The thistle, the heraldic badge of Scotland, dimidiated with the Tudor rose of England

Unionism in Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Aonachas) is a political movement which favours the continuation of the political union between Scotland and the other countries of the United Kingdom (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), and hence is opposed to Scottish independence. Scotland is one of four countries of the United Kingdom which has its own devolved government and Scottish Parliament, as well as representation in the UK Parliament. There are many strands of political Unionism in Scotland, some of which have ties to Unionism and Loyalism in Northern Ireland. The two main political parties in the UK — the Conservatives and Labour — both support Scotland remaining part of the UK.

The Scottish unionism movement consists of many factions with varying political views but which are united in being politically opposed to Scottish independence, which would mean Scotland leaving the UK and becoming an independent state. Political parties which support Scottish independence include: the Scottish National Party (SNP) and the Scottish Greens. The SNP have formed the devolved Scottish Government since 2007. After the SNP won an overall majority in the 2011 Scottish Parliament election, the UK and Scottish governments agreed to hold a referendum on Scottish independence, which was held on 18 September 2014. The three main UK political parties formed the Better Together campaign, supporting Scotland remaining part of the UK. The referendum resulted in a victory for the "No" (unionist) campaign, with 55.3% of votes cast for "No" to Scottish independence, and 44.7% cast for "Yes" to Scottish independence.

After the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, the cross-party Better Together campaign ceased to be active. In its place now exists Scotland in Union (SIU), Scotland's largest and most active pro-UK campaign.[1] Scotland in Union was launched in March 2015 with the aim of promoting Scotland's place in the UK. People who had supported Better Together in the 2014 referendum set up the campaign as a response to the continued, high-profile push for independence by Scottish nationalists after the referendum result. Initially, the organisation was led by its founder Alastair Cameron, a former Army captain.[2] In January 2017, Scottish Labour's former Justice spokesperson Graeme Pearson was announced as Chief Executive.[3] In August 2017, former Labour MP Pamela Nash took over the role.[4]

Status of the term

Charles III, monarch of the United Kingdom, in the Scottish Parliament

Before its merger with the Conservative and Unionist Party in England and Wales in 1965, the Unionist Party in Scotland was often known simply as "Unionist". Both the Conservative and Unionist and Scottish Unionist parties were formed by the merger of Conservatives and Liberal Unionists in 1912. The union referred to is the 1800 Act of Union (between Great Britain and Ireland), not the Acts of Union 1707 (between England and Scotland).[5]

The term may also be used to suggest an affinity with Northern Irish unionism.[citation needed]

The former Secretary of State for Scotland, Michael Moore, has written that he does not call himself a Unionist, despite being a supporter of the union. This he ascribes to the Liberal Democrat position in regard to Home Rule and decentralisation within the United Kingdom, noting that: "for me the concept of 'Unionism' does not capture the devolution journey on which we have travelled in recent years." He suggests the connotations behind Unionism are of adherence to a constitutional status quo.[6]

History of the Union

Scotland's location (in dark blue) within the United Kingdom (in light blue)

Kingdom of Scotland

Main article: Kingdom of Scotland

Scotland emerged as an independent polity during the Early Middle Ages, with some historians dating its foundation from the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin in 843. The independence of the Kingdom of Scotland was fought over between Scottish kings and by the Norman and Angevin rulers of England. A key period in the Kingdom of Scotland's history was a succession crisis that started in 1290, when Edward I of England claimed the Scottish throne. The resulting wars of Scottish Independence which led to Scotland securing its independent status, with Robert the Bruce (crowned in 1306) winning a major confrontation at Bannockburn in 1314.

England, Ireland and Scotland shared the same monarch in a personal union from 1603, when King James VI of Scotland also became King James I of England and Ireland, resulting in the "Union of the Crowns". A political union between the Kingdoms of Scotland, England and Ireland was temporarily formed when the crowns were overthrown as a result of the English Civil War, with Oliver Cromwell ruling over the whole of Great Britain and Ireland as Lord Protector. This period was known as the Protectorate, or to monarchists as the interregnum. The monarchies were subsequently restored in 1660, with Scotland reverting to an independent kingdom sharing the same monarch as England and Ireland.

Union between England and Scotland (1707)

Main article: Acts of Union 1707

The political union between the Kingdoms of Scotland and England (also including Wales) was created by the Acts of Union, passed in the parliaments of both kingdoms in 1707 and 1706 respectively. Causes for this included English fears that Scotland would select a different (Catholic) monarch in future, and the failure of the Scottish colony at Darien.

The Union was brought into existence under the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, forming a single Kingdom of Great Britain. Scottish jacobite resistance to the union, led by descendants of James VII of Scotland (II of England), continued until 1746 and the Jacobite defeat at Culloden.

The Union Flag, in addition to being the flag of the United Kingdom, also serves as a significant symbol of British Unionism. It has been the national flag since the union between Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.

Union with Ireland (1801)

Main article: Acts of Union 1800

With the Acts of Union 1800, Ireland united with Great Britain into what then formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The history of the Unions is reflected in various stages of the Union Flag, which forms the flag of the United Kingdom. Ireland was partitioned in the early 1920s: Southern Ireland, now known as the Republic of Ireland, left the United Kingdom, while Northern Ireland chose to stay within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Devolution (1999)

Main article: Devolution in the United Kingdom

The Liberal Democrats, and their predecessor Liberal Party, have long been supportive of Home Rule as part of a wider belief in subsidiarity and localism.[7] In a mirror image of how the Liberal Democrat Party is itself structured, that party is generally supportive of a federal relationship between the countries of the United Kingdom.[8] The Liberal governments of the late 19th century and early 20th century supported a "home rule all round" policy,[9] which would have meant creating national parliaments in England, Ireland and Scotland with common and external matters (such as defence and foreign affairs) decided by the UK Parliament. A "Government Of Scotland Bill" was introduced to the UK Parliament by the Liberal government in 1913, and its second reading was passed in the House of Commons by 204 votes to 159.[10] The bill did not become law, and home rule fell off the agenda after most of Ireland became independent in 1922.

Following the Kilbrandon Report in 1973, recommending a devolved Scottish Assembly, the Labour government led by Jim Callaghan introduced the Scotland Act 1978. A majority voted in favour of the proposed scheme in a March 1979 referendum on the proposal, but the Act stipulated that 40% of the total electorate had to vote in favour. The result of the referendum did not meet this additional test, and the Labour government decided not to press ahead with devolution. When the party returned to power in 1997, they introduced a second devolution referendum which resulted in the enactment of the Scotland Act 1998 and the creation of the Scottish Parliament.[11]

Unionists took different sides on the debates regarding devolution. Supporters argued that it would strengthen the Union, as giving Scotland self-government would remove the contention that independence was the only way to obtain control over internal affairs. Labour politician George Robertson said that devolution "will kill nationalism stone dead"[12] for this reason. John Smith, a Labour leader who supported devolution, believed it was the "settled will" of the Scottish people.[13] Unionist opponents of devolution argued that granting self-government would inevitably lead to the Union breaking, as they believed it would encourage nationalist sentiment and create tensions within the Union. Labour politician Tam Dalyell said devolution would be a "motorway to independence".[12] His West Lothian question asked why MPs for Scottish constituencies should be able to decide devolved matters (such as health and education) in England, but MPs for English constituencies would have no say over those matters in Scotland.[14]

The Conservatives, as a Britain-wide party, fielded candidates in Scotland until the creation of a separate Unionist Party in 1912. This was a separate party which accepted the Conservative whip in the UK Parliament until it was merged into the Conservative Party in 1965. The Declaration of Perth policy document of 1968 committed the Conservatives to Scottish devolution in some form, and in 1970 the Conservative government published Scotland's Government, a document recommending the creation of a Scottish Assembly. Support for devolution within the party was rejected and was opposed by the Conservative governments led by Margaret Thatcher and John Major in the 1980s and 1990s. The party largely remained opposed to devolution in the 1997 Scottish devolution referendum campaign.[11] That referendum was passed with a large majority, the Conservatives have since accepted devolution in both Scotland and Wales. The governments led by David Cameron devolved further powers to the Scottish Parliament in 2012 and 2016. Cameron also attempted to answer the "West Lothian question" by changing the procedures of the UK Parliament (English votes for English laws).[14]

Notable opponents of unionism are the Scottish National Party (SNP) and the Scottish Green Party.[15] The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) and Solidarity seek to make Scotland an independent sovereign state and a republic separate from England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Of these parties, only the SNP currently has representation in the UK Parliament, which it has had continuously since winning the 1967 Hamilton by-election. The SNP and the Scottish Greens both have representation within the Scottish Parliament, with the SNP having formed the Scottish Government since 2007.

Independence referendum (2014)

Main article: 2014 Scottish independence referendum

A map denoting the results of the 2014 Scottish independence referendum sorted by council area, where saturation of colour denotes strength of vote, red denotes 'No' and blue denotes 'Yes'.

The SNP won an overall majority in the 2011 Scottish Parliament election. Following that election, the UK and Scottish Governments agreed that the Scottish Parliament should be given the legal authority to hold an independence referendum by the end of 2014.[16]

The referendum was held on 18 September 2014, asking voters in Scotland the following question: "Should Scotland be an independent country?". At the poll, 2,001,926 voters (55%) rejected the proposal for Scotland to become an independent state over 1,617,989 (45%), who voted in favour of Scottish independence.[17]

The referendum result was accepted by the Scottish and British governments, leading to Scotland remaining a devolved part of the United Kingdom. Further moves have since been made towards increased devolution of power to the Scottish Parliament, which has been incorporated into UK law via the Scotland Act of 2016.

Subsequent elections

Following the September 2014 referendum, the pro-independence SNP benefitted from increased membership and political support.[18] In the 2015 general election, the SNP won 56 of the 59 seats contested in Scotland, with the three main British parties winning one seat each. The pro-unionist Scottish Conservatives then also saw increased support in the 2016 Scottish Parliament and 2017 UK general elections.

Before the latter election, the Scottish Government (formed by the SNP) had proposed a second Scottish independence referendum, due to the "Leave" victory in the June 2016 referendum on UK membership of the European Union, which the majority of voters in Scotland voted against. The SNP won 35 seats in the 2017 UK general election, a loss of 21 from the 2015 election, with their vote dropping from 50% in 2015 to 37%.

In the 2019 UK general election, SNP support increased to 45% of the vote and they won 48 of the 59 seats contested in Scotland. The election was focused around Brexit, as the Conservative government led by Boris Johnson pledged to "get Brexit done". Despite losing seats in Scotland, the Conservatives won an overall majority and the UK left the European Union on 31 January 2020.


An academic study surveying 5,000 Scots following the referendum in 2014, found that the "No" campaign performed strongest among elderly, Protestant and middle-income voters.[19] The study also found that the "No" campaign polled ahead among young voters aged between 16 and 24, whilst the "Yes" campaign performed better among men, Roman Catholic voters and voters aged between 25 and 34 years old.[19]

According to Professor John Curtice, polling evidence indicates that support for independence was highest among those aged in their late-20s and early-30s, with a higher "No" vote among those aged between 16 and 24.[20] There was an age gap at the referendum, with elderly voters being the most likely to vote against independence and younger voters aged under 55, with the exception of those aged between 16 and 24, generally being more in favour of independence.[20] Those in C2DE, or "working class", occupations were slightly more likely to vote in favour of independence than those in ABC1, or "middle class", occupations, however, there was a significant discrepancy in voting between those living in the most deprived areas and those living in the least deprived areas, with those in more deprived areas being significantly more likely to vote in favour of independence and those in more affluent areas being more likely to vote against independence.[20] This has been picked up by other academics,[21] with data from the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation study from 2012 indicating that the six most deprived local authorities in Scotland returned the highest "Yes" vote shares at the referendum.[22]


Main article: 2014 Scottish independence referendum § By area

At the referendum a total of 4 out of 32 council areas voted in favour of independence, these being: North Lanarkshire (51.1% Yes), Glasgow (53.5% Yes), West Dunbartonshire (54.0% Yes) and Dundee (57.3% Yes). The largest No votes were returned by Orkney (67.2% No), Scottish Borders (66.6% No), Dumfries and Galloway (65.7% No) and Shetland (63.7% No). Generally, the Yes campaign performed strongly in deprived urban settings, such as in Greater Glasgow and Dundee, with the No campaign performing better in affluent rural and suburban areas, such as in Aberdeenshire and East Renfrewshire. The campaign saw large shifts in favour of independence in areas traditionally held by Scottish Labour at the Scottish and UK Parliaments, with the Yes campaign performing strongly in Red Clydeside. The No campaign performed better in affluent areas traditionally held by the Scottish Liberal Democrats and Scottish Conservatives such as in East Dunbartonshire and the Scottish Borders. Surprisingly, the No campaign were able to secure a set of sizeable majorities in some council areas which have traditionally voted for the SNP, such as in Moray and Angus, where the "No" vote was 57.6% and 56.3% respectively.


Public opinion polling conducted by Lord Ashcroft after the Scottish independence referendum found that approximately 70% of Scotland's Protestant population voted against Scottish independence whereas 57% of Roman Catholics voted in favour of Scottish independence.[23]

National identity

Main article: Demographics of Scotland § National identity

"British" national identity forms a significant part of the unionist movement in Scotland, with the vast majority of those identifying their national identity more as "British" being in favour of Scotland remaining a part of the United Kingdom, with a smaller majority of those identifying their national identity more as "Scottish" supporting Scottish independence.[24] However, many independence supporters also identify as "British" in varying degrees, with a majority of those describing their national identity as "More Scottish than British" being supportive of Scottish independence.[24]

Map showing the percentage of the population that identifies itself as "Scottish" only according to the 2011 UK Census.
Map showing the percentage of the population that identifies itself as "Scottish and British" and "British" only according to the 2011 UK Census.

A question on national identity was asked in the 2011 UK Census: "what do you feel is your national identity?". Respondents could identify themselves as having more than one national identity.

In the 2011 UK Census:[25]

The council areas with at least 90% of the population stating some 'Scottish' national identity were North Lanarkshire, Inverclyde, East Ayrshire and West Dunbartonshire. The lowest proportions of people stating some 'Scottish' national identity were in Edinburgh (70%) and Aberdeen (75%).[26]

The council areas with the highest proportions of people stating 'British' as their only national identity were Argyll and Bute and Shetland, each with 12%.[26]

Below is a table of national identity sorted by council area based on the results of the 2011 census:

Council area Scottish only Scottish and British only British only Other UK identities Scottish and any other identities Other only
Aberdeen 54.7% 17.7% 8.3% 4.7% 2.5% 12.1%
Aberdeenshire 61.3% 17.7% 9.0% 6.7% 1.9% 3.6%
Angus 66.8% 17.8% 7.2% 4.4% 1.6% 2.2%
Argyll and Bute 57.4% 17.2% 11.6% 8.9% 2.4% 2.4%
Clackmannanshire 67.0% 17.6% 7.4% 4.3% 1.6% 2.1%
Dumfries and Galloway 59.6% 16.7% 10.1% 9.7% 2.0% 1.8%
Dundee 65.5% 16.6% 6.5% 3.6% 1.8% 6.1%
East Ayrshire 70.6% 18.7% 5.7% 2.9% 1.2% 0.9%
East Dunbartonshire 60.2% 24.7% 8.7% 2.7% 1.9% 1.8%
East Lothian 62.6% 18.9% 8.6% 4.6% 2.0% 3.0%
East Renfrewshire 59.0% 25.6% 9.4% 2.4% 1.9% 1.8%
Edinburgh 48.8% 18.5% 11.4% 6.7% 3.2% 11.4%
Eilean Siar 69.2% 14.3% 8.1% 5.4% 1.5% 1.4%
Falkirk 68.0% 19.7% 6.3% 2.7% 1.3% 2.0%
Fife 63.8% 18.2% 7.9% 5.1% 1.8% 3.2%
Glasgow 61.9% 16.1% 8.6% 2.9% 2.2% 8.3%
Highland 61.5% 15.2% 10.2% 7.6% 2.3% 3.3%
Inverclyde 69.9% 19.7% 6.3% 1.9% 1.1% 1.1%
Midlothian 68.3% 18.2% 6.8% 3.2% 1.5% 2.0%
Moray 58.4% 15.9% 10.9% 10.0% 2.1% 2.7%
North Ayrshire 68.2% 19.4% 6.8% 3.2% 1.3% 1.1%
North Lanarkshire 71.6% 18.1% 5.9% 1.5% 1.2% 1.7%
Orkney 62.4% 13.8% 10.8% 9.8% 1.6% 1.6%
Perth and Kinross 59.0% 18.9% 9.5% 6.0% 2.3% 4.3%
Renfrewshire 65.9% 21.0% 7.3% 2.0% 1.3% 2.6%
Scottish Borders 57.7% 16.9% 10.7% 9.2% 2.6% 2.9%
Shetland 59.9% 15.7% 11.6% 7.6% 1.8% 3.4%
South Ayrshire 63.9% 21.0% 7.6% 4.3% 1.6% 1.6%
South Lanarkshire 67.2% 20.5% 6.9% 2.3% 1.3% 1.8%
Stirling 57.5% 20.0% 9.6% 5.8% 2.5% 4.6%
West Dunbartonshire 72.0% 17.3% 6.0% 2.0% 1.1% 1.5%
West Lothian 65.2% 18.8% 7.6% 3.4% 1.6% 3.4%

Scottish Social Attitudes Survey

Below are findings from the Scottish Social Attitudes Survey, which is an annual survey of public opinion in Scotland from a representative sample of 1,200–1,500 people conducted in conjunction with organisations such as the BBC and various governmental departments, such as the Department for Communities and Local Government and the Department for Business Innovation and Skills.[27][28]

'Moreno' national identity

Respondents were asked to select the "National identity that best describes the way respondent thinks of themselves?"[29][30]

Year 1979 [citation needed] 1992 1999 2000 2001 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Scottish not British 19% 23% 32% 37% 36% 31% 32% 33% 26% 27% 28% 28% 23% 25% 23%
More Scottish than British 40% 38% 35% 31% 30% 34% 32% 32% 29% 31% 30% 32% 30% 29% 26%
Equally Scottish and British 33% 27% 22% 21% 24% 22% 21% 21% 27% 26% 26% 23% 30% 29% 32%
More British than Scottish 3% 4% 3% 3% 3% 4% 4% 4% 5% 4% 4% 5% 5% 4% 5%
British not Scottish 3% 4% 4% 4% 3% 4% 5% 5% 6% 4% 4% 5% 6% 6% 6%

Forced choice

Respondents were asked to select the "National identity that best describes the way respondent thinks of themselves?"[30][31]

Year 1979 1992 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Scottish 57% 72% 77% 80% 77% 75% 72% 75% 77% 78% 72% 73% 73% 75% 69% 66% 65%
British 39% 25% 17% 13% 16% 18% 20% 19% 14% 14% 19% 15% 19% 15% 20% 24% 23%

British national identity entered a sharp decline in Scotland from 1979 until the advent of devolution in 1999, with the proportion of respondents in Scotland identifying their national identity as British falling from 39% in 1979 to just 17% in 1999, hitting an all-time-low of 13% in 2000. Since then, there has been a gradual increase in British national identity and a decline in Scottish national identity, with British national identity hitting a twenty-year high in Scotland in 2013 at 24% and Scottish national identity hitting a 35-year low the following year at 65%.[30] Polling conducted since 2014 has indicated that British national identity has risen to between 31 and 36% in Scotland and that Scottish national identity has fallen to between 58 and 62%.[32]

Recent election results

2019 United Kingdom general election

Main article: 2019 United Kingdom general election in Scotland

In the 2019 United Kingdom general election, the pro-independence Scottish National Party won 45% of the vote share in Scotland (an increase of 8.1% from the previous election) and 48 of the 59 seats contested in Scotland (a net increase of 13).[33] Notable casualties for unionist parties included Jo Swinson, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, who lost her seat in the East Dunbartonshire constituency to the SNP and this resulted in her resigning the party leadership.[33] The Conservatives won six seats (down seven from the previous election), Liberal Democrats four and Labour one (Edinburgh South).[33]

2016 Scottish Parliament election

Main article: 2016 Scottish Parliament election

The SNP won 63 seats of 129 available in the 2016 Scottish Parliament election. This meant that they continued in government, but no longer had an overall majority (which they had won in 2011). As the pro-independence Scottish Greens won six seats, there was still a majority of members in favour of Scottish independence. The Scottish Conservatives won 31 seats, overtaking Scottish Labour as the main opposition party in the devolved Parliament. Labour won 24 seats and finished in third place, and the Scottish Liberal Democrats won 5 seats.

Organisations who support the Union

See also: List of endorsements in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum § Against independence

Political parties

Of the above parties, the three largest and most significant political parties that support the Union are the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats and the Conservative and Unionist Party, all of which organise and stand in elections across Great Britain and hold representation in both the Scottish and UK Parliaments. These three parties have philosophical differences about what Scotland's status should be, particularly in their support of devolution (historically Home Rule) or federalism.

Other groups

Scottish Orangemen marching in Larkhall

The Grand Orange Lodge of Scotland also supports the continuation of the Union.[37] In March 2007, the Lodge organised a march of 12,000 of its members through Edinburgh's Royal Mile to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Union.[38] The high turnout was believed to be in part due to opposition to Scottish independence.[39] The Orange Order used the opportunity to speak out against the possibility of nationalists increasing their share of the vote in the 2007 Scottish Parliament election. In the run up to the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, the Orange Order held a Unionist march and rally in Edinburgh which involved 15,000 Orangemen, loyalist bands and no voters from across Scotland and the UK.[40][41]

During the 2014 referendum campaign, a pro-Union rally by the "Let's Stay Together Campaign" was held in London's Trafalgar Square, where 5,000 people gathered to urge Scotland to vote "No" to independence.[42] Similar events were held in other cities across the rest of the United Kingdom, including in Manchester, Belfast and Cardiff.[42]

Ties to Unionism in Northern Ireland

Further information: Unionism in Ireland

There is some degree of social and political co-operation between some Scottish unionists and Northern Irish unionists, due to their similar aims of maintaining the unity with the United Kingdom. For example, the Orange Order parades in Orange walks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. This is largely concentrated in the Central Belt and west of Scotland. A unionist rally was held in Belfast in response to the referendum on Scottish independence. Northern Irish unionists gathered to urge Scottish voters to remain within the United Kingdom.[42]

See also


  1. ^ "General Election 2019: Second indyref vote at heart of SNP campaign". 30 October 2019.
  2. ^ "Unionists can hold back the SNP if they act together". 6 March 2015.
  3. ^ "Ex-Labour MSP takes on Scotland In Union role". HeraldScotland. 23 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Pamela Nash to lead pro-UK Scotland in the Union campaign group". 21 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Cameron plans a clever game of cat and mouse on independence". Edinburgh: 27 September 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  6. ^ "Michael Moore MP writes: I am not your average unionist". 21 December 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  7. ^ "Microsoft Word - Steel Commission Report March 2006 formatted.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Scottish independence: Lib Dems push federal UK plans". BBC News. 17 October 2012.
  9. ^ Carrell, Severin (17 October 2012). "Liberal Democrats in Scotland propose 'home rule all round'". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  10. ^ "GOVERNMENT OF SCOTLAND BILL". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 30 May 1913. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  11. ^ a b "Your Scotland, Your Voice: A National Conversation". Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  12. ^ a b Black, Andrew (26 November 2013). "Q&A: Scottish independence referendum". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  13. ^ "Scotland gets Smith's 'settled will'". BBC News. BBC. 12 May 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  14. ^ a b Curran, Sean (19 September 2014). "Scottish referendum: What is the 'English Question'?". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  15. ^ "Scottish Green Party Manifesto 2007, pp24-25". Retrieved 17 August 2008.
  16. ^ Black, Andrew (15 October 2012). "Scottish independence: Cameron and Salmond strike referendum deal". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  17. ^ "Scotland Votes No". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Scottish referendum: 'Yes' parties see surge in members". BBC News. BBC. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  19. ^ a b Fraser, Douglas (18 September 2015). "Study examines referendum demographics". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  20. ^ a b c Curtice, John (26 September 2014). "So Who Voted Yes and Who Voted No?". What Scotland Thinks. Natcen. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  21. ^ Mooney, Gerry (2 March 2015). "The 2014 Scottish Independence Referendum - Uneven and unequal political geographies". Open Learn. The Open University. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  22. ^ "High Level Summary of Statistics Trend". Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Scottish Government. 12 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  23. ^ "How Scotland voted, and why". Lord Ashcroft. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  24. ^ a b "Scottish Social Attitudes: From Indeyref1 to Indeyref2?, page 8" (PDF). 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  25. ^ "Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion in Scotland – Release 3A". 27 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  26. ^ a b "Scotland's Census 2011 - Analysis: National Identity". Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  27. ^ "Scottish Social Attitudes". 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  28. ^ "Who we work for". 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  29. ^ "What Scotland Thinks". Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  30. ^ a b c "British Social Attitudes Survey" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  31. ^ "What Scotland Thinks". Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  32. ^ "What Scotland Thinks". Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  33. ^ a b c "Scotland election results 2019: SNP wins election landslide in Scotland". BBC News. BBC. 13 December 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  34. ^ Green, David (25 August 2020). "The UK: Manchester City or Accrington Stanley?" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  35. ^ Greene, Martyn. "Our Contract with the People: Scottish Parliament 2021" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  36. ^ "Scottish independence: Nigel Farage to appear at UKIP pro-Union rally". BBC News. BBC. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  37. ^ "Scottish independence: Orange Lodge registers to campaign for a 'No' vote". BBC News. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  38. ^ "Scotland | Edinburgh and East | Orange warning over Union danger". BBC News. 24 March 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  39. ^ "Edinburgh Evening News". Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  40. ^ Brooks, Libby (13 September 2014). "Orange Order anti-independence march a 'show of pro-union strength'". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  41. ^ Dickie, Mure (13 September 2014). "Orange Order march through Edinburgh to show loyalty to UK". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  42. ^ a b c Spiro, Zachary. "'Day of Unity' grassroots rallies across the UK". Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 22 September 2014.