Red Cloud (foreground), a type V2-ME-A1, alongside USNS David C. Shanks, at the Golden Gate at San Francisco, California, 1950s. On the bow is a tugboat fender, also call beards or bow pudding, which are rope padding to protect the bow.
Red Cloud (foreground), a type V2-ME-A1, alongside USNS David C. Shanks, at the Golden Gate at San Francisco, California, 1950s. On the bow is a tugboat fender, also call beards or bow pudding, which are rope padding to protect the bow.

The Type V ship is a United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM) designation for World War II tugboats. Type V was used in World War II, Korean War and the Vietnam War. Type V ships were used to move ships and barges. Type V tugboats were made of either steel or wood hulls. There were four types of tugboats ordered for World War II. The largest type V design was the sea worthy 186-foot (57 m) long steel hull, V4-M-A1. The V4-M-A1 design was used by a number of manufacturers; a total of 49 were built. A smaller steel hull tugboat was the 94-foot (29 m) V2-ME-A1; 26 were built. The largest wooden hull was the 148-foot (45 m) V3-S-AH2, of which 14 were built. The smaller wooden hull was the 58-foot (18 m) V2-M-AL1, which 35 were built. Most V2-M-AL1 tugboats were sent to England for the war efforts under the lend-lease act. The Type V tugs served across the globe during Work War II including: Pacific War, European theatre and in the United States. SS Farallon and other Type V tugs were used to help built Normandy ports, including Mulberry harbour, on D-Day, June 6, 1944 and made nine round trips to Normandy to deliver Phoenix breakwaters.[1][2]

Tugboats are used to maneuver vessels and barges by pushing or towing them. Tugs are needed to move vessels that either should not move by themselves, such as large ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal, or those that can not move by themselves, like as barges, disabled ships, or log rafts.[3] Tugboats are powerful for their small size and are strongly built. Early tugboats used steam engines, but most have diesel engines now. Many tugboats have firefighting water cannons, allowing them to assist in firefighting, especially in harbors. Some minesweepers like USS Vireo, USS Lark and USS Kingfisher were converted to ocean tugs for the war.

Ships in class

Satanta YTM-270, a V2-ME-A1, is preparing to move the new USS Andrew Jackson to dry dock after her launching at Mare Island, 15 September 1962.
Satanta YTM-270, a V2-ME-A1, is preparing to move the new USS Andrew Jackson to dry dock after her launching at Mare Island, 15 September 1962.

V2-ME-A1

Named for small US ports. Steel hull, 325 tons, 100 feet long, beam 25 feet, draft 11.5 feet. Engines 805 or 1,060 horsepower. Use as Army Transport Service or US Navy tugs, with designations of YT, YTB, or YTM (Yard Tug Medium). Built by" Birchfield Shipbuilding & Boiler Co, Ind de Tacoma in Washington 6 tugs; Canulette Shipbuilding Co. de in Slidell, La. 4 tugs; Calumet Shipyard & Drydock Co. de in Chicago, Ill. 5 tugs; Ira. S. Bushey & Sons de in Brooklyn. NY. 5 tugs; General Ship & Engine Works in East Boston, Mass. 2 tugs; and Brunswick Marine Construction Corp in Brunswick. Ga. 4 tugs.[4]

V4-M-A1

Trinidad Head, a V4-M-A1 tug, in New York July 1943
Trinidad Head, a V4-M-A1 tug, in New York July 1943

The V4-M-A1 was the largest and most powerful tugs in the world when they were built. Each was named after lighthouses, built in 1943. Steel hull, 1,613 tons, 195 foot long, beam 37.5 foot, draft 15.5 foot. Max. speed 14 knots. There were two engine manufacturers: National Supply Company, with 8-cylinder sets of 3,200 bhp and the Enterprise Engine & Trading Company with 6 cylinders and 2,340 bhp power. The V4s operated by Moran Towing & Transportation in New York on behalf of the War Shipping Administration. Built by: Avondale Marine in Westego, LA, General Ships & Engine in East Boston, MA, Pennsylvania Shipbuilding in Beaumont, TX, Globe Shipbuilding in Superior, WI, Froemming Brothers in Milwaukee, WI, Pendleton Shipbuilding in New Orleans, LA.[21][22][23][24]

V3-S-AH2

Compeller Tugboat on first on test runs, a type V3-S-AH2, built in 1944 by the Puget Sound Shipbuilding Company at Olympia, Wa., US Navy YN-14
Compeller Tugboat on first on test runs, a type V3-S-AH2, built in 1944 by the Puget Sound Shipbuilding Company at Olympia, Wa., US Navy YN-14

Some classed as YTB-Yard Tug Big. A Douglas fir wood hull ship, 1,220 tons. Engine was a reciprocal steam triple expansion. Max of 1,000 hp. Max of 10 knots without tow. About 6 knots with a tow. Range of 1,500 miles. Manned by a crew of 27.Built by Corpus Christi SB, Puget Sound SB Company, Standard SB Company of San Pedro, California, and Astoria SB of Astoria OR. Dimensions: Length 157 feet long, beam 32 feet, depth 18 feet, draft 15 feet.[26]

V2-M-AL1

YTL-718, a V2-M-AL1, on the quay wall at Navy Yard Mare Island, 8 November 1945
YTL-718, a V2-M-AL1, on the quay wall at Navy Yard Mare Island, 8 November 1945

Port Sewall class tug. Named for American ports. All but one tug went for Lend-Lease use, some serviced in the Mediterranean Sea in WW2. V2-M-AL1 were: Wood hull, 90 tons, beam 19 foot, diesel engine with 240 horsepower, fuel Oil: 1920 gallons. Built by Puget Sound SB, Standard SB, Steinbach IW, Eureka Shipbuilding, Arlington SB, Texas SB, Siletz BW, Blair Company, Marinette Marine and Texas SB.[27][28]

ATR-1 class rescue tug

USS ATR-31
USS ATR-31

ATR-1-class - Auxiliary Tug Rescue was a wooden hulled rescue tug that was built by Wheeler SB, Northwest Shipbuilding, Frank L. Sample, Jakobson Shipyard, Camden SB, Lynch SB, and Fulton Shipyard in 1944 and 1945. The 89 ATR-1 tugs serviced WW2 in both Asiatic-Pacific Theater and the European theatre of World War II. The 40 ATR-1 Class had a displacement of 852 ton lite and 1,315 ton fully loaded. They had a length of 165' 6", a beam of 33' 4" and draft of 15' 6". Top speed of 12.2 knots. The largest boom had a capacity of 4 tons. They were armed with one 3-inch/50-caliber gun and two single Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. The crew complement was five Officers and 47 Enlisted men. They had a fuel capacity of 1,620 Bbls. The propulsion was one Fulton Iron Works vertical triple-expansion reciprocating steam engine with two Babcock and Wilcox "D"-type boilers with a single propeller of 1,600shp. They had two turbo drive Ships Service Generators, rated at 60 kW 120 V D.C. Example is USS ATR-31[30][31][32][33]

Cherokee-class tugboat

USS Navajo (AT-64)
USS Navajo (AT-64)

The Cherokee class of fleet tugboats, originally known as the Navajo class, were built for the US Navy for World War II with a displacement of 1,235 long tons (1,255 t). Had a length of 205 ft (62 m), a beam of 38 ft 6 in (11.73 m), a draft of 18 ft (5.5 m). Has propulsion of a diesel-electric engine with 1 shaft at 3,600 hp (2,685 kW) and a top speed of 16.5 knots. Class AT for Auxiliary Tug. Built by Bethlehem Mariners Harbor, Staten Island, Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, and United Engineering Co.. Example: USS Navajo (AT-64).[34]

Abnaki-class tugboat

US Abnaki-96 (ATF-96)
US Abnaki-96 (ATF-96)

Abnaki-class tugboat were Ocean fleet tugboats that were built for the US Navy for World War II with a displacement of 1,589 tons, a length of 205 ft 0 in (62.48 m), a beam of 38 ft 6 in (11.73 m), and a draft of 15 ft 4 in (4.67 m). They had a propulsion of: 4 × General Motors 12-278A diesel main engines, 4 × General Electric generators, 3 × General Motors 3-268A auxiliary services engines, with a single screw of 3,600 shp (2,700 kW) and a top speed: 16.5 knots. Class ATF for Auxiliary Tug Fleet. Built by Charleston Shipbuilding & Drydock. Example: USS Abnaki (ATF-96).[35]

Sotoyomo-class tugboat

Sotoyomo-class tugboat
Sotoyomo-class tugboat

Sotoyomo-class tugboat were tugboats that were built for the US Navy for World War II with a displacement of 534 long tons (543 t) light, 835 long tons (848 t) full, a length of 143 ft (44 m), a beam of 33 ft (10 m) and a draft of 13 ft (4.0 m). They had a propulsion of diesel-electric engine with a single screw and a top speed of 13 knots. Harbor tugs (YT) were named after American Indian tribes: Example tug is the USS Ontario (AT-13)[36][37]

Cahto-class district harbor tug

Cahto-class district harbor tug
Cahto-class district harbor tug

Cahto-class district harbor tug was a harbour tug of the US Navy with a displacement of 410 long tons (417 t), a length of 110 ft 0 in (33.53 m), a beam of 27 ft 0 in (8.23 m) and a draft of 11 ft 4 in (3.45 m). They had a propulsion of diesel-electric engine with a single screw and a top speed of 12 knots. A crew of 12. Sample tug: USS Cahto (YTB-215). Built by Kneass Boat Works, Anderson & Cristofani, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Consolidated Shipbuilding Corp., Defoe Shipbuilding Company, Gulfport Shipbuilding Corporation, Gibbs Gas Engine, Bushey & Sons Shipyard, W. A. Robinson, Greenport Basin, Mathis, Elizabeth City, Stone Boat Yard, Martinac, Ira Bushey, Luders Marine, Westergard, Everett-Pacific, United States Coast Guard Yard, Commercial Iron Works and Bethlehem Shipbuilding San Pedro.[38][39][40][41]

Hisada class harbor tug

Hisada class harbor tug is a subclass of Cahto-class district harbor tug. Hisada class harbor had the same design as the 260-ton Cahto-class district harbor tug. Harbor tugs (YT) were named after American Indian tribes. Example tugs: USS Nabigwon (YTB-521) and USS Wabanquot (YTB-525).[42]

Woban Class District Harbor Tug

Woban Class District Harbor Tug is a subclass of Cahto-class district harbor tug. Hisada class harbor had the same design as the 260-ton Cahto-class district harbor tug. Harbor tugs (YT) were named after American Indian tribes. Built by Pacific Coast Engineering, Puget Sound Navy Yard, and Consolidated Shipbuilding Corporation. Example tugs: Hoga (YT-146) and USS Nokomis (YT-142).[43]

US Army

US Army Motor Towing Launch (MTL) Tugs in 1944
US Army Motor Towing Launch (MTL) Tugs in 1944

For World War 2 the US Army had tugboats built to move cargo barges in harbors.[44]

Bagaduce-class tugboat WW1

Bagaduce-class tugboat were World War 1 tug boats used in WW1 and WW2. WW1 called YMT-Yard Motor Tug. Engineered with displacement of 1,000 long tons (1,016 t) (normal) and a length of 156 ft 8 in (47.75 m), a beam of 30 ft (9.1 m) and a draft of 14 ft 7 in (4.45 m), with a top speed of 12.4 knots. USS Example USS Sagamore (AT-20).[51]

Arapaho-class fleet tug WW1

Arapaho-class fleet tug
Arapaho-class fleet tug

Arapaho-class fleet tug were World War 1 tug boats used in WW1 and WW2. Engineered with a displacement of 575 tons and a length of 122 ft 6 in (37.34 m), a beam of 24 ft (7.3 m) and a draft of 12 ft 10 in (3.91 m), with a top speed of 11 knots. Ships in class:

Canada Tugs

SS Rockdoe Canada tug, renamed Hoedic in 1947
SS Rockdoe Canada tug, renamed Hoedic in 1947

Modified Ocean Warrior-class Tugs built by Kingston Ship Builder in Kingston ON. GT of 233 tons, 105 feet long, Beam of 26.2' and Draft of 12.5' with 1000HP, max of 14 knots, Steel hull, built in 1945 and 1946.[53][54]

Notable incidents

See also

References

  1. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com V type ships
  2. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com, Yard Tugs (YT, YTB, YTM, YTL) Built or Acquired During WWII
  3. ^ "How Pygmy Tugboats Dock a Giant Liner." Popular Science Monthly, March 1930, p. 22-23.
  4. ^ Directory of The Ocean Going Tugs type V2-ME-A1, by Hans van der Ster
  5. ^ navsource, Pogatacut (YT 267)
  6. ^ navsource, Red Cloud (YT 268)
  7. ^ navsource, Sakarissa (YT 269)
  8. ^ www.amphibiousforces.org
  9. ^ Satanta (YTB-270)
  10. ^ retiredtugs.org, photo V2-ME-A1, Port Orchard, Santanta (YT 270), Maris Pearl
  11. ^ navsource YTB 723
  12. ^ Port Hudson-Wabaquasset (YTB-724)
  13. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com U.S. Army Ocean Tugs (LT, ST) Built During WWII
  14. ^ navsource, Nesutan (YT 338)
  15. ^ navsource, Swatane (YT 344)
  16. ^ navesource, Oratamin (YT 347)
  17. ^ navsource, YTM-342
  18. ^ tugboatinformation.com, LTC Herbert L. Kidwell
  19. ^ navsource, Haiglar (YT 327)
  20. ^ navsource, Mauvilla (YT 328)
  21. ^ www.usmm.org V ships
  22. ^ The Birth of The General Ship & Engine Works
  23. ^ usmaritimecommission.de Outboard Profiles of Maritime Commission Vessels The Tug Design's
  24. ^ Directory of the Ocean Going Tugs type V4-M-A1 by: Hans van der Ster
  25. ^ Moose Peak
  26. ^ towingline.com, Directory of The Ocean Going Tugs type V3-S-AH2, (composed by: Hans van der Ster
  27. ^ towingline.com, Directory of Small Harbor Tugs type V2-M-A L1, composed by: Hans van der Ster]
  28. ^ NavSource, District Harbor Tug Small (YTL)
  29. ^ navsource.org, YTL 718
  30. ^ ATR-7
  31. ^ navsource.org ATR-1
  32. ^ ibiblio.org, USS ATR-64
  33. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com, ATR
  34. ^ "Navajo class". Uboat.net. Retrieved 22 July 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  35. ^ Abnaki
  36. ^ UN Navy, Pearl Harbor: Why, How, Fleet Salvage and Final Appraisal, by Vice Admiral Homer N. Wallin, page 206
  37. ^ navsource.org, Sotoyomo
  38. ^ http://www.navsource.org Cahto (YTB-215)
  39. ^ "USS Cahto". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History and Heritage Command. 2004. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  40. ^ Lambert, Bruce (11 January 1992). "James E. Hair, 76, Naval Officer Whose Unit Broke Color Bar, Dies". The New York Times. New York. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  41. ^ Cahto-class district harbor tug, 260 Ton , shipbuildinghistory.com
  42. ^ Hisada class harbor tug, 260 Ton, shipbuildinghistory.com
  43. ^ Woban Class District tug, 260 Ton, shipbuildinghistory.com
  44. ^ U.S. Army Tug-Transports (T, TP) shipbuildinghistory.com
  45. ^ U.S. Army Marine Tractors (MT, MTL) Built During WWII shipbuildinghistory.com
  46. ^ USAV TP-123 navsource.org
  47. ^ TP-111 tugboatinformation.com
  48. ^ TP 107 - Daring tugboatinformation.com
  49. ^ TP-118 tugboatinformation.com
  50. ^ U.S. Army Tug-Transports (T-Boats) shipbuildinghistory.com
  51. ^ USS Bagaduce (AT-21) at the Navy History and Heritage Command This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  52. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com Tug List
  53. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com, Canada ships of WW2
  54. ^ A Bridge of Ships: Canadian Shipbuilding During the Second World War, By James Pritchard, page 281
  55. ^ Directory of Tugs ATO
  56. ^ usspartridge.com
  57. ^ tugboatinformation.com Matagorda tug
  58. ^ Boon Island a V4-M-A1 tug
  59. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com, General Ship, East Boston MA
  60. ^ Great Isaac a V4-M-A1
  61. ^ Mobile Point a V4-M-A1
  62. ^ Screening Level Risk Assessment Package Mobile Point
  63. ^ navsource.org, YTL-566
  64. ^ navsource.org, YTL-199
  65. ^ navsource.org, Triton (YT-10)
  66. ^ historycentral.com, USS Pokagon (YT-274)
  67. ^ navsource, USS Shahaka (YTB-368)
  68. ^ "Sub sinks a tug boat". YouTube video. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  69. ^ .navsource, YT-198
  70. ^ navsource.org, Arapaho
  71. ^ navsource, AT-200
  72. ^ navsource, ATR-15
  73. ^ Chetco
  74. ^ US Navy Typhoon Louise
  75. ^ navsource Catawba
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