• Bernd Schmidt (UAE)
  • Toni Wilen (WinUAE, originally Mathias Ortmann)
  • Richard Drummond (E-UAE)
  • Mustafa 'GnoStiC' TUFAN (PUAE)
  • Frode Solheim (FS-UAE)
  • Rupert Hausberger (SAE)
Initial release1995; 29 years ago (1995)
Stable release
4.10.1 (WinUAE) / 21 January 2023; 17 months ago (2023-01-21)
Written inC++ and ASM
Operating systemWindows, macOS, Linux, Android, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, AmigaOS
LicenseGNU General Public License

UAE is a computer emulator which emulates the hardware of Commodore International's Amiga range of computers. Released under the GNU General Public License, UAE is free software.



Bernd Schmidt conceived of an emulator that can run Amiga software when he found that such a task was widely believed to be impossible. Schmidt had written previous programs for Amiga, and was further motivated by the desire to not lose games, demos, and sound modules to switching operating systems.[1] UAE was released in 1995 and was originally called the Unusable Amiga Emulator, due to its inability to boot.[2][3][4] In its early stages, it was known as Unix Amiga Emulator and later with other names as well. Today the name stands for Universal Amiga Emulator.[5]



UAE is almost a full-featured Amiga emulator. It emulates most of its functions:

For software, UAE may use disk images made from original Amiga floppy disks. These images have the file extension of "ADF" (Amiga Disk File). Actual Amiga disks cannot be used, because of limitations in the floppy controllers used in other computers.[11] Images of Amiga formatted hard drives can also be made. UAE also supports mapping host operating system's directories to Amiga hard drives, and finally, physical Amiga formatted hard drives can be mounted.

UAE does not include the original Amiga operating system ROM and files, which are required for running an Amiga system. These are included under license in packages like Amiga Forever. Original Kickstart 3.1 ROM images are also included with AmigaOS4 for PowerPC since version 4.1 Update 4. UAE also supports alternative system ROMs, such as those derived from the AROS project, however these do not provide the same degree of software compatibility as the original ROMs.



UAE has been ported to many host operating systems, including Linux, macOS, FreeBSD, DOS, Microsoft Windows, RISC OS, BeOS, Palm OS, Android, the Xbox console, the PSP, PSVita and GP2X handhelds, iOS, the Wii and Dreamcast consoles, and even to AmigaOS, MorphOS and AROS.

Emulation speed


There have been many threads in the past on Usenet and other public forums where people argued about the possibility of writing an Amiga emulator. Some considered UAE to be attempting the impossible; to be demanding that a system read, process and output 100 MB/s of data when the fastest PC was a 66 MHz 486, while keeping various emulated chips (the Amiga chipset) all in sync and appearing as they were supposed to appear to software.

UAE was almost entirely unusable in its first releases, but slowly and step by step, it fleshed out its support of the Amiga chipset and by the end of 1997 was able to emulate an Amiga 500 at a quality and speed that were sufficient for productivity use and for many games.

Since then, UAE has been usable, thanks partly to the effort taken to develop it and partly to the big improvements in technology that brought computers many times faster than those UAE was initially running on. Many Amiga games and applications can run smoothly on a Pentium II-era system. The realization that a useful Amiga emulator could be written contributed to an increase in enthusiasm about emulation, which started or sped-up efforts to write emulators for other and often less popular computer and electronic game architectures[citation needed].

A major improvement was made in 2000 by Bernd Meyer with the use of Just-in-time compilation,[2] which significantly improved the emulation speed, to the extent that average PCs could now emulate some Amiga software faster than any real Amiga could run it. UAE can use as much of the host's power in native mode as possible, or balance it with other requirements of the host OS, or to accurately reflect the original speed, depending on a user's choice. UAE also provides an RTG-compatible "video card" for the Amiga side of the emulation which is tailored for display on the host hardware, so as not to be limited to the emulation of the original Amiga video hardware.

Project development


There are six main forks of the original program:

The most active fork is WinUAE; current versions of this still contain bugs and compatibility issues.

Specific versions: UAE v0.8.29 2008-11-30,[18][19] FS-UAE v3.1.66 [20] E-UAE v0.8.29 2007-03-28[21]

See also



  1. ^ Taylor, David (Christmas 1996). "Mission: Impossible?". Amiga Shopper. No. 70. Future Publishing. p. 14. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  2. ^ a b "UAE- Ultimate Amiga Emulator". Amiga history guide. 2002.
  3. ^ Goodwin, Simon (October 1996). "Emulation: The sincerest form of flattery". Amiga Format. No. 89. p. 21. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  4. ^ Goodwin, Simon (March 1998). "The Amiga Emulator". Amiga Format. No. 108. p. 21. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  5. ^ Laing, Gordon (August 2000). "Past masters". Personal Computer World. Vol. 23, no. 8. p. 144. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e "UAE Amiga Emulator". Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  7. ^ a b Compton, Jason (October 1999). "Active reviews – Amiga Forever 3". Amiga Active. No. 1. p. 38. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  8. ^ "WinUAE 3.0.0 Beta 16 Changelog". GitHub. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  9. ^ "uae-0.8.29.tar.gz: uae-0.8.29/src/bsdsocket.c | Fossies Archive". Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  10. ^ "bsdsocket.txt - uae-wii - A port of the UNIX Amiga Emulator to Nintendo Wii - Google Project Hosting". Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  11. ^ Chandler, John (1999). "UAE - The Amiga Emulator". Suite101. p. 2. Archived from the original on 4 November 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  12. ^ Bütikofer, Christian (20 January 2012). "Raubkopien: Die Spur von führt nach Zug" [Pirate copies: The trail of leads to Zug]. Handelszeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  13. ^ Maher, Jimmy (2018). The Future Was Here: The Commodore Amiga. MIT Press. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-262-01720-6. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  14. ^ "Scripted Amiga Emulator". GitHub. 24 October 2021.
  15. ^ Scripted AMIGA Emulator
  16. ^ Scripted AMIGA Emulator in JavaScript
  17. ^ Chiappetta, Marco (14 July 2017). "Build A Killer Amiga Emulator For Under $100 With The Raspberry Pi 3". HotHardware. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  18. ^ "Prevention Archives". Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
  19. ^ 2016-03-19
  20. ^ 2019-11-05
  21. ^ 2016-03-19