In functional analysis, a unitary operator is a surjective bounded operator on a Hilbert space that preserves the inner product. Unitary operators are usually taken as operating on a Hilbert space, but the same notion serves to define the concept of isomorphism between Hilbert spaces.

A unitary element is a generalization of a unitary operator. In a unital algebra, an element U of the algebra is called a unitary element if U*U = UU* = I, where I is the identity element.[1]

Definition

Definition 1. A unitary operator is a bounded linear operator U : HH on a Hilbert space H that satisfies U*U = UU* = I, where U* is the adjoint of U, and I : HH is the identity operator.

The weaker condition U*U = I defines an isometry. The other condition, UU* = I, defines a coisometry. Thus a unitary operator is a bounded linear operator which is both an isometry and a coisometry,[2] or, equivalently, a surjective isometry.[3]

An equivalent definition is the following:

Definition 2. A unitary operator is a bounded linear operator U : HH on a Hilbert space H for which the following hold:

The notion of isomorphism in the category of Hilbert spaces is captured if domain and range are allowed to differ in this definition. Isometries preserve Cauchy sequences, hence the completeness property of Hilbert spaces is preserved[4]

The following, seemingly weaker, definition is also equivalent:

Definition 3. A unitary operator is a bounded linear operator U : HH on a Hilbert space H for which the following hold:

To see that Definitions 1 & 3 are equivalent, notice that U preserving the inner product implies U is an isometry (thus, a bounded linear operator). The fact that U has dense range ensures it has a bounded inverse U−1. It is clear that U−1 = U*.

Thus, unitary operators are just automorphisms of Hilbert spaces, i.e., they preserve the structure (in this case, the linear space structure, the inner product, and hence the topology) of the space on which they act. The group of all unitary operators from a given Hilbert space H to itself is sometimes referred to as the Hilbert group of H, denoted Hilb(H) or U(H).

Examples

Linearity

The linearity requirement in the definition of a unitary operator can be dropped without changing the meaning because it can be derived from linearity and positive-definiteness of the scalar product:

Analogously you obtain

Properties

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Doran & Belfi 1986, p. 55
  2. ^ Halmos 1982, Sect. 127, page 69
  3. ^ Conway 1990, Proposition I.5.2
  4. ^ Conway 1990, Definition I.5.1

References