In computational complexity theory, and more specifically in the analysis of algorithms with integer data, the **transdichotomous model** is a variation of the random-access machine in which the machine word size is assumed to match the problem size. The model was proposed by Michael Fredman and Dan Willard,^{[1]} who chose its name "because the dichotomy between the machine model and the problem size is crossed in a reasonable manner."^{[2]}

In a problem such as integer sorting in which there are n integers to be sorted, the transdichotomous model assumes that each integer may be stored in a single word of computer memory, that operations on single words take constant time per operation, and that the number of bits that can be stored in a single word is at least log_{2}*n*. The goal of complexity analysis in this model is to find time bounds that depend only on n and not on the actual size of the input values or the machine words.^{[3]}^{[4]} In modeling integer computation, it is necessary to assume that machine words are limited in size, because models with unlimited precision are unreasonably powerful (able to solve PSPACE-complete problems in polynomial time).^{[5]} The transdichotomous model makes a minimal assumption of this type: that there is some limit, and that the limit is large enough to allow random-access indexing into the input data.^{[3]}

As well as its application to integer sorting, the transdichotomous model has also been applied to the design of priority queues^{[6]} and to problems in computational geometry^{[3]} and graph algorithms.^{[7]}