Map of Hawaii's two congressional districts for the United States House of Representatives since 2012
Map of Hawaii's two congressional districts for the United States House of Representatives since 2012

Since Hawaii became a state in 1959,[1] it has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two senators to serve for six years. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from each of Hawaii's congressional districts. Before becoming a state, the Territory of Hawaii elected a non-voting delegate at-large to Congress from 1900 to 1958.

The longest-serving senator was Daniel Inouye, from 1963 to 2012—he served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate from 2010 to 2012 as the longest-serving senator.[2] Patsy Mink was the first woman of color to serve in the House, and the first woman to represent Hawaii in Congress.

The current dean of the Hawaii delegation is Mazie Hirono, having served in the Senate since 2013 and in Congress since 2007.

United States Senate

Main article: List of United States senators from Hawaii

Each state elects two senators by statewide popular vote every six years.[3] The terms of the two senators are staggered so that they are not elected in the same year, meaning that each seat also has a class determining the years in which the seat will be up for election. Hawaii's senators are elected in classes 1 and 3.

There have been seven senators elected from Hawaii, of whom six have been Democrats and one has been a Republican. Hawaii's current senators, both Democrats, are Mazie Hirono, in office since 2013, and Brian Schatz, in office since 2012.

  Democratic (D)   Republican (R)

Hiram Fong, Hawaii's only Republican senator
Hiram Fong, Hawaii's only Republican senator
Daniel Inouye, Hawaii's longest-serving senator from 1963 to 2012 and former President pro tempore of the United States Senate
Daniel Inouye, Hawaii's longest-serving senator from 1963 to 2012 and former President pro tempore of the United States Senate
Brian Schatz, the senior incumbent senator from Hawaii
Brian Schatz, the senior incumbent senator from Hawaii
Mazie Hirono, Hawaii's first woman senator
Mazie Hirono, Hawaii's first woman senator
United States Senate
Class I senators Congress Class III senators
Hiram Fong (R) 86th (1959–1961) Oren E. Long (D)
87th (1961–1963)
88th (1963–1965) Daniel Inouye (D)[a]
89th (1965–1967)
90th (1967–1969)
91st (1969–1971)
92nd (1971–1973)
93rd (1973–1975)
94th (1975–1977)
Spark Matsunaga (D)[b] 95th (1977–1979)
96th (1979–1981)
97th (1981–1983)
98th (1983–1985)
99th (1985–1987)
100th (1987–1989)
101st (1989–1991)
Daniel Akaka (D)
102nd (1991–1993)
103rd (1993–1995)
104th (1995–1997)
105th (1997–1999)
106th (1999–2001)
107th (2001–2003)
108th (2003–2005)
109th (2005–2007)
110th (2007–2009)
111th (2009–2011)
112th (2011–2013)
Brian Schatz (D)
Mazie Hirono (D) 113th (2013–2015)
114th (2015–2017)
115th (2017–2019)
116th (2019–2021)
117th (2021–2023)

U.S. House of Representatives

Main article: List of United States representatives from Hawaii

Territorial delegates

The Territory of Hawaii was an organized incorporated territory of the United States formed by the Hawaiian Organic Act on April 30, 1900, following the annexation of Hawaii.[7] The territory initially consisted of the Hawaiian Islands, although the Palmyra Atoll was separated from Hawaii when it was admitted into the Union.[8]

The territorial delegates were elected to two-year terms from the at-large congressional district in the Hawaii Territory. Delegates were allowed to serve on committees, debate, and submit legislation, but were not permitted to vote on bills.[9] The first delegate, Robert William Wilcox,[10] took office on December 15, 1900, and the last delegate, John A. Burns, left office on August 21, 1959, succeeded on the same day by representative Daniel Inouye. Delegates only served in the House of Representatives, as there was no representation in the Senate until Hawaii became a state.

  Democratic (D)   Republican (R)   Home Rule (HR)

Robert William Wilcox, the first congressional delegate from Hawaii and the only delegate from the Home Rule Party of Hawaii
Robert William Wilcox, the first congressional delegate from Hawaii and the only delegate from the Home Rule Party of Hawaii
John A. Burns, Hawaii Territory's last delegate before statehood
John A. Burns, Hawaii Territory's last delegate before statehood
Territorial delegates
Congress Delegate
56th (1899–1901) Robert William Wilcox (HR)
57th (1901–1903)
58th (1903–1905) Jonah Kūhiō
Kalanianaʻole
(R)
59th (1905–1907)
60th (1907–1909)
61st (1909–1911)
62nd (1911–1913)
63rd (1913–1915)
64th (1915–1917)
65th (1917–1919)
66th (1919–1921)
67th (1921–1923) Henry Alexander Baldwin (R)
68th (1923–1925) William Paul Jarrett (D)
69th (1925–1927)
70th (1927–1929) Victor S. K. Houston (R)
71st (1929–1931)
72nd (1931–1933)
73rd (1933–1935) Lincoln Loy McCandless (D)
74th (1935–1937) Samuel Wilder King (R)
75th (1937–1939)
76th (1939–1941)
77th (1941–1943)
78th (1943–1945) Joseph Rider
Farrington
(R)[c]
79th (1945–1947)
80th (1947–1949)
81st (1949–1951)
82nd (1951–1953)
83rd (1953–1955)
Elizabeth P. Farrington (R)
84th (1955–1957)
85th (1957–1959) John A. Burns (D)
86th (1959–1961)

Representatives from the State of Hawaii

Members of the House of Representatives are elected every two years by popular vote within a congressional district.[12] From in the 86th Congress through the 91st Congress, both of Hawaii's representatives were elected from Hawaii's at-large congressional district, but in 1969, the Hawaii legislature passed a law creating Hawaii's first and second congressional district, which elected representatives to the 92nd Congress.[13] The representatives from the two new districts, Patsy Mink and Spark Matsunaga, were also the last two representatives of the seats in the at-large district. Every ten years, the number of seats in the House apportioned to every state is recalculated based on the state's population as determined by the United States census.[14] Hawaii had one seat until the 1960 United States census allotted Hawaii a second seat, which was first filled by Thomas Gill in the 1962 House elections.[15]

  Democratic (D)   Republican (R)

Patsy Mink, the first woman to represent Hawaii in the United States Congress, and the first woman of color to serve in the United States Congress from any state.[16]
Patsy Mink, the first woman to represent Hawaii in the United States Congress, and the first woman of color to serve in the United States Congress from any state.[16]
Neil Abercrombie, representative from Hawaii from 1986 to 1987 and from 1991 to 2010
Neil Abercrombie, representative from Hawaii from 1986 to 1987 and from 1991 to 2010
Tulsi Gabbard, representative from Hawaii and candidate during the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries[17]
Tulsi Gabbard, representative from Hawaii and candidate during the 2020 Democratic presidential primaries[17]
Ed Case, incumbent representative from Hawaii since 2019
Ed Case, incumbent representative from Hawaii since 2019
Representatives from the State of Hawaii
Congress District
Seat A Seat B
86th (1959–1961) Daniel Inouye (D)
87th (1961–1963)
88th (1963–1965) Spark Matsunaga (D) Thomas Gill (D)
89th (1965–1967) Patsy Mink (D)
90th (1967–1969)
91st (1969–1971)
Congress 1st district 2nd district
92nd (1971–1973) Spark Matsunaga (D) Patsy Mink (D)
93rd (1973–1975)
94th (1975–1977)
95th (1977–1979) Cecil Heftel (D)[d] Daniel Akaka (D)[e]
96th (1979–1981)
97th (1981–1983)
98th (1983–1985)
99th (1985–1987)
Neil Abercrombie (D)[f]
100th (1987–1989) Pat Saiki (R)
101st (1989–1991)
Patsy Mink (D)[g]
102nd (1991–1993) Neil Abercrombie (D)[h]
103rd (1993–1995)
104th (1995–1997)
105th (1997–1999)
106th (1999–2001)
107th (2001–2003)
Ed Case (D)
108th (2003–2005)
109th (2005–2007)
110th (2007–2009) Mazie Hirono (D)
111th (2009–2011)
Charles Djou (R)
112th (2011–2013) Colleen Hanabusa (D)
113th (2013–2015) Tulsi Gabbard (D)
114th (2015–2017) Mark Takai (D)[i]
Colleen Hanabusa (D)
115th (2017–2019)
116th (2019–2021) Ed Case (D)
117th (2021–2023) Kai Kahele (D)

Notes

  1. ^ Senator Inouye died while in office.[4] He requested that Representative Colleen Hanabusa be appointed to the seat by Governor Neil Abercrombie, but Abercrombie appointed Brian Schatz to fill the seat.[5]
  2. ^ Senator Matsunaga died while in office.[6]
  3. ^ Delegate Farrington died while in office.[11]
  4. ^ Representative Heftel resigned on July 11, 1986 to unsuccessfully run for Governor of Hawaii.[18]
  5. ^ Representative Akaka resigned on May 16, 1990, to be appointed to the Senate seat vacated upon the death of Senator Spark Matsunaga.[19]
  6. ^ Because of the timing of Rep. Heftel's resignation, the special election to fill Heftel's seat and the primary for the seat's next election were held on the same day. Abercrombie won the special election to fill the seat through the current congressional session, but lost the primary for the general election that would be held in November, rendering him unable to run to finish the term.[20]
  7. ^ Representative Mink died in office.[21]
  8. ^ Representative Abercrombie resigned on February 28, 2010, to run for Governor of Hawaii.[22]
  9. ^ Representative Takai died while in office.[23]

References

  1. ^ "[USC02] 48 USC Ch. 3: Front Matter". uscode.house.gov. Archived from the original on October 29, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  2. ^ Hulse, Carl (June 28, 2010). "Inouye Sworn In as President Pro Tem". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 28, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  3. ^ "U.S. Constitution, Amendment XVII". Archived from the original on July 11, 2021. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  4. ^ Cilliza, Chris (December 17, 2012). "Hawaii Sen. Daniel Inouye dies at age 88". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on March 11, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  5. ^ DePledge, Derrick (December 17, 2012). "Inouye wanted Hanabusa to succeed him in U.S. Senate". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Archived from the original on December 19, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  6. ^ Flint, Peter B. (April 16, 1990). "Spark M. Matsunaga Dies at 73; Senator Led Fight for Reparations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  7. ^ "Hawaii Organic Act" (PDF). April 30, 1900. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  8. ^ "Guide to State and Local Census Geography - Hawaii" (PDF). Government of Hawaii. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  9. ^ "Delegates to the U.S. Congress: History and Current Status" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011.
  10. ^ "WILCOX, Robert W. | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved August 1, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Hawaii Delegate To Congress Dies of Heart Attack". Democrat and Chronicle. June 20, 1954.
  12. ^ "U.S. Const. Art. I, § 2". Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
  13. ^ "A Bill for an Act Providing for the Election of Representatives to the United States Congress from Congressional Districts and Amending Chapters 12 and 13 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes" (PDF). Hawaii State Capitol. July 14, 1969. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 28, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  14. ^ "Decennial Census". American Factfinder. American FactFinder. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
  15. ^ "Apportionment of 435 Seats By The Methods of Equal Proportions and Smallest Divisors: April 1, 1960" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. November 15, 1960. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  16. ^ "Patsy Takemoto Mink (1927–2002)". Democratic Party. Democratic National Committee. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007.
  17. ^ Lerer, Lisa; Astor, Maggie (March 19, 2020). "Tulsi Gabbard Drops Out of Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 19, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  18. ^ "Hawaii Congressman Quits". The New York Times. July 13, 1986. Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  19. ^ Associated Press (April 30, 1990). "Hawaii Congressman Named To Matsunaga's Senate Seat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  20. ^ Rudin, Ken (September 27, 2006). "Democrats Poised to Make Gubernatorial Gains". NPR. Archived from the original on September 18, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  21. ^ Gootman, Elissa (September 30, 2002). "Patsy Mink, Veteran Hawaii Congresswoman, Dies at 74". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 6, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  22. ^ "Hawaii's Abercrombie To Resign House Seat Next Month To Focus On Gov Race". NPR. January 5, 2010. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  23. ^ "U.S. Congressman Mark Takai of Hawaii Dies". NBC. July 21, 2016. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.