Chocolate most commonly comes in dark (bottom), milk (middle), and white (top) varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration.
Chocolate most commonly comes in dark (bottom), milk (middle), and white (top) varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration.

Chocolate is a food product made from roasted and ground cocoa pods mixed with fat (e.g. cocoa butter) and powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. There are several types of chocolate, classified primarily according to the proportion of cocoa and fat content used in a particular formulation.

The use of particular name designations is subject to governmental regulation in some countries.

List of types

Raw chocolate

Main article: Raw chocolate

Raw chocolate is chocolate that has not been processed, heated, or mixed with other ingredients. It is sold in chocolate-growing countries and to a lesser extent in other countries. It is often promoted as being healthy.[1]

Dark chocolate

Main article: Dark chocolate

Dark chocolate, also known as "plain chocolate", is produced using a higher percentage of cocoa with all fat content coming from cocoa butter instead of milk, but there are also "dark milk" chocolates and many degrees of hybrids.[2] Dark chocolate can be eaten as is, or used in cooking, for which thicker baking bars, usually with high cocoa percentages ranging from 70% to 100%, are sold. Many brands display the cocoa percentage on their packaging.

Semi-sweet chocolate chips
Semi-sweet chocolate chips

Milk chocolate

Main article: Milk chocolate

Milk chocolate is solid chocolate made with milk added in the form of powdered milk, liquid milk, or condensed milk. The first known variation was developed by Jordan & Timaeus in 1839 with donkey milk.[3] In 1875 a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed a solid milk-chocolate using condensed milk, which had been invented by Henri Nestlé, Peter's neighbour in Vevey.[4][2]

Cadbury is the leading brand of milk chocolate in the United Kingdom.[5][6] The Hershey Company is the largest producer in the US. The actual Hershey process is a trade secret, but experts speculate that the milk is partially lipolyzed, producing butyric acid, and then the milk is pasteurized, stabilizing it for use. This process gives the product a particular taste, to which the US public has developed an affinity, to the extent that some rival manufacturers now add butyric acid to their milk chocolates.[2]

White chocolate

Main article: White chocolate

White chocolate bar

White chocolate is made of sugar, milk, and cocoa butter, without the cocoa solids. It is pale ivory coloured, and lacks many of the compounds found in milk and dark chocolates.

Baking chocolate

A bar of dark baking chocolate
A bar of dark baking chocolate

Main article: Baking chocolate

Baking chocolate, or cooking chocolate,[7] is chocolate intended to be used for baking and in sweet foods. Dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and white chocolate, are produced and marketed as baking chocolate. However, lower quality baking chocolate may not be as flavorful compared to higher-quality chocolate, and may have a different mouthfeel.[8]

In the USA, baking chocolate containing no added sugar may be labeled "unsweetened chocolate".

Modeling chocolate

Main article: Modeling chocolate

Modeling chocolate is a chocolate paste made by melting chocolate and combining it with corn syrup, glucose syrup, or golden syrup. It is primarily used by cakemakers and pâtisseries to add decoration to cakes and pastries.

Organic chocolate

Main article: Organic chocolate

Organic chocolate is chocolate which has been certified organic, generally meaning that there are no chemical fertilizers or pesticides used in growing the cocoa beans producing the chocolate. As of 2016, it was a growing sector in the global chocolate industry. Organic chocolate is a socially-desirable product for some consumers.[9] Many producers of organic chocolate source their ingredients from certified fair trade cocoa farms and cooperatives.[10]

Compound chocolate

Main article: Compound chocolate

Pieces of dark compound chocolate cake coating
Pieces of dark compound chocolate cake coating

Compound chocolate is the name for a confection combining cocoa with other vegetable fats, usually tropical fats or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is often used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it can not legally be called "chocolate".

Couverture chocolate

Main article: Couverture chocolate

Tempered couverture chocolate

Couverture chocolate is a class of high-quality chocolate containing a higher percentage of cocoa butter than other chocolate which is precisely tempered. Couverture chocolate is used by professionals for dipping, coating, molding and garnishing ('couverture' means 'covering' in French). Popular brands of couverture chocolate used by pastry chefs include: Valrhona, Lindt & Sprüngli, Scharffen Berger, Callebaut, and Guittard.

Ruby chocolate

Main article: Ruby chocolate

Ruby chocolate is a type of chocolate created by Barry Callebaut, a Belgian–Swiss cocoa company.[11] The variety was in development from 2004, and was released to the public in 2017. The chocolate type is made from the Ruby cocoa bean, resulting in a distinct red colour and a different flavor, described as "sweet yet sour".[12]

Legal requirements by country/region

Canada

The legislation for cocoa and chocolate products in Canada is found in Division 4 of the Food and Drug Regulations (FDR), under the Food and Drugs Act (FDA). The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the FDR and FDA (as it relates to food).[13]

Product Cocoa butter Milk solids Milk fat Fat-free cocoa solids Cocoa solids
Milk chocolate ≥ 15% ≥ 12% ≥ 3.39% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 25%
Sweet chocolate ≥ 18% < 12% ≥ 12% ≥ 31%
Chocolate, bittersweet chocolate, semi-sweet chocolate or dark chocolate ≥ 18% < 5% ≥ 14% ≥ 35%
White chocolate ≥ 20% ≥ 14% ≥ 3.5%

The use of cocoa butter substitutes in Canada is not permitted. Chocolate sold in Canada cannot contain vegetable fats or oils.[14]

The only sweetening agents permitted in chocolate in Canada are listed in Division 18 of the Food and Drug Regulations.[15] Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, and sugar alcohols (sorbitol, maltitol, etc.) are not permitted.

Products manufactured or imported into Canada that contain non-permitted ingredients (vegetable fats or oils, artificial sweeteners) cannot legally be called "chocolate" when sold in Canada. A non-standardized name such as "candy" must be used.[14]

European Union and United Kingdom

There has been disagreement in the EU about the definition of chocolate; this dispute covers several issues, including the types of fat and the quantity of cocoa used. In 1999, however, the EU resolved the fat issue by allowing up to 5% of chocolate's content to be one of six alternatives to cocoa butter: illipe oil, palm oil, sal, shea butter, kokum gurgi, or mango kernel oil.[16]

Products labelled as "family milk chocolate" elsewhere in the European Union are permitted to be labelled as simply "milk chocolate" in Malta, the UK and the Republic of Ireland.[17] [18]

Product Total dry cocoa solids Cocoa butter Non-fat cocoa solids Total fat[a] Milk fat Milk solids Flour/starch
Dark chocolate ≥ 35% ≥ 18% ≥ 14%
Couverture chocolate ≥ 35% ≥ 31% ≥ 2.5%
Chocolate vermicelli or flakes ≥ 32% ≥ 12% ≥ 14%
Milk chocolate ≥ 25% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≥ 3.5% ≥ 14%
Couverture milk chocolate ≥ 25% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 31% ≥ 3.5% ≥ 14%
Milk chocolate vermicelli or flakes ≥ 20% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 12% ≥ 3.5% ≥ 12%
Family milk chocolate ≥ 20% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≥ 5% ≥ 20%
Cream chocolate ≥ 25% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≥ 5.5% ≥ 14%
Skimmed milk chocolate ≥ 25% ≥ 2.5% ≥ 25% ≤ 1% ≥ 14%
White chocolate ≥ 20% ≥ 14%
Chocolate a la taza ≥ 35% ≥ 18% ≥ 14% ≤ 8%
Chocolate familiar a la taza ≥ 30% ≥ 18% ≥ 12% ≤ 18%

Japan

In Japan, 'chocolate products' are classified on a complex scale.

Chocolate materials (チョコレート生地, chokorēto kiji):

Chocolate products (チョコレート製品, chokorēto seihin):

Products using milk chocolate or quasi milk chocolate as described above are handled in the same way as chocolate / quasi chocolate.

United States

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the naming and ingredients of cocoa products:[19][20]

Semisweet and bittersweet are terms traditionally used in the United States to indicate the amount of added sugar in dark chocolate. Typically, bittersweet chocolate has less sugar than semisweet chocolate,[21] but the two are interchangeable when baking. Both must contain a minimum of 35% cocoa solids.

In the American chocolate industry chocolate liquor is the ground or melted state of the nib of the cacao bean, containing roughly equal parts cocoa butter and solids.[22]

Product Chocolate liquor Milk solids Sugar Cocoa fat Milk fat
Buttermilk chocolate ≥ 10% ≥ 12% < 3.39%
Milk chocolate ≥ 10% ≥ 12% ≥ 3.39%
Mixed dairy product chocolates ≥ 10% ≥ 12%
Skim milk chocolate ≥ 10% ≥ 12% < 3.39%
Sweet chocolate ≥ 15% < 12%
Semisweet or bittersweet chocolate ≥ 35% < 12%
White chocolate ≥ 14% ≤ 55% ≥ 20% ≥ 3.5%

In March 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association, whose members include Hershey's, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, began lobbying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change the legal definition of chocolate to allow the substitution of "safe and suitable vegetable fats and oils" (including partially hydrogenated vegetable oils) for cocoa butter in addition to using "any sweetening agent" (including artificial sweeteners) and milk substitutes.[23] Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients.[24] To work around this restriction, products with cocoa substitutes are often branded or labeled as "chocolatey" or "made with chocolate".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Total fat" refers to the combined cocoa butter and milk fat content

References

  1. ^ Cahalane, Claudia (30 March 2007). "A raw deal". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  2. ^ a b c Moskin, Julia (13 February 2008). "Dark may be king, but milk chocolate makes a move". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Confectionery industry: The invention of milk chocolate by Jordan & Timaeus". Ivt-web. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  4. ^ Mintz, Sidney (2015). The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. p. 524. ISBN 978-0-19-931339-6 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Ascribed to Cadbury plc. (19 January 2010). "A history of Cadbury's sweet success". Times Online. London. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  6. ^ "Top 10 selling chocolate bars in the UK" Archived 5 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Wales Online. Retrieved 29 December 2014
  7. ^ Greaves, Vanessa. "How to Choose the Right Chocolate for Cooking and Baking". Allrecipes. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  8. ^ Gisslen, W. (2012). Professional Baking. Wiley. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-118-08374-1.
  9. ^ Mitch Lipka (11 February 2015). "Is organic chocolate worth the price?". Reuters. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  10. ^ "Slave-Free Chocolate". Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  11. ^ Sarah Young (5 September 2017). "Scientists just invented a brand new flavour of chocolate". The Independent. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  12. ^ McGee, Oona (20 January 2018). "We try the world's first ruby chocolate… inside a Japanese Kit Kat【Taste Test】". SoraNews24.
  13. ^ "Responsibilities of the Agency: 11. (3) (a)". Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act. Department of Justice Canada. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012. The [Canadian Food Inspection] Agency is responsible for the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act as it relates to food, as defined in section 2 of that Act
  14. ^ a b "Division 4: Cocoa and Chocolate Products". Food and Drug Regulations. Department of Justice Canada. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  15. ^ "Division 18: Sweetening Agents". Food and Drug Regulations. Department of Justice Canada. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  16. ^ "EU Agrees on Chocolate Definition Upsetting Major Cocoa Producers". www.thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  17. ^ "Guidance on the Cocoa and Chocolate Products Regulations 2003" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2010. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  18. ^ "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 June 2000 relating to cocoa and chocolate products intended for human consumption". eur-lex.europa.eu. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  19. ^ "Title 21 – Food and Drugs, Chapter I, Sub chapter B – Food for Human Consumption, Part 163 – Cocoa Products". Title 21 – Food and Drugs. Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
  20. ^ "Types of Chocolate Products". Hershey.com. Letter to. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2007.((cite press release)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  21. ^ Mushet, C.; Sur La Table; Caruso, M. (2008). The Art and Soul of Baking. Andrews McMeel Publishing. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-7407-7334-1.
  22. ^ "Making Sense of % Cacao". CMA – Chocolate Manufacturers Association. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  23. ^ Bragg, Lynn M. (April 2007). "To Our Stakeholders" (PDF). Chocolate Manufacturers Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
  24. ^ (2007P-0085 Archived 22 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Copy of 2007P-0085 Appendix C – search for cacao)