Turkish Naval Forces
Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri
Seal of the Turkish Navy
Founded
  • July 10, 1920 (as the Directorate of Naval Affairs)[1]
  • July 1, 1949 (as the Turkish Naval Forces Command)[2]
Country Turkey
TypeNavy
RoleNaval warfare
Size45,000 active personnel[3]
55,000 reserve personnel[3]
Part ofTurkish Armed Forces
HeadquartersAnkara
Motto(s)"Always Ready"
ColorsBlue, White & Gold    
MarchTurkish Navy March Play
AnniversariesSeptember 27[1]
EquipmentList of equipment of the Turkish Naval Forces
List of active ships of the Turkish Naval Forces
Websitewww.dzkk.tsk.tr/en-US
Commanders
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Minister of National DefenceYaşar Güler
Chief of the General StaffGeneral Metin Gürak
CommanderAdmiral Ercüment Tatlıoğlu
Chief of Staff of Turkish Naval ForcesVice Admiral İbrahim Özdem Koçer
Insignia
Naval Aviation Roundel
Masthead Pennant

The Turkish Naval Forces (Turkish: Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Turkish: Türk Donanması), is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

The modern naval traditions and customs of the Turkish Navy can be traced back to 10 July 1920, when it was established as the Directorate of Naval Affairs during the Turkish War of Independence led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Since July 1949, the service has been officially known as the Turkish Naval Forces.

In 2008, the Turkish Navy had a reported active personnel strength of 48,600; this figure included an Amphibious Marines Brigade as well as several Special Forces and Commando detachments.[4] As of early 2021, the navy operates a wide variety of ships and 60 maritime aircraft.

History

Main article: Ottoman Navy

Ottoman fleet after Mudros

Following the demise of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I, on November 3, 1918, the fleet commander of the Ottoman Navy, rear admiral Arif Pasha, ordered all flags to be struck on all warships lying in the Golden Horn, and the Ottoman Navy ceased to exist.[5] The major surface combatants of the former Ottoman fleet (totalling 62,000 tons) were rendered inactive by the Allies and in accordance with the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the warships were disarmed during the last week of 1918. The battleship Turgut Reis and the cruisers Hamidiye and Mecidiye were substantially limited and kept inactive inside the Golden Horn by the occupying forces.[6] Due to its larger size, the battlecruiser Yavuz Sultan Selim was transferred to the Gulf of İzmit on the grounds that she could adversely affect the sea traffic inside the Golden Horn;[6] while her ammunition and guns were removed.[6] During this period, only a small number of Ottoman Navy vessels were allowed by the Allies to remain on active coast guard duties and were released from internment on 26 February 1919;[5] such as the torpedo boats Akhisar and Dıraç which patrolled the Sea of Marmara, the gunboat Hızır Reis which patrolled the Gulf of İzmir, and the minelayers Nusret and Tir-i Müjgan which conducted mine cleaning operations in the Gulf of Saros.[6]

Before the Turkish War of Independence began, the Bahriye Nazırlığı (Naval Ministry) sent the gunboat Preveze to Sinop and the gunboat Aydın Reis to Trabzon in February 1919 for surveillance, reconnaissance and patrol duties.[6] However, a lack of coal to fuel their propulsion systems caused the Preveze and Aydın Reis to remain in harbour until the end of 1919.[6] During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, these two gunboats did not return to Istanbul, despite heavy pressure from the Ottoman government and the Allies.[6] Instead, they were placed under the command of the Turkish liberation forces led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and headquartered in Ankara.[6]

Turkish War of Independence

Directorate of Naval Affairs

A large number of the naval officers and students of the Naval Academy went to Anatolia for participating in the Turkish War of Independence. On 10 July 1920, the Directorate of Naval Affairs (Umur-u Bahriye Müdürlüğü) was founded in Ankara under the Ministry of National Defense and was given the duty of organizing and maintaining strategic logistical shipping through the Black Sea in order to provide the Turkish liberation forces in Anatolia with weapons and other supplies.[6] All existing naval institutions in the parts of Anatolia that were administered by the Ankara government were assigned to this Directorate.[6] The Directorate of Naval Affairs was extremely successful in organizing local surface units and volunteers and in forming an intelligence network to discover the movements of the enemy ships.[6] As a result, logistic transportation was carried out effectively.[6] The Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara made an agreement with the Soviet Union to procure supplies for the Turkish liberation forces.[6] Aydın Reis left from Samsun (on 16 September 1920) and Preveze left from Trabzon (on 30 September 1920) for Novorossiysk in order to transport weapons, other supplies and financial aid to the Turkish liberation forces.[5][6] The Trabzon Shipping Detachment, which was founded on 21 September 1920, was renamed as the Trabzon Naval Shipping Command with the directive issued by the Ministry of National Defense on 26 October 1920.[6] On January 1, 1921, the Samsun Naval Command was formed.[7] In the subsequent stages of the Turkish War of Independence, due to the growing need for maritime shipping and the increase in the quantity and quality of the units and small ships, the organizational structure of the Directorate of Naval Affairs was gradually extended.[6]

In the same period, a number of Turkish civilian seamen formed a group under the name of the Naval Aid Organization (Muavenet-i Bahriye).[7] This group secretly obtained cannons, light weapons, ammunition, landmines and ordnance from the former Ottoman military warehouses in Istanbul that were under the control of the occupying Allies and sent them to the Turkish liberation forces in Anatolia with civil water transportation crafts.[7]

Presidency of the Naval Department

On 1 March 1921, the Directorate of Naval Affairs was transformed into the Presidency of the Naval Department (Bahriye Dairesi Reisliği) and had control over the Naval Commands in Samsun, Amasra and İzmit (formed on 28 June 1921); the Naval Transport Detachment in Trabzon; the Naval Transport Command in Ereğli; the Naval Detachment in Lake Eğirdir; and the Naval Liaison Group in Fethiye (formed on 16 March 1921.)[6] During the War of Independence, Turkish naval forces transported 220,000 tons of weapons, ammunition and equipment to the land forces in Anatolia.[7]

Ministry of the Navy

Following the Armistice of Mudanya on 11 October 1922, the former Ottoman Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Nazırlığı) building in the Kasımpaşa quarter of Istanbul, on the Golden Horn, became the headquarters of the Istanbul Naval Command on 14 November 1922.[6] The establishment of the Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Vekâleti) of the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara, was decided by the Grand National Assembly on 29 December 1924, and Topçu İhsan Bey (İhsan Eryavuz) was appointed the first (and only) Naval Minister of Turkey.[8][9] When the Republic of Turkey was established on 29 October 1923, the former Ottoman vessels that remained under Turkish control were as follows:[10]

In active service: 2 cruisers (Hamidiye, Peyk-i Şevket), 2 yachts (Ertuğrul, Söğütlü), 1 destroyer (Taşoz), 4 gunboats (Burak Reis, Hızır Reis, Kemal Reis, İsa Reis), 1 minelayer (Nusret), 1 aviso (Galata), 4 tugs and 7 motorboats. Out of service (needing repair): 2 battleships (Yavuz Sultan Selim, Turgut Reis), 2 cruisers (Berk-i Satvet, Mecidiye), 4 destroyers (Muâvenet-i Millîye, Nümune-i Hamiyet, Basra, Samsun), 6 torpedo boats (Sultanhisar, Yunus, Akhisar, Dıraç, Musul, Berk Efşan), 1 gunboat (Sakız).

Preparations were made to carry out the maintenance and overhaul of small-tonnage warships (the three Taşoz-class destroyers and the gunboats Burak Reis, Sakız, İsa Reis and Kemal Reis) and to make them combat-ready.[6] Thus, the cruiser Hamidiye, which was planned to be employed as a Cadet Training Ship, was overhauled.[6]

During the 1920s, a commitment to refurbish the battlecruiser TCG Yavuz (which remained in active service until 1950) as the centerpiece of the republic's fleet was the only constant element of the various naval policies which were put forward.[11] The battlecruiser remained in İzmit until 1926, in a neglected state:[12][13][14] only two of her boilers worked, she could not steer or steam, and she still had two unrepaired scars from the mine damage in 1918. Enough money was raised to allow the purchase of a new 26,000-metric-ton (26,000-long-ton) floating dock from the German company Flender,[6] as Yavuz could not be towed anywhere without risk of her sinking in rough seas.[15] The French company Atelier et Chantiers de St. Nazaire-Penhöet was contracted in December 1926 to oversee the subsequent refit, which was carried out by the Gölcük Naval Shipyard.[13] Since the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 required the disarmament of the Turkish Straits, the infrastructures belonging to the Turkish Naval Forces on the Bosphorus (in Istinye) and on the Golden Horn were transferred to Gölcük.[6] In this period, Gölcük was designated as the main Turkish naval base.[6]

The overhaul works of TCG Yavuz proceeded over three years (1927–1930); they were delayed when several compartments of the dock collapsed while being pumped out. Yavuz was slightly damaged before she could be refloated and the dock had to be repaired before the overhaul works could be resumed. The Minister of the Navy, İhsan Eryavuz, was convicted of embezzlement in the resulting investigation which became known as the Yavuz-Havuz case (havuz meaning "dock" in Turkish naval engineering terminology.)[15] The investigation revealed that Ihsan Eryavuz had reduced the insurance obligation of the French company (Atelier et Chantiers de St. Nazaire-Penhöet) from 5 million to 1.5 million Turkish liras, and was convicted guilty of fraud,[16] which resulted in the abolition of the Ministry of the Navy on 27 December 1927.[7][17]

Undersecretariat of the Sea

Following the dissolution of the Ministry of the Navy, the naval forces were reorganized under the Ministry of National Defense[9] and on 16 January 1928[17] the Undersecretariat of the Sea (Deniz Müsteşarlığı) was established in order to undertake the duties of the former Ministry of the Navy.[7] With this new reorganization, the Turkish Fleet Command was put under the command of the Turkish General Staff in terms of administration and logistics.[6] On 2 November 1930, the Naval War College (Deniz Harp Akademisi) commenced training and education of Staff Officers at its facilities in the Yıldız Palace.[6] During World War II, the naval schools were temporarily relocated from Istanbul to Mersin for security reasons and conducted education and training activities in this city.[6]

In 1933, with the approval of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, Gölcük was designated as the main base of the Turkish Navy.[6] In the same year, the first new ship built at the Gölcük Naval Shipyard, the tanker TCG Gölcük, was laid down; and launched the following year.[6] With the signing of the Montreux Convention in 1936, Turkey's sovereignty over the Turkish Straits was internationally recognized, and Fortified Area Commands were founded on the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, with Naval Detachments assigned to these Commands.[6]

Naval Forces Command

The Turkish Naval Forces were represented under the title of the Naval Undersecreteriat at the Turkish General Staff Headquarters in Ankara from 1928 to 1949.[6] The historic decree of the Higher Military Council on 15 August 1949 led to the foundation of the Turkish Naval Forces Command (Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı.)[6] After Turkey joined NATO on 18 February 1952, the Turkish Naval Forces were integrated into the organizational branches of the alliance.[6]

Structure

TCG Anadolu (L-400) at the Bosporus strait during the naval parade for celebrating the centenary of the Turkish Republic on October 29, 2023. TCG Anadolu was commissioned on April 10, 2023.[18][19][20] Baykar MIUS Kızılelma is a jet-powered UCAV designed to operate on TCG Anadolu.[18][21][22]
TCG Istanbul (F-515), the lead ship of the Istanbul-class frigates, at the Bosporus strait during the naval parade for celebrating the centenary of the Turkish Republic in 2023. Built as part of the MILGEM project, the Istanbul-class frigates use Turkish systems such as the Aselsan CENK 3D multi-beam AESA radar,[23] Roketsan MİDLAS VLS,[24] Sapan SAM,[24] SİPER SAM,[24] and Atmaca SSM.[24]

In 1961, the Turkish Naval Forces Command was organized into four main subordinate commands: The Turkish Fleet Command, the Turkish Northern Sea Area Command, the Turkish Southern Sea Area Command and the Turkish Naval Training Command.[6] In 1995, the Turkish Naval Training Command was renamed as the Turkish Naval Training and Education Command.[6]

Current Structure

Marines and Special Forces

The Turkish Navy maintains marine, explosive ordnance disposal and special operations units such as:

Equipment

Naval Aviation Command

Further information: List of active ships of the Turkish Naval Forces, List of equipment of the Turkish Naval Forces, Lists of ships of the Turkish Navy, and List of miscellaneous ships of the Turkish Navy

Modernisation programmes

The Turkish Navy is currently undergoing several modernisation programmes to replace its ageing equipment. As of 2023, the major modernisation projects are as follows:

Ships & Submarines

TF-2000-class air defense destroyer

A total of 16 ships of three types (Ada-class corvettes, Istanbul-class frigates and TF2000-class destroyers) will be built within the scope of the National Ship (MILGEM) project, which aims to meet the warship needs of the Turkish Navy through national means. The first five ships built within this scope, the corvettes TCG Heybeliada (F-511), TCG Büyükada (F-512), TCG Burgazada (F-513), TCG Kınalıada (F-514), and the frigate TCG Istanbul (F-515), have been delivered to the Naval Forces Command.

The design activities of the TF-2000 class AAW destroyer,[25] the last phase of the MILGEM Project, was started by the Design Project Office (DPO) of the Turkish Navy in 2017.[25] Initially four ships will be built, with the option to build up to eight in total.[25] The first TF-2000 class destroyer is planned to be delivered to the Turkish Navy in 2027.[25][26]

Istanbul-class frigate

The Istanbul-class frigate programme was launched to construct four frigates to replace the aging Yavuz-class frigates in the mid-2020s. Developed under the MILGEM indigenous warship program, the Istanbul-class is an enlarged variant of the Ada-class anti-submarine warfare corvette. The Istanbul-class frigates will have around 50% increased fuel capacity and operational range capability compared to the Ada-class corvettes.[27]

The first Istanbul-class frigate, TCG Istanbul (F-515) was launched on 23 January 2021.[28][29][30] TCG Istanbul (F-515) was commissioned on January 19, 2024.[31][32]

The Istanbul-class frigates use Turkish systems such as the Aselsan CENK 3D multi-beam AESA radar,[33] Roketsan MİDLAS VLS,[24] Sapan SAM,[24] SİPER SAM,[24] and Atmaca SSM.[24]

Barbaros-class frigate modernisation

TCG Salihreis (F-246) at the Dardanelles strait during the centenary of the Gallipoli campaign in 2015. The upgraded Barbaros-class frigates are equipped with the SMART-S Mk2 3D radar and have two Mk. 41 Mod 8 VLS for 64 × RIM-162 ESSM and two Mk-141 launchers for 8 × RGM-84 Harpoon.

On 3 April 2018, a contract was signed between the AselsanHAVELSAN joint venture and the Undersecretariat for Defense Industries (SSM) regarding the mid-life upgrade project of the Barbaros-class frigates.[34][35] The project includes the integration of new weapons systems, a new combat management system, and new radars and sensors; together with the replacement of the original mast with an integrated mast and various upgrades. All four ships in the class are included in this project. The project is scheduled to be completed by 2025.[36]

The first two Barbaros-class vessels (F-244, F-245) have received an 8-cell Mk41 vertical launcher system (VLS) module, which replaced the obsolete Mk.29 Sea Sparrow launcher, while the slightly longer Salihreis-subclass vessels (F-246, F-247) have received a second 8-cell Mk 41 VLS module which brought the total number of cells to 16 (they can store a total of 64 RIM-162 ESSM missiles). Additionally, the old AWS-9 3D air search radars in all four vessels have been replaced by the SMART-S Mk2 3D radars.

The mid-life modernisation program also projects to enhance EW capabilities, double the number of anti-ship missiles that the vessels are equipped with, while also replacing the Harpoon missiles by the locally designed and produced Atmaca anti-ship missiles. The project also includes the substitution of the Oerlikon Sea Zenith CIWS systems with one Phalanx CIWS and one Aselsan Gökdeniz CIWS; the replacement of the existing TACTICOS combat management system with the Havelsan "B-SYS Combat Management System", and the installation of a 127mm main gun to the frigates. Finally, against asymmetric threats that the vessels may face, 2x2 L/UMTAS launchers will be integrated to the frigates.[37][38]

G-class frigate modernisation

TCG Göksu (F-497) in the Mediterranean Sea on August 21, 2023. The G-class frigates are equipped with the GENESIS combat management system, SMART-S Mk2 3D radar and Mk. 41 VLS, which has been installed in front of the Mk. 13 GMLS.

The G-class frigates of the Turkish Navy have undergone a major modernisation program which included the retrofitting of a Turkish digital combat management system named GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Savaş İdare Sistemi).[39] The system was designed and implemented jointly by the Turkish Navy and HAVELSAN, a Turkish electronic hardware systems and software company.[40] The GENESIS upgraded ships were delivered between 2007 and 2011.[41][42]

The GENESIS advanced combat management system has the capacity of tracking more than 1,000 tactical targets, thanks to its digital sensor data fusion, automatic threat evaluation, weapon engagement opportunities and Link-16/22 system integration.[43]

The modernisation program also includes the addition of an 8-cell Mk.41 VLS for RIM-162 ESSM, together with the upgrade of the Mk-92 fire control system by Lockheed Martin;[44] the retrofitting of the SMART-S Mk2 3D air search radar which replaced the AN/SPS-49;[45] and the addition of a new long range sonar.[46][47]

The Mk.41 vertical launching system (VLS) has been fitted in front of the Mk.13 launcher. TCG Gediz was the first ship in the class to receive the Mk.41 VLS installation.[48]

The G-class frigates of the Turkish Navy were also modified with the ASIST landing platform system at the Istanbul Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate the S-70B Seahawk helicopter in all types of weather conditions.

Preveze-class submarine modernisation

TCG Preveze (S-353) surfaces at the Gulf of Taranto during the NATO exercise Sorbet Royal 2005

Half-life Modernisation Project of Preveze-class submarine covers the modernisation of TCG Preveze (S-353), TCG Sakarya (S-354), TCG 18 Mart (S-355) and TCG Anafartalar (S-356) submarines in the inventory of the Naval Forces Command. Modernisation activities are carried out by STM-ASELSAN-HAVELSAN and ASFAT Partnership.

In the modernisation process, it is planned to carry out the procurement activities of Inertial Navigation System, Salinity-Depth-Density Measurement System, Floating Antenna, Satellite Communication Mast, Assault and Navigation Periscope System, Emergency Underwater Communication System, Cooled Water System, Static Converter and Air Freshening System by STM.[49]

Reis-class submarine

The Reis-class submarine class vessels are the first submarines in the Turkish Navy with air-independent propulsion (AIP), which is made possible by fuel cell technology. The submarines can also deploy heavyweight torpedoes and anti-ship missiles, and lay mines against targets, both at sea and on land. Apart from Piri Reis, five more submarines of the project are expected to be commissioned by 2027. The sea trials of the first submarine of the class, Piri Reis, began on December 6, 2022.[50] The outfitting of the project's second submarine Hızır Reis and the hull production phases of two other vessels are ongoing. In 2015, Gölcük Naval Shipyard commenced a 10-year programme to build six Type 214 submarines, locally known as the Reis-class submarines, with technology from Thyssen-Krupp Marine Systems of Germany.[51]

Aircraft, UAVs & UCAVs

The Baykar MIUS Kızılelma is a jet-powered,[21] low-observable,[52] supersonic,[53] carrier-capable[54] UCAV designed to operate on TCG Anadolu.[18][22][21][55][56]

Baykar MIUS Kızılelma UCAV

Developed for the Turkish Navy and Turkish Air Force as part of Project MIUS, the jet-engined Baykar Kızılelma UCAV is designed to operate on TCG Anadolu.[21][18][22] Its maiden flight took place on December 14, 2022.[21][55][56]

Bayraktar TB3 UCAV

In February 2021, chairman of the Presidency of Defense Industries (SSB) Ismail Demir made public a new type of UAV being developed by Baykar that is planned to be stationed to Turkey's first amphibious assault ship, TCG Anadolu.[57] The new aircraft being developed is a naval version of the Bayraktar TB2 equipped with a local engine developed by TEI.[58] According to the initial plans the ship was expected to be equipped with F-35B fighter jets but following the removal of Turkey from the procurement program, the vessel got into a modification process to be able to accommodate UAVs. Mr. Demir stated that between 30 and 50 folding-winged Bayraktar TB3 UAVs will be able to land and take off using the deck of Anadolu.[59][22][60][61][62][63]

USVs

ULAQ

ULAQ is the first indigenous and locally developed Armed Unmanned Surface Vehicle (AUSV). The vehicle is being developed by a joint venture between Ares Shipyard and METEKSAN. The vessel is planned to be equipped with four Cirit and two L-UMTAS anti-tank missile systems provided by Roketsan. Moreover, ULAQ is projected to have a 400-kilometer-long cruising range with 65 km per hour maximum speed. The vessel is planned to be operated in missions such as reconnaissance, surveillance and intelligence, surface warfare, asymmetric warfare, armed escort and force protection, and strategic facility security.[64] Currently, the project is undergoing sea trials and will start to fire tests through the third quarter of 2021.[65][66] First firing test of the vessel was completed on 26 May 2021 by destroying a designated target with Roketsan Cirit Missile.[67]

TCB Marlin

Main article: TCB Marlin SİDA

At a ceremony held on 9 January 2024, she entered servis in the Turkish Naval Forces as the first Armed USV with the hull number TCB-1101 and name Marlin SİDA.[citation needed]

Istanbul Naval Museum

Late 16th or early 17th century Ottoman galley known as Tarihi Kadırga at the Istanbul Naval Museum, built in the period between the reigns of Sultan Murad III (1574–1595) and Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–1687),[68][69] as evidenced by AMS radiocarbon dating and dendrochronological research.[69] She is the only surviving original galley in the world,[68][70] with the oldest continuously maintained wooden hull.[71]

The Istanbul Naval Museum is located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey. It was established in 1897 by the Ottoman Minister of the Navy (Bahriye Nazırı) Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Pasha.[72][73]

The museum contains an important collection of military artifacts pertaining to the Ottoman Navy.[72] In the maritime field, it is Turkey's largest museum, with a great variety of collections. Around 20,000 pieces are present in its collection, including the late 16th or early 17th century Ottoman Navy galley known as Tarihi Kadırga, built in the period between the reigns of Sultan Murad III (1574–1595) and Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–1687),[68][69] as evidenced by AMS radiocarbon dating and dendrochronological research.[69] She is the only surviving original galley in the world,[68][70] and has the world's oldest continuously maintained wooden hull.[71]

Being connected to the Turkish Naval Forces Command, it is also the country's first military museum.[74]

In the early 21st century a new exhibition building was constructed. The construction began in 2008, and the building was reopened on October 4, 2013. It has two floors above ground level and one basement floor, all covering 20,000 m2 (220,000 sq ft).[74]

The basement consists of diverse items like figureheads, ornaments of naval ships, ship models, and pieces of the Byzantine chain that was used for blocking the entrance of the Golden Horn during the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453. In the first and second floors, a large number of imperial and other caïques are exhibited.

Many exhibition items underwent special restoration and conservation works due to deformation of the raw materials caused by heat, light, humidity, atmospheric conditions, vandalism and other factors.[74]

Insignia

Main article: Ranks of the Turkish Navy

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
 Turkish Naval Forces[75]
Various
[a]
Büyük amiral Genelkurmay başkanlığı Oramiral Koramiral Tümamiral Tuğamiral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Bahriyeli
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Turkish Naval Forces[75]
No insignia
Astsubay kıdemli başçavuş Astsubay başçavuş Astsubay kıdemli üstçavuş Astsubay üstçavuş Astsubay kıdemli çavuş Astsubay çavuş Astsubay astçavuş Uzman çavuş Çavuş Uzman onbaşı Onbaşı Er

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Student officer insignia designates school grade rather than military seniority.

References

  1. ^ a b History of Turkish Naval Forces (Official Turkish Naval Forces website)
  2. ^ 1949 Temmuzunda Türk Silâhlı Kuvvetleri yeniden örgütlendirilerek, Genelkurmay Başkanlığına bağlı Kara, Deniz, Hava Kuvvetleri kuruldu., Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, Türk Tarihi, Silahlı Kuvvetleri ve Atatürkçülük, Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, 1973, p. 65. (in Turkish)
  3. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies (15 February 2023). The Military Balance 2023. London: Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 9781032508955.
  4. ^ Library of Congress – Federal Research Division (August 2008), Country Profile: Turkey (PDF), pp. 25–26
  5. ^ a b c Bernd Langensiepen, Ahmet Güleryüz, The Ottoman Steam Navy, 1828–1923, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1995, ISBN 1-55750-659-0, p. 57.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah "Hata Sayfası". Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Cevat Ülkekul, "Kurtuluş Savaşı'nda Türk Denizcileri ve Cumhuriyet Bahriyesinin Kuruluşu" ("Turkish Seamen during the War of Independence and Establishment of the Republican Navy"), Uluslararası Piri Reis Sempozyumu, 27–29 Eylül 2004 (Bildiri), Office of Navigation of Hydrography and Oceanography. (in Turkish)
  8. ^ Ümit Özdağ, Atatürk ve İnönü dönemlerinde Ordu-Siyaset İlişkisi, Bilgeoğuz, 2006, p. 97. (in Turkish)
  9. ^ a b Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi, Vol 12, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı, İslâm Ansiklopedisi Genel Müdürlüğü, 1988, [page needed] (in Turkish)
  10. ^ Bernd Langensiepen, Ahmet Güleryüz, The Ottoman Steam Navy, 1828–1923, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1995, ISBN 1-55750-659-0, p. 59.
  11. ^ Güvenç and Barlas, p. 7
  12. ^ Gardiner and Gray, p. 391
  13. ^ a b Whitley, p. 241
  14. ^ Worth, p. 271
  15. ^ a b Brice, p. 277
  16. ^ "The Yavuz-Havuz Case (Turkish)". Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  17. ^ a b Genel Tarihçe, Turkish Navy official site.
  18. ^ a b c d Emma Helfrich (11 April 2023). "Turkey's 'Drone Carrier' Amphibious Assault Ship Enters Service". thedrive.com.
  19. ^ "Turkish Navy Officially Welcomes Its New Flagship, TCG Anadolu". TRT World. 11 April 2023.
  20. ^ "TCG Anadolu (L-400) at the Bosporus strait in Istanbul". TRT Haber. 23 April 2023.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Baykar's unmanned fighter aircraft completes first flight". baykartech.com. 15 December 2022.
  22. ^ a b c d Tayfun Özberk (1 May 2022). "Here Is How UAVs Will Be Recovered Aboard TCG Anadolu". navalnews.com. Naval News.
  23. ^ "CENK Long Range AESA Air & Surveillance Radar". aselsan.com. Aselsan.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Tayfun Ozberk (24 January 2024). "Turkey inks deal to replace four foreign-made weapons with local types". defensenews.com.
  25. ^ a b c d Tayfun Özberk (25 August 2021). "IDEF 2021: Turkey Full Steam Ahead with TF-2000 Air Defense Destroyer Project". navalnews.com.
  26. ^ "TF-2000 Air Defence Warfare (ADW) Destroyer | Turkish Defence News".
  27. ^ Ozberk, Tayfun (23 January 2021). "Turkey launches the lead ship of I-class frigates "Istanbul"". navalnews.com.
  28. ^ Yıldırım, Göksel (17 January 2021). "Milli fırkateyn 'İstanbul' denize indiriliyor". aa.com.tr (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency.
  29. ^ "Cumhurbaşkanı Erdoğan: Kendi savaş gemisini tasarlayan 10 ülke içinde yer alıyoruz". aa.com.tr (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 23 January 2021.
  30. ^ "MİLGEM Projesi'nin 5'inci gemisi İstanbul (F-515) Fırkateyni'nin denize iniş töreni". aa.com.tr (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 23 January 2021.
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