"; 피시 pisi "fish"
Exception: 휘시 huisi "fish"
/ɡ/ ⟨g⟩; ⟨gg⟩; ⟨gh⟩; ⟨gu⟩; ⟨gue⟩ g k; 그 geu geon "gun"; 백 baek "bag"; 버 beogeu "bug"; 이글 igeul "eagle"; 글라스 geullaseu "glass"
/ɡz/ ⟨gs⟩; ⟨ggs⟩; ⟨x⟩; ⟨xh⟩ 그ㅈ geuj 그스 geuseu 이그잼 igeujaem "exam"; 이그조스트 igeujoseuteu "exhaust"; 에그스 egeuseu "eggs"
/h/ ⟨gh⟩; ⟨h⟩; ⟨wh⟩ h 헌터 heonteo "hunter"
/ɪ/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ae⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨oe⟩ i; ㅔ e 인풋 input "input"; 메시지 mesiji "message"; 쵸콜레트 chyokolleteu "chocolate"; 스켈레톤 seukelleton "skeleton"
/ɪə(ɹ)/ /ɪɹ/ ⟨aer⟩; ⟨e're⟩; ⟨ear⟩; ⟨eer⟩; ⟨er⟩; ⟨ere⟩; ⟨ier⟩; ⟨ir⟩ ㅣ어ㄹ ieor ㅣ어 ieo 기어 gieo "gear"; 히어로 hieoro "hero"
/i/ ⟨ay⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ea⟩; ⟨ee⟩; ⟨ey⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨y⟩ i 시티 siti "city"; 양키 Yangki "Yankee"; 허니 heoni "honey"
/iː/ ⟨ae⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ea⟩; ⟨ee⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨oe⟩ i; ㅔ e tim "team"; 하이haiena "hyena"
/j/ ⟨y⟩ y 옐로 yello "yellow"
/ju(ː)/; /jʊ/ /ju(ː)/; /jə/ ⟨eu⟩; ⟨u⟩; ⟨you⟩; ⟨yu⟩; ⟨ut⟩ yu 니언 yunieon "union"; 더블 deobeuryu "W"; 새뮤얼 Samyueol "Samuel"
/jʊə(ɹ)/; /jəɹ/ /jʊɹ/; /jəɹ/ ⟨eu(r)⟩; ⟨u(r)⟩; ⟨you(r)⟩; ⟨you're⟩; ⟨yu(r)⟩; ⟨uh(r)⟩ 유ㄹ yur; 유어ㄹ yueor 유어 yueo 유럽 Yureop "Europe"; 유어 yueo "your", "you're"; 머큐리 Meokyuri "Mercury"
/k/ ⟨c⟩; ⟨cc⟩; ⟨ch⟩; ⟨che⟩; ⟨ck⟩; ⟨k⟩; ⟨ke⟩; ⟨kh⟩; ⟨qu⟩; ⟨que⟩ k k; 크 keu kik "kick"; 스파이 seupaikeu "spike"; 로니클 keuronikeul "chronicle"
/ks/ ⟨cc⟩; ⟨cs⟩; ⟨chs⟩; ⟨cks⟩; ⟨ks⟩; ⟨khs⟩; ⟨x⟩; ⟨xe⟩ ㄱㅅ ks ㄱ스 kseu 멕시코 Meksiko "Mexico"; 콤플렉스 kompeullekseu "complex"
/kʃ/ ⟨cti⟩; ⟨xi⟩ ksy 커넥션 keoneksyeon "connection", "connexion"
/kʃuəl/ ⟨xual⟩ ksyueol 섹슈얼 seksyueol "sexual"
/kw/ ⟨cqu⟩; ⟨qu⟩ kw kwin "queen"
/kwɔː(ɹ)/ /kwɔːɹ/ ⟨quar⟩ kwo kwokeu "quark"
/l/ ⟨l⟩; ⟨le⟩; ⟨ll⟩ r; ㄹㄹ ll ㄹㄹ ll l 루프 rupeu "loop"; 밸런스 baelleonseu "balance"; 세일 seil "sale", "sail"; 블랙 beullaek "black"; 걸 geol "girl"; 캐슬 kaeseul "castle"
/m/ ⟨m⟩; ⟨mb⟩; ⟨me⟩; ⟨mm⟩; ⟨mn⟩ m ㅁㅁ mm m 마임 maim "mime"; 서몬 seomon "summon"; 감마 gamma "gamma"
/n/ ⟨n⟩; ⟨nd⟩; ⟨ne⟩; ⟨nn⟩ n 나인 nain "nine"; 베넷 Benet "Bennett"
/njuː/; /njʊə(ɹ)/ /nuː/; /nʊɹ/ ⟨new(r)⟩; ⟨neur⟩; ⟨nu(r)⟩; ⟨nure⟩ 뉴(ㄹ) nyu(r) nyu "new"; 뉴런 nyureon "neuron"
/ŋ/ ⟨n⟩; ⟨ng⟩ ng 싱어 sing-eo "singer"; 핑거 pinggeo "finger"; 킹 king "king"; 랭크 raengkeu "rank"
/ɔː/ ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩; ⟨aw⟩; ⟨oa⟩; ⟨ough⟩ o; ㅗ우 ou 토크 tokeu "talk"; 스트리아 Oseuteuria "Austria"; 드로우 deurou "draw"
/ɔːl/ ⟨al⟩; ⟨aul⟩; ⟨awl⟩ oll ol 터너티브 olteoneotibeu "alternative"
Exceptions: 왈츠 walcheu "waltz"; 어썰트 eosseolteu "assault"
/ɔː(ɹ)/ /ɔːɹ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨aur⟩; ⟨oar⟩; ⟨or⟩; ⟨our⟩; ⟨wor⟩ o; ㅗ어 o-eo; ㅗ르 oreu; ㅏ a po "four"; 오어 o-eo "or"; 노르웨이 Noreuwei "Norway"; 호그와트 Hogeuwateu
⟨oor⟩; ⟨ore⟩ ㅗ어 o-eo 코어 ko-eo "core"; 도어 do-eo "door"
/ɔɪ/ ⟨eu⟩; ⟨oi⟩; ⟨oy⟩ ㅗ이 oi 코인 koin "coin"
/p/ ⟨p⟩; ⟨pe⟩; ⟨ph⟩; ⟨pp⟩ p p; 프 peu pap "pop"; 타입 taip, 타이 taipeu "type"; 커플 keopeul "couple"; 루프 peurupeu "proof"
/ɹ/; /(ɹ)/ /ɹ/ ⟨lo⟩; ⟨r⟩; ⟨re⟩; ⟨rh⟩; ⟨rps⟩; ⟨rr⟩; ⟨rt⟩ r omitted; 르 reu raep "rap"; 애로호 aerou; 노웨이 Noreuwei "Norway"
/s/ ⟨'s⟩; ⟨c⟩; ⟨ce⟩; ⟨s⟩; ⟨s'⟩; ⟨sc⟩; ⟨se⟩; ⟨ss⟩; ⟨st⟩; ⟨sw⟩ s; ㅆ ss seu 어썰트 eosseolteu "assault"; 키 kiseu "kiss"; 슬립 seullip "slip"; 캐슬 kaeseul "castle"
/ʃ/ ⟨ch⟩; ⟨che⟩; ⟨ci⟩; ⟨s⟩; ⟨sc⟩; ⟨sch⟩; ⟨sh⟩; ⟨si⟩; ⟨sti⟩; ⟨ti⟩ s; sy; sw si; 슈 syu sip "ship"; 셰프 syepeu "chef"; 애 aesi "ash"; 위 wisyu "wish"; 셸리 syel, 쉘리 swel "shelly"
/ʃuəl/ ⟨sual⟩ 슈얼 syueol 컨센슈얼 keonsensyueol "consensual"
/t/ ⟨bt⟩; ⟨ct⟩; ⟨t⟩; ⟨te⟩; ⟨th⟩; ⟨tt⟩; ⟨tte⟩ t t; 트 teu; 츠 cheu 타이트 taiteu "tight"; 키 kiteu "kit"; 세 seteu "set"; 핏 pit "fit", "pit"; 럼프 teureompeu "trump"; 배틀 baeteul "battle"; 셔 syeocheu "shirt"
/tjuː/ /tuː/ ⟨tew⟩; ⟨tu⟩ tyu tyuneo "tuner"; 스디오 seutyudio "studio"; 스어드 seutyueodeu "steward"
/ts/ ⟨t's⟩; ⟨ts⟩; ⟨tts⟩ cheu icheu "it's", "its"
/tʃ/ ⟨ch⟩; ⟨tch⟩ ch chi 치킨 chikin "chicken"; 키친 kichin "kitchen"; 매 maechi "match"
/tʃʊə(ɹ)/ /tʃʊɹ/ ⟨ture⟩ 추어 chueo; 츄어 chyueo 츄어 meochueo "mature"
/tʃuəl/ ⟨tual⟩ 추얼 chueol; 츄얼 chyueol 추얼 beochueol, 버츄얼 beochyueol "virtual"
/θ/ ⟨th⟩; ⟨the⟩ s seu 시프 sipeu "thief"; 고섬 Goseom "Gotham"; 배 baeseu "bath"; 레드 seuredeu "thread"
/ʊ/ ⟨oo⟩; ⟨u⟩ u buk "book"; 불 bul "bull"
/ʊə(ɹ); /ɔː(ɹ)/ /ʊɹ/ ⟨oor⟩; ⟨our⟩; ⟨ure⟩ ㅜㄹ ur; ㅜ어ㄹ ueor ㅜ어 ueo 무어 mueo "moor"; 투어 tueo "tour"; 투어리스트 tueoriseuteu "tourist"; 미주리 Mijuri "Missouri"
/uː/ ⟨ew⟩; ⟨o⟩; ⟨oe⟩; ⟨oo⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨ue⟩; ⟨ui⟩ u 블루머 beullumeo "bloomer"
/v/ ⟨ph⟩; ⟨v⟩; ⟨ve⟩; ⟨w⟩ b beu 바이킹 Baiking "Viking"; 러 reobeu "love"
/ʌ/ ⟨o⟩; ⟨oo⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨u⟩ eo 런던 Reondeon "London"
/w/ ⟨w⟩; ⟨ou⟩ w 위치 wichi "witch"; 어웨이큰 eoweikeun "awaken"
⟨wh⟩ hw 화이트 hwaiteu "white"; 훼일 hweil "whale"
/wɔː(ɹ)/ /wɔːɹ/ ⟨war⟩; ⟨wore⟩ wo wo "war"; wopeu "warp"
/wʊ/ ⟨wo⟩; ⟨woo⟩ u udeu "wood"; umeon "woman"
/z/ ⟨'s⟩; ⟨s⟩; ⟨sc⟩; ⟨se⟩; ⟨ss⟩; ⟨z⟩; ⟨ze⟩; ⟨zz⟩ j jeu; 스 seu 제브러 jebeureo "zebra"; 퀴 kwijeu "quiz"; 퍼즐 peojeul "puzzle"; 뉴 nyuseu "news"; 블루 beulluseu "blues"
/ʒ/ ⟨g⟩; ⟨ge⟩; ⟨si⟩; ⟨ti⟩; ⟨zi⟩ j 텔레비전 telleobijeon "television"
/ʒuəl/ ⟨sual⟩ 주얼 jueol 주얼 bijueol "visual"