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Troyes
Buildings in the historic quarter of Troyes
Flag
Coat of arms
Location of Troyes
Troyes
Troyes
Troyes
Troyes
Coordinates: 48°17′59″N 4°04′45″E / 48.2997°N 4.0792°E / 48.2997; 4.0792Coordinates: 48°17′59″N 4°04′45″E / 48.2997°N 4.0792°E / 48.2997; 4.0792
CountryFrance
RegionGrand Est
DepartmentAube
ArrondissementTroyes
CantonTroyes-1
Troyes-2
Troyes-3
Troyes-4
Troyes-5
IntercommunalityCA Troyes Champagne Métropole
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) François Baroin[1] (LR)
Area
1
13.2 km2 (5.1 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018)[2]
61,996
 • Density4,700/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
10387 /10000
Elevation100–126 m (328–413 ft)
(avg. 118 m or 387 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
Troyes altarpiece (detail) Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Troyes altarpiece (detail) Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Troyes (French pronunciation: [tʁwa] (About this soundlisten)) is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 140 km (87 mi) south-east of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park.

Troyes had a population of 61,996 inhabitants in 2018. It is the center of the agglomeration community Troyes Champagne Métropole, which was home to 170,145 inhabitants.

Troyes developed as early as the Roman era, when it was known as Augustobona Tricassium. It stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa. The city has a rich historical past, from the Tricasses tribe to the liberation of the city on August 25, 1944 during the Second World War, including the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, the Council of Troyes, the marriage of Henry V and Catherine of France, and the Champagne fairs to which merchants came from all over Christendom. The city has a rich architectural and urban heritage: many buildings are protected as historical monuments, including the half-timbered houses (mainly of the 16th century) that survived in the old town. They have contributed to Troyes being designated as a City of Art and History.

Manufacturing of textiles, developed from the 18th century onwards, was a chief part of Troyes' economy until the 1960s. Today, Troyes is the European capital of factory outlets and trading, and has three brand centers.

History

See also: Timeline of Troyes

For the ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic Diocese of Troyes.

Prehistoric evidence has been found in the Troyes area, suggesting that the settlement may have developed as early as 600 BC. Celtic grave-mounds have been found near the city, and Celtic artifacts have been excavated within the City grounds.[3]

In the Roman era, it was known as Augustobona Tricassium. Numerous highways intersected here, primarily the Via Agrippa, which led north to Reims and south to Langres, and eventually to Milan.[4] Other Roman routes from Troyes led to Poitiers, Autun and Orléans.[5]

It was the civitas of the Tricasses people,[6] who had been separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, but no public monuments, other than traces of an aqueduct. By the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent. It was referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes.

From the fourth century AD, the people had become Christian and the city was designated as the seat of a bishop. The legend of its bishop Lupus (Loup), who saved the city from Attila by offering himself as hostage, is hagiographic rather than historical.[7] It was several centuries before Troyes gained importance as a medieval centre of commerce.

The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, also called The Battle of Troyes, was fought nearby in 451 AD, between the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against Attila.

The early cathedral occupied the site of the current one. Here Louis the Stammerer in 878 received the imperial crown from Pope John VIII. At the end of the ninth century, following depredations to the city by Normans, the counts of Champagne chose Troyes as their capital. It remained the capital of the Province of Champagne until the Revolution of the late eighteenth century. The Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned library and scriptorium.

During the Middle Ages, Troyes was an important international trading town. It was the namesake of troy weight for gold a standard of measurement developed here.[8] The Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade, together with new extension of coinage and credit, were the drivers of the medieval economy of Troyes.

In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the town kept a number of its traditional privileges. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and ally of the English, in 1417 worked to have Troyes designated as the capital of France. He came to an understanding with Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI of France, that a court, council, and parlement with comptroller's offices should be established at Troyes.

On 21 May 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed in this city, still under control of the Burgundians, by which Henry V of England was betrothed to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI. Under the terms of the treaty, Henry V was to succeed Charles, to the detriment of the Dauphin. The high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429 for French control by armed conflict (Siege of Troyes).

Town Hall of Troyes
Town Hall of Troyes

The great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, although the city had numerous canals separating sections.

Main sights

Cathédrale Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul de Troyes (1549)
Cathédrale Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul de Troyes (1549)

Museums

Churches

Cathedral western front
Cathedral western front

Not having suffered from the last wars, Troyes has a high density of old religious buildings grouped close to the city centre. They include:

Several Troyes churches have sculpture by The Maitre de Chaource.

Climate

Climate data for Troyes (1981–2010 averages)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.2
(61.2)
20.4
(68.7)
23.7
(74.7)
27.8
(82.0)
31.0
(87.8)
37.9
(100.2)
38.6
(101.5)
40.6
(105.1)
33.7
(92.7)
30.3
(86.5)
22.8
(73.0)
19.0
(66.2)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
7.7
(45.9)
11.9
(53.4)
15.2
(59.4)
19.5
(67.1)
22.7
(72.9)
25.7
(78.3)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
16.3
(61.3)
10.1
(50.2)
6.7
(44.1)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.0
(35.6)
3.7
(38.7)
7.8
(46.0)
10.7
(51.3)
12.8
(55.0)
12.6
(54.7)
9.6
(49.3)
9.8
(49.6)
3.0
(37.4)
0.8
(33.4)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −23.0
(−9.4)
−17.6
(0.3)
−15.4
(4.3)
−6.2
(20.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.4
(32.7)
3.1
(37.6)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
−11.1
(12.0)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−23.0
(−9.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 50.5
(1.99)
42.1
(1.66)
47.7
(1.88)
50.9
(2.00)
61.7
(2.43)
56.6
(2.23)
54.4
(2.14)
52.2
(2.06)
53.3
(2.10)
63.6
(2.50)
51.2
(2.02)
60.6
(2.39)
644.8
(25.39)
Average precipitation days 10.6 9.2 10.5 9.5 10.5 9.3 7.6 7.7 8.2 9.7 10.3 11.3 114.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.6 88.3 143.8 184.8 215.0 229.4 235.5 228.2 179.2 123.6 66.6 53.6 1,816.4
Source: Météo France[9][10]

Population

The inhabitants of the commune are called Troyens.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 26,751—    
1800 24,061−1.50%
1806 27,196+2.06%
1821 25,078−0.54%
1831 23,740−0.55%
1836 25,563+1.49%
1841 25,469−0.07%
1846 25,702+0.18%
1851 27,376+1.27%
1856 33,071+3.85%
1861 34,613+0.92%
1866 35,678+0.61%
1872 38,113+1.11%
1876 41,275+2.01%
1881 46,067+2.22%
1886 46,972+0.39%
1891 50,330+1.39%
1896 52,998+1.04%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 53,146+0.06%
1906 53,447+0.11%
1911 55,486+0.75%
1921 55,215−0.05%
1926 58,321+1.10%
1931 58,804+0.17%
1936 57,961−0.29%
1946 58,805+0.14%
1954 58,819+0.00%
1962 67,406+1.72%
1968 74,898+1.77%
1975 72,165−0.53%
1982 63,579−1.79%
1990 59,255−0.88%
1999 60,958+0.32%
2007 61,823+0.18%
2012 60,009−0.59%
2017 61,652+0.54%
Source: EHESS[11] and INSEE (1968-2017)[12]

Economy

City centre
City centre
Houses in the old town
Houses in the old town

Troyes is home to the production headquarters of Lacoste company, a popular clothing brand. It is also home of prize-winning chocolatier Pascal Caffet.[13]

Transport

The train station Gare de Troyes offers connections to Paris, Dijon, Mulhouse and several regional destinations. Troyes is at the junction of motorways A5 (Paris – Troyes – Langres) and A26 (Calais – Reims – Troyes). Troyes – Barberey Airport is a small regional airport.

Sport

Troyes is the home of association football club Troyes AC, or ESTAC. ESTAC now plays in Domino's Ligue 2.

In popular culture

Notable people

Twin towns

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

Troyes is twinned with:[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  3. ^ "L'énigme de la Tombe Celte" (arte, French): 1 h 13 min 02 sec and following. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2a0w6dQAn0
  4. ^ Traces of the Roman paving have been found 3 m (9.84 ft) below the rue de la Ciré.("Balades dans l'histoire du vieux Troyes")
  5. ^ Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
  6. ^ Ptolemy, Geography 8.13, mentions the Tricasses and their city Augustobona.
  7. ^ Attwater, Donald. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, (1945) Reprint: 1981, p. 223.
  8. ^ Lloyd, John; Mitchison, John (2010). The Second Book of General Ignorance (First ed.). London: Faber and Faber Ltd. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-571-26965-5.
  9. ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Troyes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Climat Champagne-Ardenne" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  11. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Troyes, EHESS. (in French)
  12. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  13. ^ chocolatier. "Pascal Caffet, Meilleur Ouvrier de France pâtissier, Champion du monde des métiers du dessert". Pascal-caffet.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  14. ^ "Troyes (2010)". Board Game Geek.
  15. ^ "Troyes (2010)". Z-Man Games. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  16. ^ "Nos villes jumelles". ville-troyes.fr (in French). Troyes. Retrieved 16 November 2019.

Bibliography