Udaipur State
Kingdom of Mewar
Mewar State
734–1949
Coat of arms of Udaipur State.png
Coat of arms of Udaipur State
Motto: "The Almighty protects the one who upholds righteousness"
Boundaries of Udaipur State in 1909
Boundaries of Udaipur State in 1909
Capital
Common languagesMewari[3]
Religion
[page needed]
Government
History 
• Established
734
1949
Area
1901[4]33,030 km2 (12,750 sq mi)
1941[5]33,517 km2 (12,941 sq mi)
Population
• 1941[5]
1,926,698

The Udaipur State, also historically known as Kingdom of Mewar,[6] was an independent state in northwestern India prior to the formation of the Indian Republic.

Rana Kumbha, the undefeated ruler of Mewar
Rana Kumbha, the undefeated ruler of Mewar
Vijay Stambha is a victory monument located within Chittor Fort
Vijay Stambha is a victory monument located within Chittor Fort
Rana Sanga (1482–1528) reunited the Rajput clans to form a powerful Rajput confederation during the early 16th century. At its peak, his dominion covered present-day Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat and Western parts of present-day Madhya Pradesh.
Rana Sanga (1482–1528) reunited the Rajput clans to form a powerful Rajput confederation during the early 16th century. At its peak, his dominion covered present-day Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat and Western parts of present-day Madhya Pradesh.
Chittorgarh Fort
Maharana Pratap (1540–1597), Portrait by Raja Ravi Varma
Maharana Pratap (1540–1597), Portrait by Raja Ravi Varma
City Palace, Udaipur (front view)
City Palace, Udaipur (front view)

Geography

The geographical boundaries of Mewar have waxed and waned over the centuries,[7] but as of 1941, the area of the state was 34,110 square kilometres (approximately the size of present-day Netherlands).[8][9] From the treaty with the British in 1818 to its accession to the Republic of India in 1949, the boundaries of Udaipur state were as follows: the state was bounded on the north by the British district of Ajmer-Merwara; on the west by Jodhpur and Sirohi; on the southwest by Idar; on the south by Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratabgarh; on the east by Bundi and Kota; and on the northeast by Jaipur.[10]

History

State formation and emergence as regional power

Mewar was founded by Bappa Rawal, a member of the Guhila Rajput Clan and was formerly a chieftain of the Mori king of Chittor, who acquired control of Chittor in c.728.[11] Nagda was the first capital of Mewar and continued to be so until c. 948 when the ruler Allat moved the capital from Nagda, Rajasthan to Ahar.[1]

Mewar and the Mughals

Maharana Raj Singh (1629–1680)
Maharana Raj Singh (1629–1680)

Mughal influences on Mewar lasted from 1615 till 1658 when Maharana Raj Singh I defeated Mughals and took back all regions of Mewar and expanded the empire much farther than before. In 1615, after four decades of skirmishing, Mewar finally surrendered to the Mughals and entered into a treaty under which Mewar rulers can now enter their old territories like Chittor and Mandalgarh under the Mughal vassalship and the crown prince of Mewar attending the Mughal court and Mewar providing a force of 1,000 horsemen to the Mughals.[12] In 1658, Raj Singh embarked on his own expeditions using pretence of a ceremonial "Tikadaur", traditionally taken in enemy land. The Maharana swooped down on various Mughal posts in 1658. Levies were imposed on outposts and tracts like Mandal, Banera, Shahpura, Sawar, Jahazpur, Phulia etc. which were then under Mughal control, and some areas were annexed. He next attacked pargana of Malpura, Tonk, Chatsu, Lalsot and Sambhar. He expanded the Mewar kingdom to bigger heights than before.[13][14][15]

Maratha influence

Lake Palace in Lake Pichola

The Marathas made the first successful incursion into Mewar territory in 1725 and, subsequently, continued to exert increasing influence not only on Mewar but also surrounding states of Dungarpur, Banswara, and Bundi.[16][page needed] To counter the Marathas, Maharana Jagat Singh of Mewar convened a conference of Rajput rulers in Hurda in 1734, but no agreement materialised.[16][page needed] Maratha power continued to grow, with the Marathas regularly extracting hefty tributes from Mewar over the remaining part of the century.[16][page needed]

Mewar in the British Raj

Swarup Singh of Udaipur (1815–1861)
Swarup Singh of Udaipur (1815–1861)

By 1818, the armies of Holkar, Scindia, and Tonk had plundered Mewar, pauperising its ruler and people. [17]As early as 1805, Maharana Bhim Singh of Mewar approached the British for assistance but the Treaty of 1803 with Scindia prevented the British from entertaining the request. [17] But by 1817, the British too were anxious to have alliances with Rajput rulers and the Treaty of Friendship, Alliances and Unity was concluded between Mewar and East India Company (on behalf of Britain) on 13 January 1818.[17][18]

Under the treaty, the British Government agreed to protect the territory of Mewar, in return for which Mewar acknowledged British supremacy and agreed to abstain from political associations with other states and to pay one-fourth of its revenues as tribute for 5 years, and three-eight in perpetuity.[18] A constitution for Udaipur State was adopted on May 23, 1947.[19] The last ruler of Udaipur State signed the accession to Independent India on 7 April 1949.[citation needed]

Maharanas

Main article: Sisodias of Mewar

British Residents and Political Agents

Political Agents employed by the East India Company to oversee their affairs in the state included James Tod, who held the office from March 1818 to June 1822.[citation needed] The post of British Resident that superseded this position was twice held by Alan Holme (1908 – 1911 and 1916 – 1919).[citation needed]

Administrative structure

At the time of the 1901 census, the state was divided into 17 administrative sub-divisions - 11 zilas and 6 parganas, the difference between a zila and pargana being that the latter was larger and broken up into further subdivisions.[20] Further, there were 28 principal jagirs and 2 bhumats.[21] Each zila was administered by a hakim, a state official, supported at each tehsil (a zila sub-division) by an assistant hakim.[22] The state was poorly managed before British rule. The revenue of Udaipur state was Rs.4,00,000 with a debt of Rs.29,00,000 in 1819, after which the British took over the administration. The state revenue showed improvement under British agents, the revenue rising to Rs.8,00,000 in 1821 and an average of Rs.28,00,000 in 1899–1900.[23]

Land tenure

The principal forms of land tenure in the state were jagir, bhum, sasan, and khalsa. Jagirs were grants of land made in recognition service of a civil or political nature. Jagirdars, the holders of jagir, usually paid a fixed annual tribute called chhatund on an annual basis, and nazarana on the succession of a new Maharana. On the death of a jagirdar, the jagir reverted to the Maharana until the late jagirdar's successor was recognized by the Maharana. Those holding bhum tenures paid a small tribute or nominal quit-rent (bhum barar), and were liable to be called on for local service. Sasan (also known as muafi) holders were not liable for payments to the Maharana but taxes were sometimes recovered from them. Khalsa (crown lands) holders were cultivators who were undisturbed in their possession as long as they continued to pay land revenue.[24] As of 1912, 38% of the land revenue of the State was from khalsa land, the rest from other forms of tenure.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Bhattacharya, A.N. (2000). Human Geography of Mewar. Himanshu Publications. ISBN 9788186231906.
  2. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers, Udaipur. Jaipur: Directorate of District Gazetteers.
  3. ^ a b Ojha, Gaurishankar Hirachand (1990). उदयपुर राज्य का इतिहास [History of Udaipur State]. Rajasthani Granthagar.
  4. ^ Bannerman, A.D. (1902). Census of India 1901, Vol. XXV-A, Rajputana, Part II Imperial Tables (PDF). Newal Kishore Press.
  5. ^ a b Dashora, Yamunalal. Mewar in 1941 or A Summary of Census Statistics. R.C. Sharma.
  6. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Udaipur. Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. p. 230.
  7. ^ Gupta, R.K.; Bakshi, S.R., eds. (2008). Studies in Indian History: Rajasthan Through the Ages Vol. 5. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 64. ISBN 978-81-7625-841-8.
  8. ^ "The World Factbook: Netherlands". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  9. ^ Dashora, Yamunalal (1942). Census of Mewar, 1941. Alwar: Sharma Bros.
  10. ^ Based on map of Mewar shown with the article.
  11. ^ Vaidya, C.V. (1924). History Of Mediaeval Hindu India. Vol. II. Poona: The Oriental Book Supplying Agency. pp. 75.
  12. ^ Panagariya, B.L.; Pahariya, N.C. (1947). Political, socio-economic and cultural history of Rajasthan (Earliest times to 1947). Jaipur: Panchsheel Prakashan. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  13. ^ Sharma, Gopinath. Rajasthan Ka Itihas. Agra. p. 278. ISBN 978-81-930093-9-0.
  14. ^ Hooja, Rima (1 November 2006). A history of Rajasthan. Rupa & Co. p. 617. ISBN 9788129108906.
  15. ^ Somani, Ram Vallabh (1976). History of Mewar. pp. 281–82.
  16. ^ a b c Mathur, Tej Kumar (1987). Feudal polity in Mewar. Jaipur and Indore: Publication Scheme.
  17. ^ a b c Gupta, R.K.; Bakshi, S.R., eds. (2008). Studies in Indian History: Rajasthan Through the Ages Vol. 5. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. pp. 64. ISBN 978-81-7625-841-8.
  18. ^ a b Aitchison, C.U. (1909). A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries Vol. III. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing, India. pp. 10–32.
  19. ^ Darda, D.S. From Feudalism to Democracy. New Delhi: S. Chand & Co. (Pvt.) Ltd.
  20. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Udaipur. Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. p. 2.
  21. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India : Provincial Series Rajputana. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing. 1908. pp. 106–168.
  22. ^ Ojha, Gaurishankar Hirachand (1999). उदयपुर राज्य का इतिहास. Jodhpur: Rajasthani Granthagar. pp. 15–16.
  23. ^ A Gazetteer Of The Udaipur State With A Chapter On The Bhils And Some Statistical Tables by Erskine, K. D. ..Chapter XII, Finance.
  24. ^ Erskine, K.D. (1908). Rajputana Gazeteers, Vol II-A (The Mewar Residency). Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Co. Ltd. pp. 71–72.
  25. ^ Administration Report of the Mewar State for the Year 1910-11. Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Co., Ltd. 1911. pp. 1.

Further reading

Coordinates: 24°35′N 73°41′E / 24.58°N 73.68°E / 24.58; 73.68