Umuwa
South Australia
Umuwa is located in South Australia
Umuwa
Umuwa
Coordinates26°27′55″S 132°2′32″E / 26.46528°S 132.04222°E / -26.46528; 132.04222Coordinates: 26°27′55″S 132°2′32″E / 26.46528°S 132.04222°E / -26.46528; 132.04222
Population50−80 (?; est.)[citation needed]
Established1991
Postcode(s)0872
Location
LGA(s)Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara
State electorate(s)Giles
Federal division(s)Grey

Umuwa is an Aboriginal community in Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY lands) in South Australia, serving as an administrative centre for the six main communities on "The Lands" (the others being Amata, Pipalyatjara, Pukatja/Ernabella, Fregon/Kaltjiti, Indulkana and Mimili), as well as the outlying communities.

Geography

Umuwa is located approximately 250 kilometres (160 mi) north-west of Marla and 460 kilometres (290 mi) south-west of Alice Springs.

Based upon the climate records of the nearest weather station at Marla Police Station, Umuwa experiences a hot-desert climate (Köppen: BWh, Trewartha: BWhl), with very hot, relatively dry summers; mild to hot, dry springs and autumns; and mild, dry winters. It experiences summer maximum temperatures of an average of 37.3 degrees Celsius in January and a winter maximum average temperature of 19.6 degrees Celsius in June. Overnight lows range from a mean minimum temperature of 22.0 degrees in January to 4.8 degrees in June. Annual rainfall averages 216.9 millimetres.

Climate data for Marla Police Station, South Australia, Australia (1985-present normals and extremes); 323 m AMSL
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 49.0
(120.2)
46.1
(115.0)
44.5
(112.1)
41.3
(106.3)
34.9
(94.8)
32.2
(90.0)
30.5
(86.9)
34.4
(93.9)
38.9
(102.0)
43.8
(110.8)
45.0
(113.0)
45.5
(113.9)
49.0
(120.2)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 42.8
(109.0)
41.8
(107.2)
38.7
(101.7)
34.0
(93.2)
29.5
(85.1)
24.5
(76.1)
25.3
(77.5)
28.4
(83.1)
34.5
(94.1)
37.8
(100.0)
40.2
(104.4)
41.3
(106.3)
42.8
(109.0)
Average high °C (°F) 37.3
(99.1)
36.1
(97.0)
32.7
(90.9)
28.4
(83.1)
23.1
(73.6)
19.6
(67.3)
19.8
(67.6)
22.4
(72.3)
27.0
(80.6)
30.0
(86.0)
33.1
(91.6)
35.1
(95.2)
28.7
(83.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 29.7
(85.5)
28.8
(83.8)
25.3
(77.5)
20.9
(69.6)
16.1
(61.0)
12.6
(54.7)
12.3
(54.1)
14.3
(57.7)
18.9
(66.0)
22.2
(72.0)
25.5
(77.9)
27.6
(81.7)
21.2
(70.1)
Average low °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
21.4
(70.5)
17.8
(64.0)
13.4
(56.1)
9.1
(48.4)
5.5
(41.9)
4.8
(40.6)
6.2
(43.2)
10.8
(51.4)
14.3
(57.7)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
13.6
(56.5)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
16.0
(60.8)
12.3
(54.1)
7.8
(46.0)
3.7
(38.7)
0.4
(32.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
1.0
(33.8)
4.7
(40.5)
8.3
(46.9)
12.4
(54.3)
15.0
(59.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
Record low °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
11.8
(53.2)
8.2
(46.8)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.2
(28.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
−5.0
(23.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.2
(37.8)
5.4
(41.7)
9.3
(48.7)
−5.0
(23.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.1
(0.56)
30.5
(1.20)
22.5
(0.89)
12.2
(0.48)
14.3
(0.56)
13.1
(0.52)
12.4
(0.49)
7.3
(0.29)
9.8
(0.39)
19.4
(0.76)
22.7
(0.89)
38.6
(1.52)
216.9
(8.55)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.3 1.7 1.7 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.1 1.5 2.9 3.4 3.4 25.8
Average relative humidity (%) 26.5 31.5 32.5 34.5 46.0 51.5 47.0 38.0 31.0 29.0 29.0 30.5 35.6
Average dew point °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
8.4
(47.1)
6.6
(43.9)
5.3
(41.5)
5.0
(41.0)
3.9
(39.0)
2.0
(35.6)
0.9
(33.6)
1.2
(34.2)
2.4
(36.3)
4.3
(39.7)
6.7
(44.1)
4.5
(40.0)
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology (1985-present normals and extremes)[1]

Population

Approximately 50-80 people live at Umuwa.[citation needed]

History

Umuwa was established in 1991 as the administrative and service centre for the APY Lands.[2]

The Hon Robert Lawson MLC, a member of the South Australian Parliament Standing Committee on Aboriginal Lands, on 1 June 2004 in the South Australian Legislative Council referred to Umuwa as the "Canberra of the Lands". It appears that Umuwa, by proportion of population, relatively recent history of establishment and tendency for administration to be centred there, is modelled on the Canberra style establishment of a capital for the Lands.[citation needed]

Facilities

There is a police station at Umuwa, though it has not been permanently manned.[3] As of 2020 a new, permanent policing complex is being built at Umuwa. It will accommodate officers with specialist response capabilities, as well provide a base for a mobile unit which will be deployed in Fregon/Kaljiti, Indulkana and Pipalyatjara. The service will work closely with child protection service agencies address child abuse and family violence issues.[4][5] The 2019–2020 Government of South Australia agency budget estimates the completion date as June 2021, with a total spend of A$4.28 million.[6]

Mail arrives in Umuwa once per week by air mail. Supplies arrive by truck weekly. Unlike larger APY settlements, Umuwa does not have a general store.

Based in Umuwa, Anangu Pitjantjatjara Services (AP Services), an incorporated body established in 1993, provides essential services such as roads and housing.[2] Regional Anangu Services Aboriginal Corporation (RASAC) was established in early 2010 as an offshoot of AP Services,[7] and is now the biggest employer of APY people, with headquarters in Alice Springs and seven community depots. It delivers services such as rental accommodation, aerodromes, building repairs and maintenance, civil works, community patrols, fuel supplies, homeland services and municipal services.[8]

PY Media is also based in Umuwa, providing multimedia and radio transmission services.[2]

Nganampa Health, a community-controlled health service, is based in Umuwa.[2]

As with most APY settlements, Australian Broadcasting Corporation and Special Broadcasting Service television are available.

For State elections (i.e. to elect the Parliament of South Australia), a mobile polling booth is taken to Umuwa.

A permit is required for a member of the public to visit any community on the APY Lands, as they are freehold lands owned by the Aboriginal people.

Utilities

Unlike other settlements that must rely on non-renewable energy, in September 2003 work was completed at Umuwa for a solar power station which was expected to save 140,000 litres of diesel and 510 tonnes of Greenhouse emissions each year.[9][10] In 2004 the facility was described as a field of 10 solar concentrators, each fourteen metres in diameter and each generating 20 kilowatts of electricity. Its total generating capacity was 200 kilowatts and the facility was expected to have a life of 30 years. The solar concentrators were parabolic dishes designed and constructed by Solar Systems (which was acquired by Silex Systems circa 2010).

The farm was taken offline in 2005.[11]

On 20 August 2008, the facility was reactivated after a substantial upgrade. The field of refurbished concentrators was now capable of generating 715 megawatt hours of electricity annually, more than double its previous capacity (335 megawatt hours).[11]

As of 4 February 2011, the solar farm had reportedly not been working for more than a year.[12] On 30 June 2011, the South Australian Government confirmed that the sun farm was "currently not operational" and that it would be "mothballed".[13] In August 2020, the government proposed to save a million litres of diesel by installing three megawatts of solar photovoltaic panels and one megawatt of battery storage to deliver 4.4 gigawatt hours of electricity per year, about 40 percent of the total power required.[14][15] This third solar power farm was under construction as of April 2021.[16]

The central power house at Umuwa supplies a 33kV electricity distribution network across the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands. As well as Umuwa, it supplies electricity to Amata, Iwantja, Kaltjiti, Mimili, Pukatja, Yunyarinyi and Watinuma up to 170 kilometres (110 mi) away.[17]

References

  1. ^ "Marla Police Station, SA Climate (1985-present normals and extremes)". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d "Umuwa". PY Media. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Police Stations like ill-equipped sheds", Adelaide Advertiser, 7 July 2007 [1]
  4. ^ Henson, Elizabeth (17 October 2018). "New police complex at Umuwa and mobile pop-up station in $4.28 million APY Lands project". The Advertiser. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Enhanced police service delivery on APY Lands". Australian Government. Dept of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  6. ^ State Budget 2019–20: Agency Statement: Budget Paper 4, Volume 3 (PDF) (Report). Government of South Australia. Dept of Treasury and Finance. 18 June 2019. ISSN 1440-8589. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Corporate Information". RASAC - Regional Anangu Services Aboriginal Corporation. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  8. ^ "RASAC Snapshot". RASAC - Regional Anangu Services Aboriginal Corporation. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  9. ^ Solar Systems Case Study - Umuwa;
  10. ^ Google Earth link to satellite footage of the solar dishes
  11. ^ a b "APY Lands: sun farm at Umuwa". www.papertracker.com.au. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  12. ^ Martin, S. (4 February 2011). "APY solar generator lying idle". The Advertiser. p. 39. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
  13. ^ Portolesi, G Marshall, S. (30 June 2011). Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Parliament of South Australia: Estimates Committee B. p. 198.
  14. ^ van Holst Pellekaan, Dan (26 August 2020). "APY Lands solar and batteries to save a million litres of diesel" (Press release). Steven Marshall, Premier of South Australia. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  15. ^ Russell, Chris (26 August 2020). "APY Lands to get $9m solar and battery in third bid for renewable energy plant at Umuwa". The Advertiser. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  16. ^ "EEW Training: Umuwa CPH and Solar Farm Tour". Money Mob. 28 April 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  17. ^ "RAES Aboriginal Communities". Department for Energy and Mining. Retrieved 20 December 2021.