Umra Khan
Portrait of Umra Khan
Khan of Jandol
In office
1881 – 11 September 1904
Preceded byMuhammad Zaman Khan
Succeeded byNawabzada Shahabuddin Khan
Nawab of Dir
In office
Preceded byMuhammad Sharif Khan
Succeeded byMuhammad Sharif Khan
Personal details
Bornc. 1860
Died11 September 1904(1904-09-11) (aged 43–44)
Kabul, Afghanistan
Resting placeKabul, Afghanistan
Known forResistance against the British Raj
NicknameThe Afghan Napoleon

Ghazi Khan Umra Khan of Jandol (c. 1860 – 1904), also called "The Afghan Napoleon",[1][2][3][4] was a Pashtun chief on the north-western frontier of British India, who was chiefly responsible for the Chitral Expedition of 1895.[5] He was the Khan of Jandol and captured the state of Dir and reigned as its Nawab from 1890 to 1895.[6][7] Umra briefly occupied Swat, Chitral and Bajaur. He also took over Kunar and Kafiristan regions of Afghanistan.


He was the younger son of the Khan of Jandol who were a Yousafzai ruling class; but he killed his elder brother, seized the throne, and made himself a power on the frontier.[5]

In 1894 he held undisputed sway over almost the whole of Bajour, when his restless ambition caused him to interfere in the internal affairs of Chitral. He instigated Afzal ul-Mulk, a son of Chitral's Mehtar Aman ul-Mulk, to murder his brother Nizam ul-Mulk, and then overthrew the fratricide and supported the claims of his uncle Sher Afzul to the throne. The Government of British India intervened and ordered Umra Khan to leave Chitral. When he refused, the Chitral Expedition was despatched; Umra Khan was driven into exile in Afghanistan, and died there in 1904.[5][8][9][10][11] He is declared as the Nepoleon of Pathans by Winston Churchill in his book titled the Malakand Field Force. The book was written by Mr. Churchill when he visited the area as a war correspondent with British Forces.

It is also known that Umara Khan participated in the Ambela battle when he was only a few years old. The grandfather of Umara Khan participated along with three thousand mujahideen including Umara Khan in the battle.

Umara Khan became leader of the Dir state in 1881 in a very young age. He raised war against the British in 1896 and captured 120 British soldiers including officers named Edward. The captives later confirmed that they were well treated and were provided food of their choice.


  1. ^ Khalil, Jehanzeb (2000-01-01). Mujahideen movement in Malakand and Mohmand Agencies, 1900-1940. Area Study Centre University of Peshawar. p. 4.
  2. ^ Alder, G. J. (1964-01-01). British India's Northern Frontier. Longmans. p. 215.
  3. ^ Imperial Studies. s.n. 1963-01-01. p. 215.
  4. ^ Harris, John (1975-01-01). Much sounding of bugles: the siege of Chitral, 1895. Hutchinson. ISBN 9780091245900.
  5. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Umra Khan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 577.
  6. ^ The Outlook. "The Outlook" publishing Company. 1898-01-01. p. 234.
  7. ^ Torrens-Spence, Johnny (2006-01-01). Historic Battlefields of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195978971.
  8. ^ Singh, K. Brahma (1990-01-01). History of Jammu and Kashmir Rifles, 1820-1956: The State Force Background. Lancer International. ISBN 9788170620914.
  9. ^ Stewart, Jules (2013-09-23). The Khyber Rifles: From the British Raj to Al Qaeda. The History Press. ISBN 9780752495583.
  10. ^ "Umra Khan of Jandul - The Express Tribune". 2012-06-12. Retrieved 2016-07-03.
  11. ^ King and His Navy and Army. 1903-01-01.