|Boston-area trolleybus system|
|Locale||Boston (formerly also Belmont, Cambridge, and Watertown, Arlington, Brookline, Chelsea, Everett, Malden, Medford, Newton, Revere, and Somerville), Greater Boston, Massachusetts, United States|
|Open||April 11, 1936|
|Operator(s)||1936–47: Boston Elevated Railway Co.;|
1947–64: Metropolitan Transit Authority;
1964–present: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA)
|Electrification||Parallel overhead lines, 600 V DC|
The Boston-area trolleybus (or, as known locally, trackless trolley) system forms part of the public transportation network serving Greater Boston in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. It opened on April 11, 1936, and since 1964 has been operated by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). The current system consists of the Silver Line (Waterfront), located in the city of Boston. Prior to 1964, several additional trolleybus lines were in operation in Greater Boston, including a group of routes in and around Cambridge, outside Boston proper, that comprised the metropolitan area's only trolleybus service during the period 1964–2004. Measured by fleet size, the system was the third-largest trolleybus system in the United States at its peak (end of 1952), with only the Chicago and Atlanta systems having more trolleybuses than Boston's 463.
Before the Cambridge system's closure on March 12, 2022, four other routes fanned out from the Harvard bus tunnel at Harvard Square station, running through Cambridge, Belmont, and Watertown. Those lines were the remains of a once-extensive system of trackless trolleys in the area, which was largely formed from former streetcar lines. Additionally, the 2004-opened Silver Line (Waterfront) is a bus rapid transit service using dual-mode buses which run as trolleybuses in the Waterfront tunnel.
The first trackless trolley line in the Boston transit system was opened by the Boston Elevated Railway (BERy) on April 11, 1936. Replacing a streetcar line over the same route, it was an unnumbered crosstown line running from Harvard station east to Lechmere station. (Substitution of buses for streetcars on the route had been proposed as early as 1930.) Additional lines were opened in 1937, and by 1942, the system had 14 lines, of which 10 were former streetcar lines and four were former motor bus lines. In 1947, the BERy was succeeded by the public Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) as the operator of Boston's urban transit system, and in 1964, the MTA was replaced by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA), which remains the system's operator today.
The BERy was owned by private investors, but came under public control from 1918. It served 13 municipalities of Greater Boston, including Boston proper. The MTA's service area was limited to these municipalities (with the addition of Revere). Following a change of management, the MTA began replacing trolleybuses with motorbuses, starting in 1958. Only four trolleybus lines remained after 1963, all based in Cambridge. Four decades later, the MTA's successor, the MBTA, built the Silver Line (Waterfront), and that line's opening in late 2004 reintroduced trolleybus service in Boston proper.
At the trolleybus system's peak, the maximum number of trolleybus routes in operation was 37, with most route running in the near north suburbs of Boston. In addition, there were the disconnected Dorchester and Arborway networks.
Prior to the opening of the Silver Line, a total of 43 trolleybus lines had historically existed, but not all concurrently, making the all-time total 44 with route SL1, as of 2014[update].
In 2022, the Silver Line (Waterfront) is planned to be converted from dual-mode buses to diesel hybrid buses, with the overhead wires taken down afterwards. Following the testing of a small number of battery buses on the line starting in July 2019, MBTA placed an order in November 2020 for 45 articulated "extended-range" diesel hybrid buses to replace the 32 dual-mode buses currently used on the Silver Line.
MBTA staff also recommended replacing all trolleybuses on the Cambridge-based network with battery buses. Trolleybus service on the last two surviving routes, 71 and 73, ended on March 12, 2022. Multiple utility and road-rebuilding projects beginning in early 2022 have led MBTA to decide to substitute diesel hybrid buses for trolleybuses at that time. The move was initially temporary, but if the authority later approves the proposed conversion of the trolleybus system to battery buses, the temporary suspension would become a permanent closure.
What became the Harvard-based trolleybus system began as branches of the Cambridge Railroad, a horsecar street railway that opened in 1856. Lines from Harvard Square to Mount Auburn via Brattle Street and Porter Square opened soon after the Harvard Square–Bowdoin Square route. The connecting Watertown Horse Railroad opened on April 27, 1857. The Porter Square branch was extended to the border of West Cambridge (now Arlington); there it met the West Cambridge Horse Railroad, which opened on June 13, 1859. In 1880, the Watertown line was extended south on Galen Street to Nonantum Square.
The Harvard–Arlington line was electrified on July 1, 1889 – one of the first lines converted by the West End Street Railway. Electric service between Watertown and Mount Auburn began on December 12, 1893; the line was double-tracked later in the decade. Residents of Brattle Street objected to the construction of electric lines; in October 1893, the Board of Railway Commissioners denied the West End permission to run electric streetcars on Brattle Street. That November, a compromise was worked out where the West End would instead build on Mount Auburn Street (which had been considered in 1891); the line on Concord Avenue and Huron Avenue would be opened within eight months, and the Brattle Street horsecar tracks removed in the same time frame. The Mount Auburn line opened in April or May 1894, with the Concord/Huron line opening later in the year.
A branch from Mount Auburn to Waverley Square in Belmont opened on October 1, 1898, despite Watertown's opposition earlier than year to widening Belmont Street. A branch to Belmont Center opened on June 30, 1906; it was replaced by buses in August 1928 and was never a trackless trolley route.
The four surviving Harvard-based routes remained after much of the system was converted to diesel and exist, in part, because of the necessity to limit the number of diesel buses in the Harvard bus tunnel. Inside the portals, the tunnel splits into two one-way tunnels, upper and lower. The tunnel for eastbound-northbound vehicles is placed on top of the tunnel for southbound-westbound vehicles. The tunnels first opened for streetcars in 1912, and trolleybuses began using them in 1938. Streetcar service using the tunnel was abandoned in 1958. In a six-year project lasting from 1979 to 1985 (coinciding with the reconstruction of Harvard station during the Northwest Extension of the MBTA Red Line), the tunnel was closed for an extensive rebuilding, which included new platforms and a new northern portal ramp.
In the lower/westbound tunnel, the loading platforms are located on the left side of the roadway, and for this reason the trolleybuses serving this station have always been equipped with left-side doors, in addition to the normal righthand doors, as state DPU regulations discourage boarding passengers from doors facing the wall rather than the platform. Diesel buses serving the tunnel are not equipped with left-side doors, and passengers boarding or deboarding at the westbound stop must cross the roadway to reach the buses' doors. In 2004, the MBTA began receiving a fleet of new trolleybuses from Neoplan USA, to replace Flyer E800 trolleybuses dating from 1976. The newer vehicles are low-floor vehicles and meet Americans with Disabilities Act standards (see MBTA accessibility).
The vehicles for Harvard-based routes were all stored overnight and maintained at the North Cambridge Carhouse, the northern terminus of the 77A route. Trackless trolleys dId not run on Sundays; instead, diesel buses covered the routes.: 18 This was the case since 1963.
To expedite passenger boarding through a left-side door in the southbound Harvard bus tunnel, the 71 and 73 trackless trolley routes allow free entry for outbound trips, collecting fare upon later passenger exit from the vehicle. Diesel buses lack a left-side door, so on Sundays these buses are boarded in the northbound tunnel.
See also: List of key MBTA bus routes
The 71 Watertown Square–Harvard station begins at the Harvard bus tunnel lower level and leaves via the south exit onto Mount Auburn Street. It heads west into Watertown, ending at Watertown Square.
At the Harvard end, to turn around, the trackless trolley exits the tunnel and makes a hard left onto Massachusetts Avenue and a right on Garden Street, and then turns right on Waterhouse Street and right on Massachusetts Avenue to return to the tunnel. The Watertown end has a loop on private right-of-way for turning around and picking up/dropping off passengers.
September 4, 1958, was the last day of streetcar service on the 71; trackless trolleys ran since then until March 13, 2022. On December 22, 2019, additional reverse-peak short turns were added. These trips serve Mount Auburn Hospital and return trolleybuses to the route 72 terminals for its peak-direction-only service.
The 72 Aberdeen Avenue–Harvard station starts on the upper level and comes out the north end of the tunnel, using the path that the 71 uses to turn around. However, at the intersection of Garden and Waterhouse Streets, the 72 heads west on Garden Street, Concord Avenue and Huron Avenue and south on Aberdeen Avenue to end at Mount Auburn Street, intersecting the 71 and 73.
To turn around, the 72 leaves the south portal of the tunnel and turns left on Mount Auburn Street. It turns right on Eliot Street, right on Bennett Street and right on a private right-of-way called Bennett Alley to go straight across Mount Auburn Street into the tunnel. At the west end, the 72 simply makes a U-turn across the wide median of Aberdeen Avenue. On Saturday evenings and Sundays, the 72 is combined with the 75 bus and the route extends to Belmont Center as a diesel bus (signed as route 72/75).
Streetcars last ran on the 72 on April 1, 1938; trackless trolleys had been running since then. In March 2013, the route was temporarily replaced with diesel buses to permit roadwork on Huron Avenue and reconstruction of the Conductor's Building in Bennett Alley. It was long planned that route 72 would return to electric operation when construction was complete. However, in December 2019 route 72 was reduced to peak-direction, peak-hour-only service in conjunction with improvements to routes 74 and 75 (which also run on Concord Avenue), and – after being suspended in late March 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic-related service reductions and reinstated five months later – all route 72 service was suspended indefinitely in December 2020.
See also: List of key MBTA bus routes
The 73 Waverley Square–Harvard station follows the same route as the 71 in Cambridge. It leaves Mt. Auburn St. to follow Belmont Street, which forms a border between Belmont and Watertown, then continues on Trapelo Road in Belmont to end at Waverley Square, with a loop at the Waverley commuter rail station on the Fitchburg Line. A short-turn loop exists at Benton Square, the intersection of Belmont Street and Trapelo Road.
September 4, 1958, was the last day of streetcar service on the 73 (and 71 and 77A), after which trackless trolleys ran until March 13, 2022. As a streetcar line, the turnback loop was further west along Trapelo Road at Cushing Square. Streetcars first ran to Waverley Square on October 1, 1898.
In September 2013, the route was converted to diesel buses for two years to permit diversions during roadway reconstruction in Belmont. Trackless trolley service was restored in December 2016. A small number of Benton Square short turns (added to the schedule in March 2016) continue to operate as diesel buses.
The 77A is a short-turn trip of the 77 Arlington Heights–Harvard station bus route. It is not a full-service route; it is primarily a designation for route 71 and 73 trolleybuses to run in revenue service while pulling in or out of the North Cambridge Carhouse. The route was originally a full-service short turn route; however, it became less necessary after the Red Line was extended to Porter and Davis stations in 1984. Since January 2005, the only 77A trips are pull-ins and pull-outs to take 71 and 73 buses to or from the carhouse. They are listed in the 77 schedule.
September 4, 1958, was the last day of streetcar service on the 77A, after which trackless trolleys ran until March 13, 2022. (Route 77 had already been running diesel buses since 1955.) Until around 1967, the route was numbered 82.
The MBTA plans to renovate the North Cambridge Carhouse facility by 2023 to accommodate battery electric buses, eliminating trolleybus operations on all Harvard-based routes. However, the authority considered shifting the North Cambridge routes to another garage in 2022 to permit rebuilding of North Cambridge to begin unimpeded by operations at the garage, and this move took place in mid-March 2022, ending trolleybus operation on the two remaining routes, 71 and 73.
Main article: Silver Line (MBTA)
The Silver Line is split into two sections; the diesel-electric hybrid Washington Street section runs entirely on the surface, but the Waterfront section runs through a dedicated tunnel under the South Boston Waterfront, in which diesel emissions would be problematic. Several routes branch out from the tunnel along routings where installation of overhead trolley wire would have been impractical, especially through the Ted Williams Tunnel (as overhead wires are expressly prohibited on interstate highways), so the Waterfront section uses dual-mode buses. The vehicles run as trolleybuses within the 1.3-mile-long (2.1 km) tunnel and for about 900 feet (270 m) on the surface, then change to diesel power at the end of Silver Line Way, and reverse the transition when inbound. Motor buses are not permitted to operate inside the South Boston Waterfront tunnel due to insufficient ventilation.
Four routes run in the electrified Silver Line tunnel: SL1 to Logan Airport, SL2 to Design Center, SL3 to Chelsea, and a shuttle route which short turns at Silver Line Way.
Until February 2006, the Silver Line also used 12 of the then-new conventional-length Neoplan trackless trolleys until the entire articulated, dual-mode fleet could be placed into service; they were temporarily "wrapped" in the Silver Line's silver paint scheme, covering the standard MBTA yellow-and-white. Only three of the 32 dual-mode buses on order had been accepted for service by the time the Silver Line opened, but the number had increased to 28 by February 2006. In fall 2005 (five vehicles) and the first half of 2006, the 12 Neoplan trackless trolleys were transferred to the Harvard-based routes to replace the then-remaining Flyer trolleybuses operating out of North Cambridge Carhouse.
Boston's first trolleybuses were built by Pullman-Standard in 1936. Boston Elevated continued to buy its trolleybuses almost exclusively from Pullman, and until 1950 Pullmans comprised the entire fleet with the exception of a small batch of five Twin Coach trolleybuses purchased in 1937. In 1952, Boston had more Pullman-built trolleybuses than any other city, with 438.: 7 Meanwhile, 25 ACF-Brill trolleybuses built in 1950 were the only other purchase of non-Pullman trolleybuses until 1976. With several route closures in 1964, the Twin Coaches and the oldest Pullmans were retired, leaving only Pullmans built in 1947–51 in service.
These were all replaced in 1976–77 by a fleet of 50 Flyer E800s (4000–4049), the first of which arrived in February 1976 and entered service in April. The last Pullman-Standard trolleybuses were retired in August 1977. The Flyers were, in turn, replaced by new trolleybuses over the period 2004–06. Regular use of Flyers ended in June 2006, but a small number remained active and used very sporadically until March 2007. The only subsequent – and the final – use occurred on December 21, 2007, when the last two active Flyers (4006 and 4016) entered service briefly after all-night sleet-cutting duty (scraping ice off of the overhead wires).
The present fleet is made up of low-floor vehicles built by Neoplan USA and fitted with Škoda electrical equipment. There are two distinct groups: The network that served Cambridge and vicinity used a fleet of 28 40-foot (12 m) vehicles, while the Silver Line (Waterfront) uses a fleet of 32 60-foot (18 m) articulated dual-mode buses which are extended-length. The order for both was placed in December 2000, in a single contract, but the first vehicle (4101) was not completed and delivered until 2003.
Except for the first unit, the Cambridge trolleybuses (numbered 4101–4128) were delivered in 2004 and were the first low-floor trolleybuses in North America. The first day of service for trolleybuses in this series was June 4, 2004.
The dual-mode, articulated vehicles (numbered 1101–1132) were delivered in 2004–2005 and are also low-floor vehicles. Eight of the buses (1125–1132) were funded by Massport and came equipped with luggage racks for airport passengers (and fewer seats than the other buses, 38 instead of 47), for use on route SL1, which serves Logan International Airport. (A second route serving the airport, SL3, was introduced in 2018.) In January 2011, four more buses (1121–1124) were also equipped with luggage racks in place of some seats.
The prototype Neoplan/Škoda two-axle trolleybus, the first new trolleybus for the system for 26 years and the first low-floor trolleybus for any North American system, was delivered on 23rd April.