In mathematics, in the branch of complex analysis, a holomorphic function on an open subset of the complex plane is called univalent if it is injective.
The function is univalent in the open unit disc, as implies that . As the second factor is non-zero in the open unit disc, must be injective.
One can prove that if and are two open connected sets in the complex plane, and
is a univalent function such that (that is, is surjective), then the derivative of is never zero, is invertible, and its inverse is also holomorphic. More, one has by the chain rule
for all in
For real analytic functions, unlike for complex analytic (that is, holomorphic) functions, these statements fail to hold. For example, consider the function
given by ƒ(x) = x3. This function is clearly injective, but its derivative is 0 at x = 0, and its inverse is not analytic, or even differentiable, on the whole interval (−1, 1). Consequently, if we enlarge the domain to an open subset G of the complex plane, it must fail to be injective; and this is the case, since (for example) f(εω) = f(ε) (where ω is a primitive cube root of unity and ε is a positive real number smaller than the radius of G as a neighbourhood of 0).