in the
Clockwise from top left:

The Upanishads (/ʊˈpʌnɪʃədz/;[1] Sanskrit: उपनिषद्, IAST: Upaniṣad, pronounced [ˈʊpɐnɪʂɐd]) are late Vedic and post-Vedic Sanskrit texts that "document the transition from the archaic ritualism of the Veda into new religious ideas and institutions"[2] and the emergence of the central religious concepts of Hinduism.[2][note 1] They are the most recent addition to the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, and deal with meditation, philosophy, consciousness, and ontological knowledge. Earlier parts of the Vedas dealt with mantras, benedictions, rituals, ceremonies, and sacrifices.[3][4][5]

While among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads document a wide variety of "rites, incantations, and esoteric knowledge"[6] departing from Vedic ritualism and interpreted in various ways in the later commentarial traditions. The Upanishads are widely known, and their diverse ideas, interpreted in various ways, informed later traditions of Hinduism.[note 1] The central concern of all Upanishads is to discover the relations between ritual, cosmic realities (including gods), and the human body/person,[7] postulating Ātman and Brahman as the "summit of the hierarchically arranged and interconnected universe,"[8][9][10] but various ideas about the relation between Atman and Brahman can be found.[10][note 2]

Around 108 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main (mukhya) Upanishads.[11][12] The mukhya Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas[13] and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down orally. The mukhya Upanishads predate the Common Era, but there is no scholarly consensus on their date, or even on which ones are pre- or post-Buddhist. The Brhadaranyaka is seen as particularly ancient by modern scholars.[14][15][16] Of the remainder, 95 Upanishads are part of the Muktikā canon, composed from about the last centuries of 1st-millennium BCE through about 15th-century CE.[17][18] New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika canon, continued to be composed through the early modern and modern era,[19] though often dealing with subjects that are unconnected to the Vedas.[20] The mukhya Upanishads, along with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra (known collectively as the Prasthanatrayi),[21] are interpreted in divergent ways in the several later schools of Vedanta.[10][note 3][22]

Translations of the Upanishads in the early 19th century started to attract attention from a Western audience. German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer was deeply impressed by the Upanishads and called them "the most profitable and elevating reading which ... is possible in the world."[23] Modern era Indologists have discussed the similarities between the fundamental concepts in the Upanishads and the works of major Western philosophers.[24][25][26]


The Sanskrit term Upaniṣad originally meant “connection” or “equivalence",[27] but came to be understood as "sitting near a teacher,"[27] from upa "by" and ni-ṣad "sit down",[28] "sitting down near", referring to the student sitting down near the teacher while receiving spiritual knowledge (Gurumukh).[29] Other dictionary meanings include "esoteric doctrine" and "secret doctrine". Monier-Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary notes – "According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit."[30]

Adi Shankaracharya explains in his commentary on the Kaṭha and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad that the word means Ātmavidyā, that is, "knowledge of the self", or Brahmavidyā "knowledge of Brahman". The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in the first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. Max Müller as well as Paul Deussen translate the word Upanishad in these verses as "secret doctrine",[31][32] Robert Hume translates it as "mystic meaning",[33] while Patrick Olivelle translates it as "hidden connections".[34]



The authorship of most Upanishads is unknown. Radhakrishnan states, "almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads".[35] The ancient Upanishads are embedded in the Vedas, the oldest of Hinduism's religious scriptures, which some traditionally consider to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman"[36] and "impersonal, authorless".[37][38][39] The Vedic texts assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot.[40]

The various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to famous sages such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Shvetaketu, Shandilya, Aitareya, Balaki, Pippalada, and Sanatkumara.[35][41] Women, such as Maitreyi and Gargi, participate in the dialogues and are also credited in the early Upanishads.[42] There are some exceptions to the anonymous tradition of the Upanishads. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad, for example, includes closing credits to sage Shvetashvatara, and he is considered the author of the Upanishad.[43]

Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were interpolated[44] and expanded over time. There are differences within manuscripts of the same Upanishad discovered in different parts of South Asia, differences in non-Sanskrit version of the texts that have survived, and differences within each text in terms of meter,[45] style, grammar and structure.[46][47] The existing texts are believed to be the work of many authors.[48]


Scholars are uncertain about when the Upanishads were composed.[49] The chronology of the early Upanishads is difficult to resolve, states philosopher and Sanskritist Stephen Phillips,[11] because all opinions rest on scanty evidence and analysis of archaism, style and repetitions across texts, and are driven by assumptions about likely evolution of ideas, and presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies. Indologist Patrick Olivelle says that "in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents [early Upanishads] that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a house of cards".[14]

Some scholars have tried to analyse similarities between Hindu Upanishads and Buddhist literature to establish chronology for the Upanishads.[15] Precise dates are impossible, and most scholars give only broad ranges encompassing various centuries. Gavin Flood states that "the Upanisads are not a homogeneous group of texts. Even the older texts were composed over a wide expanse of time from about 600 to 300 BCE."[50] Stephen Phillips places the early or "principal" Upanishads in the 800 to 300 BCE range.[11]

Patrick Olivelle, a Sanskrit Philologist and Indologist, gives the following chronology for the early Upanishads, also called the Principal Upanishads:[49][14]

Meanwhile, the Indologist Johannes Bronkhorst argues for a later date for the Upanishads than has generally been accepted. Bronkhorst places even the oldest of the Upanishads, such as the Brhadaranyaka as possibly still being composed at "a date close to Katyayana and Patañjali [the grammarian]" (i.e., c. 2nd century BCE).[16]

The later Upanishads, numbering about 95, also called minor Upanishads, are dated from the late 1st-millennium BCE to mid 2nd-millennium CE.[17] Gavin Flood dates many of the twenty Yoga Upanishads to be probably from the 100 BCE to 300 CE period.[18] Patrick Olivelle and other scholars date seven of the twenty Sannyasa Upanishads to likely have been complete sometime between the last centuries of the 1st-millennium BCE to 300 CE.[17] About half of the Sannyasa Upanishads were likely composed in 14th- to 15th-century CE.[17]


Geography of the Late Vedic Period

The general area of the composition of the early Upanishads is considered as northern India. The region is bounded on the west by the upper Indus valley, on the east by lower Ganges region, on the north by the Himalayan foothills, and on the south by the Vindhya mountain range.[14] Scholars are reasonably sure that the early Upanishads were produced at the geographical center of ancient Brahmanism, Kuru-Panchala, and Kosala-Videha, a "frontier region" of Brahmanism, together with the areas immediately to the south and west of these.[55] This region covers modern Bihar, Nepal, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, eastern Rajasthan, and northern Madhya Pradesh.[14]

While significant attempts have been made recently to identify the exact locations of the individual Upanishads, the results are tentative. Witzel identifies the center of activity in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as the area of Videha, whose king, Janaka, features prominently in the Upanishad.[56] The Chandogya Upanishad was probably composed in a more western than eastern location in the Indian subcontinent, possibly somewhere in the western region of the Kuru-Panchala country.[57]

Compared to the Principal Upanishads, the new Upanishads recorded in the Muktikā belong to an entirely different region, probably southern India, and are considerably relatively recent.[58] In the fourth chapter of the Kaushitaki Upanishad, a location named Kashi (modern Varanasi) is mentioned.[14]


Muktika canon: major and minor Upanishads

There are more than 200 known Upanishads, one of which, the Muktikā Upanishad, predates 1656 CE[59] and contains a list of 108 canonical Upanishads,[60] including itself as the last. These are further divided into Upanishads associated with Shaktism (goddess Shakti), Sannyasa (renunciation, monastic life), Shaivism (god Shiva), Vaishnavism (god Vishnu), Yoga, and Sāmānya (general, sometimes referred to as Samanya-Vedanta).[61][62]

Some of the Upanishads are categorized as "sectarian" since they present their ideas through a particular god or goddess of a specific Hindu tradition such as Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, or a combination of these such as the Skanda Upanishad. These traditions sought to link their texts as Vedic, by asserting their texts to be an Upanishad, thereby a Śruti.[63] Most of these sectarian Upanishads, for example the Rudrahridaya Upanishad and the Mahanarayana Upanishad, assert that all the Hindu gods and goddesses are the same, all an aspect and manifestation of Brahman, the Vedic concept for metaphysical ultimate reality before and after the creation of the Universe.[64][65]

Principal Upanishads

Main article: Principal Upanishads

The Principal Upanishads, also known as the Mukhya Upanishads, can be grouped into periods. Of the early periods are the Brihadaranyaka and the Chandogya, the oldest.[66][note 4]

A page of Isha Upanishad manuscript

The Aitareya, Kauṣītaki and Taittirīya Upanishads may date to as early as the mid-1st millennium BCE, while the remnant date from between roughly the 4th to 1st centuries BCE, roughly contemporary with the earliest portions of the Sanskrit epics. One chronology assumes that the Aitareya, Taittiriya, Kausitaki, Mundaka, Prasna, and Katha Upanishads has Buddha's influence, and is consequently placed after the 5th century BCE, while another proposal questions this assumption and dates it independent of Buddha's date of birth. The Kena, Mandukya, and Isa Upanishads are typically placed after these Principal Upanishads, but other scholars date these differently. [15] Not much is known about the authors except for those, like Yajnavalkayva and Uddalaka, mentioned in the texts.[13] A few women discussants, such as Gargi and Maitreyi, the wife of Yajnavalkayva,[68] also feature occasionally.

Each of the principal Upanishads can be associated with one of the schools of exegesis of the four Vedas (shakhas).[69] Many Shakhas are said to have existed, of which only a few remain. The new Upanishads often have little relation to the Vedic corpus and have not been cited or commented upon by any great Vedanta philosopher: their language differs from that of the classic Upanishads, being less subtle and more formalized. As a result, they are not difficult to comprehend for the modern reader.[70]

Veda-Shakha-Upanishad association
Veda Recension Shakha Principal Upanishad
Rig Veda Only one recension Shakala Aitareya
Sama Veda Only one recension Kauthuma Chāndogya
Jaiminiya Kena
Yajur Veda Krishna Yajur Veda Katha Kaṭha
Taittiriya Taittirīya
Hiranyakeshi (Kapishthala)
Shukla Yajur Veda Vajasaneyi Madhyandina Isha and Bṛhadāraṇyaka
Kanva Shakha
Atharva Veda Two recensions Shaunaka Māṇḍūkya and Muṇḍaka
Paippalada Prashna Upanishad

New Upanishads

There is no fixed list of the Upanishads as newer ones, beyond the Muktika anthology of 108 Upanishads, have continued to be discovered and composed.[71] In 1908, for example, four previously unknown Upanishads were discovered in newly found manuscripts, and these were named Bashkala, Chhagaleya, Arsheya, and Saunaka, by Friedrich Schrader,[72] who attributed them to the first prose period of the Upanishads.[73] The text of three of them, namely the Chhagaleya, Arsheya, and Saunaka, were incomplete and inconsistent, likely poorly maintained or corrupted.[73]

Ancient Upanishads have long enjoyed a revered position in Hindu traditions, and authors of numerous sectarian texts have tried to benefit from this reputation by naming their texts as Upanishads.[74] These "new Upanishads" number in the hundreds, cover diverse range of topics from physiology[75] to renunciation[76] to sectarian theories.[74] They were composed between the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE through the early modern era (~1600 CE).[74][76] While over two dozen of the minor Upanishads are dated to pre-3rd century CE,[17][18] many of these new texts under the title of "Upanishads" originated in the first half of the 2nd millennium CE,[74] they are not Vedic texts, and some do not deal with themes found in the Vedic Upanishads.[20]

The main Shakta Upanishads, for example, mostly discuss doctrinal and interpretative differences between the two principal sects of a major Tantric form of Shaktism called Shri Vidya upasana. The many extant lists of authentic Shakta Upaniṣads vary, reflecting the sect of their compilers, so that they yield no evidence of their "location" in Tantric tradition, impeding correct interpretation. The Tantra content of these texts also weaken its identity as an Upaniṣad for non-Tantrikas. Sectarian texts such as these do not enjoy status as shruti and thus the authority of the new Upanishads as scripture is not accepted in Hinduism.[77]

Association with Vedas

All Upanishads are associated with one of the four Vedas—Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda (there are two primary versions or Samhitas of the Yajurveda: Shukla Yajurveda, Krishna Yajurveda), and Atharvaveda.[78] During the modern era, the ancient Upanishads that were embedded texts in the Vedas, were detached from the Brahmana and Aranyaka layers of Vedic text, compiled into separate texts and these were then gathered into anthologies of the Upanishads.[74] These lists associated each Upanishad with one of the four Vedas. Many such lists exist but they are inconsistent across India in terms of which Upanishads are included and how the newer Upanishads are assigned to the ancient Vedas. In south India, the collected list based on Muktika Upanishad,[note 5] and published in Telugu language, became the most common by the 19th-century and this is a list of 108 Upanishads.[74][79] In north India, a list of 52 Upanishads has been most common.[74]

The Muktikā Upanishad's list of 108 Upanishads groups the first 13 as mukhya,[80][note 6] 21 as Sāmānya Vedānta, 20 as Sannyāsa,[84] 14 as Vaishnava, 12 as Shaiva, 8 as Shakta, and 20 as Yoga.[85] The 108 Upanishads as recorded in the Muktikā are shown in the table below.[78] The mukhya Upanishads are the most important and highlighted.[82]

Veda-Upanishad association
Veda Number[78] Mukhya[80] Sāmānya Sannyāsa[84] Śākta[86] Vaiṣṇava[87] Śaiva[88] Yoga[85]
Ṛigveda 10 Aitareya, Kauśītāki Ātmabodha, Mudgala Nirvāṇa Tripura, Saubhāgya-lakshmi, Bahvṛca - Akṣamālika Nādabindu
Sāmaveda 16 Chāndogya, Kena Vajrasūchi, Maha, Sāvitrī Āruṇi, Maitreya, Brhat-Sannyāsa, Kuṇḍika (Laghu-Sannyāsa) - Vāsudeva, Avyakta Rudrākṣa, Jābāli Yogachūḍāmaṇi, Darśana
Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda 32 Taittiriya, Katha, Śvetāśvatara, Maitrāyaṇi[note 7] Sarvasāra, Śukarahasya, Skanda, Garbha, Śārīraka, Ekākṣara, Akṣi Brahma, (Laghu, Brhad) Avadhūta, Kaṭhasruti Sarasvatī-rahasya Nārāyaṇa, Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa, Mahānārāyaṇa (Tripād vibhuti), Kaivalya, Kālāgnirudra, Dakṣiṇāmūrti, Rudrahṛdaya, Pañcabrahma Amṛtabindu, Tejobindu, Amṛtanāda, Kṣurika, Dhyānabindu, Brahmavidyā, Yogatattva, Yogaśikhā, Yogakuṇḍalini, Varāha
Śukla Yajurveda 19 Bṛhadāraṇyaka, Īśa Subala, Mantrika, Niralamba, Paingala, Adhyatma, Muktikā Jābāla, Bhikṣuka, Turīyātītavadhuta, Yājñavalkya, Śāṭyāyaniya - Tārasāra - Advayatāraka, Haṃsa, Triśikhi, Maṇḍalabrāhmaṇa
Atharvaveda 31 Muṇḍaka, Māṇḍūkya, Praśna Ātmā, Sūrya, Prāṇāgnihotra[90] Āśrama, Nārada-parivrājaka, Paramahamsa, Paramahaṃsa parivrājaka, Parabrahma Sītā, Devī, Tripurātapini, Bhāvana Nṛsiṃhatāpanī, Rāmarahasya, Rāmatāpaṇi, Gopālatāpani, Kṛṣṇa, Hayagrīva, Dattātreya, Gāruḍa Atharvasiras,[91] Atharvaśikha, Bṛhajjābāla, Śarabha, Bhasma, Gaṇapati Śāṇḍilya, Pāśupata, Mahāvākya
Total Upaniṣads 108 13[note 6] 21 18 8 14 14 20


See also: Vedanta

Impact of a drop of water, a common analogy for Brahman and the Ātman

The central concern of all Upanishads is to discover the relations between ritual, cosmic realities (including gods), and the human body/person,[7] postulating Ātman and Brahman as the "summit of the hierarchically arranged and interconnected universe,"[8][9][10] but various ideas about the relation between Atman and Brahman can be found.[10][note 2]

The Upanishads reflect a pluralism of worldviews. While some Upanishads have been deemed 'monistic', others, including the Katha Upanishad, are dualistic.[92] The Maitri is one of the Upanishads that inclines more toward dualism, thus grounding classical Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hinduism, in contrast to the non-dualistic Upanishads at the foundation of its Vedanta school.[93] They contain a plurality of ideas.[94][note 2]

The Upanishads include sections on philosophical theories that have been at the foundation of Indian traditions. For example, the Chandogya Upanishad includes one of the earliest known declarations of Ahimsa (non-violence) as an ethical precept.[95][96] Discussion of other ethical premises such as Damah (temperance, self-restraint), Satya (truthfulness), Dāna (charity), Ārjava (non-hypocrisy), Daya (compassion), and others are found in the oldest Upanishads and many later Upanishads.[97][98] Similarly, the Karma doctrine is presented in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, which is the oldest Upanishad.[99]

Development of thought

While the hymns of the Vedas emphasize rituals and the Brahmanas serve as a liturgical manual for those Vedic rituals, the spirit of the Upanishads is inherently opposed to ritual.[100] The older Upanishads launch attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Anyone who worships a divinity other than the self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Chāndogya Upanishad parodies those who indulge in the acts of sacrifice by comparing them with a procession of dogs chanting Om! Let's eat. Om! Let's drink.[100]

The Kaushitaki Upanishad asserts that "external rituals such as Agnihotram offered in the morning and in the evening, must be replaced with inner Agnihotram, the ritual of introspection", and that "not rituals, but knowledge should be one's pursuit".[101] The Mundaka Upanishad declares how man has been called upon, promised benefits for, scared unto and misled into performing sacrifices, oblations and pious works.[102] Mundaka thereafter asserts this is foolish and frail, by those who encourage it and those who follow it, because it makes no difference to man's current life and after-life, it is like blind men leading the blind, it is a mark of conceit and vain knowledge, ignorant inertia like that of children, a futile useless practice.[102][103] The Maitri Upanishad states,[104]

The performance of all the sacrifices, described in the Maitrayana-Brahmana, is to lead up in the end to a knowledge of Brahman, to prepare a man for meditation. Therefore, let such man, after he has laid those fires,[105] meditate on the Self, to become complete and perfect. But who is to be meditated on?

— Maitri Upanishad[106][107]

The opposition to the ritual is not explicit in the oldest Upanishads. On occasions, the Upanishads extend the task of the Aranyakas by making the ritual allegorical and giving it a philosophical meaning. For example, the Brihadaranyaka interprets the practice of horse-sacrifice or ashvamedha allegorically. It states that the over-lordship of the earth may be acquired by sacrificing a horse. It then goes on to say that spiritual autonomy can only be achieved by renouncing the universe which is conceived in the image of a horse.[100]

In similar fashion, Vedic gods such as the Agni, Aditya, Indra, Rudra, Visnu, Brahma, and others become equated in the Upanishads to the supreme, immortal, and incorporeal Brahman-Atman of the Upanishads, god becomes synonymous with self, and is declared to be everywhere, inmost being of each human being and within every living creature.[108][109][110] The one reality or ekam sat of the Vedas becomes the ekam eva advitiyam or "the one and only and sans a second" in the Upanishads.[100] Brahman-Atman and self-realization develops, in the Upanishad, as the means to moksha (liberation; freedom in this life or after-life).[110][111][112]

According to Jayatilleke, the thinkers of Upanishadic texts can be grouped into two categories.[113] One group, which includes early Upanishads along with some middle and late Upanishads, were composed by metaphysicians who used rational arguments and empirical experience to formulate their speculations and philosophical premises. The second group includes many middle and later Upanishads, where their authors professed theories based on yoga and personal experiences.[113] Yoga philosophy and practice, adds Jayatilleke, is "not entirely absent in the Early Upanishads".[113]

The development of thought in these Upanishadic theories contrasted with Buddhism, since the Upanishadic inquiry fails to find an empirical correlate of the assumed Atman, but nevertheless assumes its existence,[114] "[reifying] consciousness as an eternal self."[115] The Buddhist inquiry "is satisfied with the empirical investigation which shows that no such Atman exists because there is no evidence," states Jayatilleke.[114]

Atman and Brahman

Main articles: Ātman (Hinduism) and Brahman

The Upanishads postulate Ātman and Brahman as the "summit of the hierarchically arranged and interconnected universe."[8][9][10] Both have multiple meanings,[116] and various ideas about the relation between Atman and Brahman can be found.[10][note 2]

Atman has "a wide range of lexical meanings, including ‘breath’, ‘spirit’, and ‘body’."[117] In the Upanishads it refers to the body, but also to the essence of the concrete physical human body,[8] "an essence, a life-force, consciousness, or ultimate reality."[117] The Chāndogya Upaniṣhad (6.1-16) "offers an organic understanding of ātman, characterizing the self in terms of the life force that animates all living beings," while the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣhad "characterizes ātman more in terms of consciousness than as a life-giving essence."[117]

Brahman may refer to a "formulation of truth," but also to "the ultimate and basic essence of the cosmos," standing at the "summit of the hierarchical scheme, or at the bottom as the ultimate foundation of all things."[116] Brahman is "beyond the reach of human perception and thought."[118] Atman likewise has multiple meanings, one of them being 'self', the inner essence of a human body/person.[119][120][note 8]

Various ideas about the relation between Atman and Brahman can be found.[10][note 2] Two distinct, somewhat divergent themes stand out. Older upanishads state that Atman is part of Brahman but not identical, while younger Upanishads state that Brahman (Highest Reality, Universal Principle, Being-Consciousness-Bliss) is identical with Atman.[121][122] The Brahmasutra by Badarayana (c. 100 BCE) synthesized and unified these somewhat conflicting theories. According to Nakamura, the Brahmasutras see Atman and Brahman as both different and not-different, a point of view which came to be called bhedabheda in later times.[123] According to Koller, the Brahmasutras state that Atman and Brahman are different in some respects particularly during the state of ignorance, but at the deepest level and in the state of self-realization, Atman and Brahman are identical, non-different.[121] This ancient debate flowered into various dual, non-dual theories in Hinduism.

Reality and Maya

Main article: Maya (illusion)

Two different types of the non-dual Brahman-Atman are presented in the Upanishads, according to Mahadevan. The one in which the non-dual Brahman-Atman is the all-inclusive ground of the universe and another in which empirical, changing reality is an appearance (Maya).[124]

The Upanishads describe the universe, and the human experience, as an interplay of Purusha (the eternal, unchanging principles, consciousness) and Prakṛti (the temporary, changing material world, nature).[125] The former manifests itself as Ātman (soul, self), and the latter as Māyā. The Upanishads refer to the knowledge of Atman as "true knowledge" (Vidya), and the knowledge of Maya as "not true knowledge" (Avidya, Nescience, lack of awareness, lack of true knowledge).[126]

Hendrick Vroom explains, "the term Maya [in the Upanishads] has been translated as 'illusion,' but then it does not concern normal illusion. Here 'illusion' does not mean that the world is not real and simply a figment of the human imagination. Maya means that the world is not as it seems; the world that one experiences is misleading as far as its true nature is concerned."[127] According to Wendy Doniger, "to say that the universe is an illusion (māyā) is not to say that it is unreal; it is to say, instead, that it is not what it seems to be, that it is something constantly being made. Māyā not only deceives people about the things they think they know; more basically, it limits their knowledge."[128]

In the Upanishads, Māyā is the perceived changing reality and it co-exists with Brahman which is the hidden true reality.[129][130] Maya, or "illusion", is an important idea in the Upanishads, because the texts assert that in the human pursuit of blissful and liberating self-knowledge, it is Maya which obscures, confuses and distracts an individual.[131][132]

Schools of Vedanta

Main article: Vedanta

Adi Shankara, expounder of Advaita Vedanta and commentator (bhashya) on the Upanishads

The Upanishads form one of the three main sources for all schools of Vedanta, together with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutras.[133] Due to the wide variety of philosophical teachings contained in the Upanishads, various interpretations could be grounded on the Upanishads.[note 2][note 9] The schools of Vedānta seek to answer questions about the relation between atman and Brahman, and the relation between Brahman and the world.[134] The schools of Vedanta are named after the relation they see between atman and Brahman:[135]

Other schools of Vedanta include Nimbarka's Dvaitadvaita, Vallabha's Suddhadvaita, and Chaitanya's Acintya Bhedabheda.[136] The philosopher Adi Shankara has provided commentaries on 11 mukhya Upanishads.[137]

Advaita Vedanta

Advaita literally means non-duality, and it is a monistic system of thought.[138] It deals with the non-dual nature of Brahman and Atman. Advaita is considered the most influential sub-school of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.[138] Gaudapada was the first person to expound the basic principles of the Advaita philosophy in a commentary on the conflicting statements of the Upanishads.[139] Gaudapada's Advaita ideas were further developed by Shankara (8th century CE).[140][141] King states that Gaudapada's main work, Māṇḍukya Kārikā, is infused with philosophical terminology of Buddhism, and uses Buddhist arguments and analogies.[142] King also suggests that there are clear differences between Shankara's writings and the Brahmasutra,[140][141] and many ideas of Shankara are at odds with those in the Upanishads.[143] Radhakrishnan, on the other hand, suggests that Shankara's views of Advaita were straightforward developments of the Upanishads and the Brahmasutra,[144] and many ideas of Shankara derive from the Upanishads.[145]

Shankara in his discussions of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy referred to the early Upanishads to explain the key difference between Hinduism and Buddhism, stating that Hinduism asserts that Atman (soul, self) exists, whereas Buddhism asserts that there is no soul, no self.[146][147][148]

The Upanishads contain four sentences, the Mahāvākyas (Great Sayings), which were used by Shankara to establish the identity of Atman and Brahman as scriptural truth:


The second school of Vedanta is the Vishishtadvaita, which was founded by Ramanuja (1017–1137 CE). Ramanuja disagreed with Adi Shankara and the Advaita school.[153] Visistadvaita is a synthetic philosophy bridging the monistic Advaita and theistic Dvaita systems of Vedanta.[154] Ramanuja frequently cited the Upanishads, and stated that Vishishtadvaita is grounded in the Upanishads.[155][156]

Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita interpretation of the Upanishads is that of qualified monism.[157][158] Ramanuja interprets the Upanishadic literature to be teaching a body-soul theory, states Jeaneane Fowler – a professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies, where the Brahman is the dweller in all things, yet also distinct and beyond all things, as the soul, the inner controller, the immortal.[156] The Upanishads, according to the Vishishtadvaita school, teach individual souls to be of the same quality as the Brahman, but quantitatively distinct.[159][160][161]

In the Vishishtadvaita school, the Upanishads are interpreted to be teaching about Ishvara (Vishnu), who is the seat of all auspicious qualities, with all of the empirically perceived world as the body of God who dwells in everything.[156] The school recommends a devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of a personal god. This ultimately leads one to the oneness with abstract Brahman.[162][163][164] The Brahman in the Upanishads is a living reality, states Fowler, and "the Atman of all things and all beings" in Ramanuja's interpretation.[156]


The third school of Vedanta called the Dvaita school was founded by Madhvacharya (1199–1278 CE).[165] It is regarded as a strongly theistic philosophic exposition of the Upanishads.[154] Madhvacharya, much like Adi Shankara claims for Advaita, and Ramanuja claims for Vishishtadvaita, states that his theistic Dvaita Vedanta is grounded in the Upanishads.[155]

According to the Dvaita school, states Fowler, the "Upanishads that speak of the soul as Brahman, speak of resemblance and not identity".[166] Madhvacharya interprets the Upanishadic teachings of the self becoming one with Brahman, as "entering into Brahman", just like a drop enters an ocean. This to the Dvaita school implies duality and dependence, where Brahman and Atman are different realities. Brahman is a separate, independent and supreme reality in the Upanishads, Atman only resembles the Brahman in limited, inferior, dependent manner according to Madhvacharya.[166][167][168]

Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita school and Shankara's Advaita school are both nondualism Vedanta schools,[162] both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.[169][170]

Similarities with Platonic thought

See also: Proto-Indo-European religion and Ṛta

Several scholars have recognised parallels between the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato and that of the Upanishads, including their ideas on sources of knowledge, concept of justice and path to salvation, and Plato's allegory of the cave. Platonic psychology with its divisions of reason, spirit and appetite, also bears resemblance to the three Guṇas in the Indian philosophy of Samkhya.[171][172][note 10]

Various mechanisms for such a transmission of knowledge have been conjectured including Pythagoras traveling as far as India; Indian philosophers visiting Athens and meeting Socrates; Plato encountering the ideas when in exile in Syracuse; or, intermediated through Persia.[171][174]

However, other scholars, such as Arthur Berriedale Keith, J. Burnet and A. R. Wadia, believe that the two systems developed independently. They note that there is no historical evidence of the philosophers of the two schools meeting, and point out significant differences in the stage of development, orientation and goals of the two philosophical systems. Wadia writes that Plato's metaphysics were rooted in this life and his primary aim was to develop an ideal state.[172] In contrast, Upanishadic focus was the individual, the self (atman, soul), self-knowledge, and the means of an individual's moksha (freedom, liberation in this life or after-life).[175][176]


The Upanishads have been translated into various languages including Persian, Italian, Urdu, French, Latin, German, English, Dutch, Polish, Japanese, Spanish and Russian.[177] The Mughal Emperor Akbar's reign (1556–1586) saw the first translations of the Upanishads into Persian.[178][179] His great-grandson, Dara Shukoh, produced a collection called Sirr-i-Akbar in 1656, wherein 50 Upanishads were translated from Sanskrit into Persian.[180]

Anquetil-Duperron, a French Orientalist, received a manuscript of the Oupanekhat and translated the Persian version into French and Latin, publishing the Latin translation in two volumes in 1801–1802 as Oupneck'hat.[180][178] The French translation was never published.[181] More recently, several translations in French of some Upanishads or the whole of 108 have been published : by indianists Louis Renou , Kausitaki, Svetasvatra, Prasna, Taittiriya Upanisads, 1948;[182] Jean Varenne, Mahâ-Nârâyana Upanisad, 1960,[183] and Sept Upanishads, 1981;[184] Alyette Degrâces-Fadh, Samnyâsa-Upanisad (Upanisad du renoncement) , 1989;[185] Martine Buttex, Les 108 Upanishads (full translation), 2012.[186]

The Latin version was the initial introduction of the Upanishadic thought to Western scholars.[187] However, according to Deussen, the Persian translators took great liberties in translating the text and at times changed the meaning.[188]

The first Sanskrit-to-English translation of the Aitareya Upanishad was made by Colebrooke[189] in 1805, and the first English translation of the Kena Upanishad was made by Rammohun Roy in 1816.[190][191]

The first German translation appeared in 1832 and Roer's English version appeared in 1853. However, Max Mueller's 1879 and 1884 editions were the first systematic English treatment to include the 12 Principal Upanishads.[177] Other major translations of the Upanishads have been by Robert Ernest Hume (13 Principal Upanishads),[192] Paul Deussen (60 Upanishads),[193] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (18 Upanishads),[194] Patrick Olivelle (32 Upanishads in two books)[195][196] and Bhānu Swami (13 Upanishads with commentaries of Vaiṣṇava ācāryas). Olivelle's translation won the 1998 A.K. Ramanujan Book Prize for Translation.[197]

Throughout the 1930s, Irish poet W. B. Yeats worked with the Indian-born mendicant-teacher Shri Purohit Swami on their own translation of the Upanishads, eventually titled The Ten Principal Upanishads and published in 1938. This translation was the final piece of work published by Yeats before his death less than a year later.[198]

Reception in the West

German 19th century philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, impressed by the Upanishads, called the texts "the production of the highest human wisdom".

The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer read the Latin translation and praised the Upanishads in his main work, The World as Will and Representation (1819), as well as in his Parerga and Paralipomena (1851).[199] He found his own philosophy in accord with the Upanishads, which taught that the individual is a manifestation of the one basis of reality. For Schopenhauer, that fundamentally real underlying unity is what we know in ourselves as "will". Schopenhauer used to keep a copy of the Latin Oupnekhet by his side and commented,

In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death.[200]

Schopenhauer's philosophy influenced many famous people and introduced them to the Upanishads. One of them was the Austrian Physicist Erwin Schrödinger, who once wrote:

“There is obviously only one alternative,” he wrote, “namely the unification of minds or consciousnesses. Their multiplicity is only apparent, in truth there is only one mind. This is the doctrine of the Upanishads.”[201]

Another German philosopher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, praised the ideas in the Upanishads,[202] as did others.[203] In the United States, the group known as the Transcendentalists were influenced by the German idealists. Americans, such as Emerson and Thoreau embraced Schelling's interpretation of Kant's Transcendental idealism, as well as his celebration of the romantic, exotic, mystical aspect of the Upanishads. As a result of the influence of these writers, the Upanishads gained renown in Western countries.[204]

The poet T. S. Eliot, inspired by his reading of the Upanishads, based the final portion of his famous poem The Waste Land (1922) upon one of its verses.[205] According to Eknath Easwaran, the Upanishads are snapshots of towering peaks of consciousness.[206]

Juan Mascaró, a professor at the University of Barcelona and a translator of the Upanishads, states that the Upanishads represents for the Hindu approximately what the New Testament represents for the Christian, and that the message of the Upanishads can be summarized in the words, "the kingdom of God is within you".[207]

Paul Deussen in his review of the Upanishads, states that the texts emphasize Brahman-Atman as something that can be experienced, but not defined.[208] This view of the soul and self are similar, states Deussen, to those found in the dialogues of Plato and elsewhere. The Upanishads insisted on oneness of soul, excluded all plurality, and therefore, all proximity in space, all succession in time, all interdependence as cause and effect, and all opposition as subject and object.[208] Max Müller, in his review of the Upanishads, summarizes the lack of systematic philosophy and the central theme in the Upanishads as follows,

There is not what could be called a philosophical system in these Upanishads. They are, in the true sense of the word, guesses at truth, frequently contradicting each other, yet all tending in one direction. The key-note of the old Upanishads is "know thyself," but with a much deeper meaning than that of the γνῶθι σεαυτόν of the Delphic Oracle. The "know thyself" of the Upanishads means, know thy true self, that which underlines thine Ego, and find it and know it in the highest, the eternal Self, the One without a second, which underlies the whole world.

See also


  1. ^ a b Central concepts:
    • Doniger (1990, p. 2-3: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus." * Dissanayake (1993, p. 39): "The Upanishads form the foundations of Hindu philosophical thought"; * Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195352429, page 3: "Even though theoretically the whole of vedic corpus is accepted as revealed truth [shruti], in reality it is the Upanishads that have continued to influence the life and thought of the various religious traditions that we have come to call Hindu. Upanishads are the scriptures par excellence of Hinduism"; * Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown (2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-1592578467, pages 208-210. These new concepts and practices include rebirth, samsara, karma, meditation, renunciation and moksha.(Olivelle 1998, pp. xx–xxiv) The Upanishadic, Buddhist and Jain renunciation traditions form parallel traditions, which share some common concepts and interests. While Kuru-Panchala, at the central Ganges Plain, formed the center of the early Upanishadic tradition, Kosala-Magadha at the central Ganges Plain formed the center of the other shramanic traditions.(Samuel 2010))
  2. ^ a b c d e f Oliville: "In this Introduction I have avoided speaking of 'the philosophy of the upanishads', a common feature of most introductions to their translations. These documents were composed over several centuries and in various regions, and it is futile to try to discover a single doctrine or philosophy in them."[94]
  3. ^ Vedanta has been interpreted as the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" and alternatively as "object, the highest purpose of the Veda".
  4. ^ These are believed to pre-date Gautam Buddha (c. 500 BCE)[67]
  5. ^ The Muktika manuscript found in colonial era Calcutta is the usual default, but other recensions exist.
  6. ^ a b Some scholars list ten as principal, while most consider twelve or thirteen as principal mukhya Upanishads.[81][82][83]
  7. ^ Parmeshwaranand classifies Maitrayani with Samaveda, most scholars with Krishna Yajurveda[78][89]
  8. ^ Atman:
    • Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012): "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul";
    • John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947, See entry for Atman;
    • WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198610250, See entry for Atman (self);
    • Richard King (1995), Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791425138, page 64 "Atman as the innermost essence or soul of man, and Brahman as the innermost essence and support of the universe. (...) Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of Atman with Brahman".
    • Chad Meister (2010), The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195340136, page 63: "Even though Buddhism explicitly rejected the Hindu ideas of Atman ("soul") and Brahman, Hinduism treats Sakyamuni Buddha as one of the ten avatars of Vishnu."
    • David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415215277, pages 208-209: "Advaita and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself".
  9. ^ Collins 2000, p. 195: "The breakdown of the Vedic cults is more obscured by retrospective ideology than any other period in Indian history. It is commonly assumed that the dominant philosophy now became an idealist monism, the identification of atman (self) and Brahman (Spirit), and that this mysticism was believed to provide a way to transcend rebirths on the wheel of karma. This is far from an accurate picture of what we read in the Upanishads. It has become traditional to view the Upanishads through the lens of Shankara's Advaita interpretation. This imposes the philosophical revolution of about 700 C.E. upon a very different situation 1,000 to 1,500 years earlier. Shankara picked out monist and idealist themes from a much wider philosophical lineup."
  10. ^ For instances of Platonic pluralism in the early Upanishads see Randall.[173]


  1. ^ "Upanishad" Archived 20 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b Olivelle 1996, p. xxiii.
  3. ^ Flood (1996), p. 35–39.
  4. ^ A Bhattacharya (2006), Hindu Dharma: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, ISBN 978-0595384556, pp. 8–14; George M. Williams (2003), Handbook of Hindu Mythology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195332612, p. 285
  5. ^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447016032
  6. ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. 51.
  7. ^ a b Olivelle 1996, p. lii.
  8. ^ a b c d Olivelle 1996, p. lv.
  9. ^ a b c Mahadevan 1956, p. 59.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Raju (1985), p. 35-36.
  11. ^ a b c Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, pp. 25-29 and Chapter 1.
  12. ^ E Easwaran (2007), The Upanishads, ISBN 978-1586380212, pages 298-299
  13. ^ a b Mahadevan 1956, p. 56.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, pages 12-14.
  15. ^ a b c d King 1995, p. 52.
  16. ^ a b Bronkhorst, Johannes (2007). Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India, pp. 258-259. BRILL.
  17. ^ a b c d e Olivelle 1992, pp. 5, 8–9.
  18. ^ a b c Flood 1996, p. 96.
  19. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 12.
  20. ^ a b Varghese 2008, p. 101.
  21. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 205.
  22. ^ Max Müller, The Upanishads, Part 1, Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI footnote 1
  23. ^ Clarke, John James (1997). Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-415-13376-0. Archived from the original on 17 May 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  24. ^ Deussen 2010, p. 42, Quote: "Here we have to do with the Upanishads, and the world-wide historical significance of these documents cannot, in our judgement, be more clearly indicated than by showing how the deep fundamental conception of Plato and Kant was precisely that which already formed the basis of Upanishad teaching"..
  25. ^ Lawrence Hatab (1982). R. Baine Harris (ed.). Neoplatonism and Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 31–38. ISBN 978-0-87395-546-1. Archived from the original on 17 May 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2016.;
    Paulos Gregorios (2002). Neoplatonism and Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. pp. 71–79, 190–192, 210–214. ISBN 978-0-7914-5274-5.
  26. ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998). A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant. State University of New York Press. pp. 62–74. ISBN 978-0-7914-3683-7. Archived from the original on 18 December 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  27. ^ a b Doniger, Gold & Smith (2023).
  28. ^ "Upanishad". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  29. ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 472. ISBN 978-0816073368.
  30. ^ Monier-Williams 1976, p. 201.
  31. ^ Max Müller, Chandogya Upanishad 1.13.4, The Upanishads, Part I, Oxford University Press, page 22
  32. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 85
  33. ^ Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad 1.13.4, Oxford University Press, page 190
  34. ^ The Early Upanishads. p. 185.
  35. ^ a b S Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads George Allen & Co., 1951, pages 22, Reprinted as ISBN 978-8172231248
  36. ^ Vaman Shivaram Apte, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary Archived 15 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, see apauruSeya
  37. ^ D Sharma, Classical Indian Philosophy: A Reader, Columbia University Press, ISBN, pages 196-197
  38. ^ Jan Westerhoff (2009), Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195384963, page 290
  39. ^ Warren Lee Todd (2013), The Ethics of Śaṅkara and Śāntideva: A Selfless Response to an Illusory World, ISBN 978-1409466819, page 128
  40. ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), Handbook of Oriental Studies, BRILL Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, pages 13-14
  41. ^ Mahadevan 1956, pp. 59–60.
  42. ^ Ellison Findly (1999), Women and the Arahant Issue in Early Pali Literature Archived 4 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, Vol. 15, No. 1, pages 57-76
  43. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 301-304
  44. ^ For example, see: Kaushitaki Upanishad Robert Hume (Translator), Oxford University Press, page 306 footnote 2
  45. ^ Max Müller, The Upanishads, p. PR72, at Google Books, Oxford University Press, page LXXII
  46. ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998), Unfaithful Transmitters, Journal of Indian Philosophy, April 1998, Volume 26, Issue 2, pages 173-187;
    Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, pages 583-640
  47. ^ WD Whitney, The Upanishads and Their Latest Translation, The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 7, No. 1, pages 1-26;
    F Rusza (2010), The authorlessness of the philosophical sūtras, Acta Orientalia, Volume 63, Number 4, pages 427-442
  48. ^ Mark Juergensmeyer et al. (2011), Encyclopedia of Global Religion, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0761927297, page 1122
  49. ^ a b c Olivelle 1998, pp. 12–13.
  50. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (2018). An Introduction to Hinduism, p. 40, Cambridge University Press.
  51. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxvi.
  52. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, pp. 12-13.
  53. ^ "Upanishad | Hindu religious text | Britannica". www.britannica.com. 23 May 2023.
  54. ^ Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, p. 13.
  55. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxvii-xxxix.
  56. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxviii.
  57. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxix.
  58. ^ Deussen 1908, pp. 35–36.
  59. ^ Tripathy 2010, p. 84.
  60. ^ Sen 1937, p. 19.
  61. ^ Ayyangar, T. R. Srinivasa (1941). The Samanya-Vedanta Upanishads. Jain Publishing (Reprint 2007). ISBN 978-0895819833. OCLC 27193914.
  62. ^ Deussen 1997, pp. 556–568.
  63. ^ Holdrege 1995, pp. 426.
  64. ^ Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes. BRILL Academic. pp. 112–120. ISBN 978-9004107588. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  65. ^ Ayyangar, TRS (1953). Saiva Upanishads. Jain Publishing Co. (Reprint 2007). pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0895819819.
  66. ^ M. Fujii, On the formation and transmission of the JUB, Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora 2, 1997
  67. ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. 3–4.
  68. ^ Ranade 1926, p. 61.
  69. ^ Joshi 1994, pp. 90–92.
  70. ^ Heehs 2002, p. 85.
  71. ^ Rinehart 2004, p. 17.
  72. ^ Singh 2002, pp. 3–4.
  73. ^ a b Schrader & Adyar Library 1908, p. v.
  74. ^ a b c d e f g Olivelle 1998, pp. xxxii–xxxiii.
  75. ^ Paul Deussen (1966), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Dover, ISBN 978-0486216164, pages 283-296; for an example, see Garbha Upanishad
  76. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages 1-12, 98-100; for an example, see Bhikshuka Upanishad
  77. ^ Brooks 1990, pp. 13–14.
  78. ^ a b c d Parmeshwaranand 2000, pp. 404–406.
  79. ^ Paul Deussen (2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, pages 566-568
  80. ^ a b Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500, pages 60-88
  81. ^ Robert C Neville (2000), Ultimate Realities, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0791447765, page 319
  82. ^ a b Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, pages 28-29
  83. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxiii.
  84. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages x-xi, 5
  85. ^ a b The Yoga Upanishads TR Srinivasa Ayyangar (Translator), SS Sastri (Editor), Adyar Library
  86. ^ AM Sastri, The Śākta Upaniṣads, with the commentary of Śrī Upaniṣad-Brahma-Yogin, Adyar Library, OCLC 7475481
  87. ^ AM Sastri, The Vaishnava-upanishads: with the commentary of Sri Upanishad-brahma-yogin, Adyar Library, OCLC 83901261
  88. ^ AM Sastri, The Śaiva-Upanishads with the commentary of Sri Upanishad-Brahma-Yogin, Adyar Library, OCLC 863321204
  89. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 217-219
  90. ^ Prāṇāgnihotra is missing in some anthologies, included by Paul Deussen (2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, page 567
  91. ^ Atharvasiras is missing in some anthologies, included by Paul Deussen (2010 Reprint), Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, page 568
  92. ^ Glucklich 2008, p. 70.
  93. ^ Fields 2001, p. 26.
  94. ^ a b Olivelle 1998, p. 4.
  95. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 114-115 with preface and footnotes;
    Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad 3.17, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 212-213
  96. ^ Henk Bodewitz (1999), Hindu Ahimsa, in Violence Denied (Editors: Jan E. M. Houben, et al.), Brill, ISBN 978-9004113442, page 40
  97. ^ PV Kane, Samanya Dharma, History of Dharmasastra, Vol. 2, Part 1, page 5
  98. ^ Chatterjea, Tara. Knowledge and Freedom in Indian Philosophy. Oxford: Lexington Books. p. 148.
  99. ^ Tull, Herman W. The Vedic Origins of Karma: Cosmos as Man in Ancient Indian Myth and Ritual. SUNY Series in Hindu Studies. P. 28
  100. ^ a b c d Mahadevan 1956, p. 57.
  101. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 30-42;
  102. ^ a b Max Müller (1962), Manduka Upanishad, in The Upanishads - Part II, Oxford University Press, Reprinted as ISBN 978-0486209937, pages 30-33
  103. ^ Eduard Roer, Mundaka Upanishad[permanent dead link] Bibliotheca Indica, Vol. XV, No. 41 and 50, Asiatic Society of Bengal, pages 153-154
  104. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 331-333
  105. ^ "laid those fires" is a phrase in Vedic literature that implies yajna and related ancient religious rituals; see Maitri Upanishad - Sanskrit Text with English Translation[permanent dead link] EB Cowell (Translator), Cambridge University, Bibliotheca Indica, First Prapathaka
  106. ^ Max Müller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Maitrayana-Brahmana Upanishad, Oxford University Press, pages 287-288
  107. ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pp. 412–414
  108. ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pp. 428–429
  109. ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, pages 350-351
  110. ^ a b Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of Upanishads at Google Books, University of Kiel, T&T Clark, pages 342-355, 396-412
  111. ^ RC Mishra (2013), Moksha and the Hindu Worldview, Psychology & Developing Societies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pages 21-42
  112. ^ Mark B. Woodhouse (1978), Consciousness and Brahman-Atman Archived 4 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Monist, Vol. 61, No. 1, Conceptions of the Self: East & West (January, 1978), pages 109-124
  113. ^ a b c Jayatilleke 1963, p. 32.
  114. ^ a b Jayatilleke 1963, pp. 39.
  115. ^ Mackenzie 2012.
  116. ^ a b Olivelle 1998, p. lvi.
  117. ^ a b c Black.
  118. ^ Brodd (2009), p. 43-47.
  119. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. lv.
  120. ^ Lochtefeld 2002, p. 122.
  121. ^ a b John Koller (2012), Shankara, in Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415782944, pages 99-102
  122. ^ Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads at Google Books, Dover Publications, pages 86-111, 182-212
  123. ^ Nakamura (1990), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy, p.500. Motilall Banarsidas
  124. ^ Mahadevan 1956, pp. 62–63.
  125. ^ Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads, p. 161, at Google Books, pages 161, 240-254
  126. ^ Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791436844, page 376
  127. ^ H.M. Vroom (1996), No Other Gods, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802840974, page 57
  128. ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618555, page 119
  129. ^ Archibald Edward Gough (2001), The Philosophy of the Upanishads and Ancient Indian Metaphysics, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415245227, pages 47-48
  130. ^ Teun Goudriaan (2008), Maya: Divine And Human, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120823891, pages 1-17
  131. ^ KN Aiyar (Translator, 1914), Sarvasara Upanishad, in Thirty Minor Upanishads, page 17, OCLC 6347863
  132. ^ Adi Shankara, Commentary on Taittiriya Upanishad at Google Books, SS Sastri (Translator), Harvard University Archives, pages 191-198
  133. ^ Radhakrishnan 1956, p. 272.
  134. ^ Raju 1992, p. 176-177.
  135. ^ a b Raju 1992, p. 177.
  136. ^ Ranade 1926, pp. 179–182.
  137. ^ Mahadevan 1956, p. 63.
  138. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica.
  139. ^ Radhakrishnan 1956, p. 273.
  140. ^ a b King 1999, p. 221.
  141. ^ a b Nakamura 2004, p. 31.
  142. ^ King 1999, p. 219.
  143. ^ Collins 2000, p. 195.
  144. ^ Radhakrishnan 1956, p. 284.
  145. ^ John Koller (2012), Shankara in Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415782944, pages 99-108
  146. ^ Edward Roer (translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at pages 3-4; Quote - "(...) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that the soul does not exist. There are four sects among the followers of Buddha: 1. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void; 2. Yogacharas, who assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void; 3. Sautranticas, who affirm actual existence of external objects no less than of internal sensations; 4. Vaibhashikas, who agree with later (Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of exterior objects through images or forms represented to the intellect."
  147. ^ Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at page 3, OCLC 19373677
  148. ^ KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards;
    Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
    Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books, pages 2-4
    Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana? Archived 13 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Philosophy Now;
    John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism".
  149. ^ Panikkar 2001, p. 669.
  150. ^ Panikkar 2001, pp. 725–727.
  151. ^ Panikkar 2001, pp. 747–750.
  152. ^ Panikkar 2001, pp. 697–701.
  153. ^ Klostermaier 2007, pp. 361–363.
  154. ^ a b Chari 1956, p. 305.
  155. ^ a b Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pages 215-224, doi:10.1080/09552367.2010.484955
  156. ^ a b c d Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 298–299, 320–321, 331 with notes. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6. Archived from the original on 22 January 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  157. ^ William M. Indich (1995). Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–2, 97–102. ISBN 978-81-208-1251-2. Archived from the original on 13 February 2022. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  158. ^ Bruce M. Sullivan (2001). The A to Z of Hinduism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8108-4070-6. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  159. ^ Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215-224
  160. ^ Edward Craig (2000), Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415223645, pages 517-518
  161. ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 373–374. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.
  162. ^ a b J.A.B. van Buitenen (2008), Ramanuja - Hindu theologian and Philosopher Archived 6 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica
  163. ^ Jon Paul Sydnor (2012). Ramanuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology. Casemate. pp. 20–22 with footnote 32. ISBN 978-0227680247. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  164. ^ Joseph P. Schultz (1981). Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 978-0-8386-1707-6. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  165. ^ Raghavendrachar 1956, p. 322.
  166. ^ a b Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 356–357. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6. Archived from the original on 22 January 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  167. ^ Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238–1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  168. ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. pp. 358–359. ISBN 978-0195148923.
  169. ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 374–375. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.
  170. ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. pp. 361–362. ISBN 978-0195148923.
  171. ^ a b Chousalkar 1986, pp. 130–134.
  172. ^ a b Wadia 1956, p. 64-65.
  173. ^ Collins 2000, pp. 197–198.
  174. ^ Urwick 1920.
  175. ^ Keith 2007, pp. 602–603.
  176. ^ RC Mishra (2013), Moksha and the Hindu Worldview, Psychology & Developing Societies, Vol. 25, No. 1, pages 21-42; Chousalkar, Ashok (1986), Social and Political Implications of Concepts Of Justice And Dharma, pages 130-134
  177. ^ a b Sharma 1985, p. 20.
  178. ^ a b Müller 1900, p. lvii.
  179. ^ Müller 1899, p. 204.
  180. ^ a b Deussen 1997, pp. 558–59.
  181. ^ Müller 1900, p. lviii.
  182. ^ Louis Renou (1948). Adrien Maisonneuve (ed.). Kausitaki, Svetasvatra, Prasna, Taittiriya Upanisads (in French). Paris. p. 268. ISBN 978-2-7200-0972-3.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link).
  183. ^ Jean Varenne (1960). Éditions de Boccard (ed.). Mahâ-Nârâyana Upanisad, 2 vol (in French). Paris. pp. 155 and 144.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) Reprint in 1986.
  184. ^ Jean Varenne (1981). Seuil (ed.). Sept Upanishads (in French). Paris. p. 227. ISBN 9782020058728.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link).
  185. ^ Alyette Degrâces-Fadh (1989). Fayard (ed.). Samnyâsa-Upanisad (Upanisad du renoncement) (in French). Paris. p. 461. ISBN 9782213018782.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link).
  186. ^ Martine Buttex (2012). Éditions Dervy (ed.). Les 108 Upanishads (in French). Paris. p. 1400. ISBN 978-2-84454-949-5.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link).
  187. ^ Deussen 1997, pp. 558–559.
  188. ^ Deussen 1997, pp. 915–916.
  189. ^ See Henry Thomas Colebrooke (1858), Essays on the religion and philosophy of the Hindus. London: Williams and Norgate. In this volume, see chapter 1 (pp. 1–69), On the Vedas, or Sacred Writings of the Hindus, reprinted from Colebrooke's Asiatic Researches, Calcutta: 1805, Vol 8, pp. 369–476. A translation of the Aitareya Upanishad appears in pages 26–30 of this chapter.
  190. ^ Zastoupil, L (2010). Rammohun Roy and the Making of Victorian Britain, By Lynn Zastoupil. Springer. ISBN 9780230111493. Archived from the original on 2 October 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  191. ^ "The Upanishads, Part 1, by Max Müller". Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  192. ^ Hume, Robert Ernest (1921), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press
  193. ^ Deussen 1997.
  194. ^ Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli (1953), The Principal Upanishads, New Delhi: HarperCollins Publishers (1994 Reprint), ISBN 81-7223-124-5
  195. ^ Olivelle 1992.
  196. ^ Olivelle 1998.
  197. ^ "AAS SAC A.K. Ramanujan Book Prize for Translation". Association of Asian Studies. 25 June 2002. Archived from the original on 25 June 2002. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  198. ^ "William Butler Yeats papers". library.udel.edu. University of Delaware. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  199. ^ Schopenhauer & Payne 2000, p. 395.
  200. ^ Schopenhauer & Payne 2000, p. 397.
  201. ^ Schrodinger, Erwin; Penrose, Roger (2012), "Science and Religion", What is Life?, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–152, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107295629.016, ISBN 978-1-107-29562-9, archived from the original on 2 October 2022, retrieved 10 May 2021
  202. ^ Herman Wayne Tull (1989). The Vedic Origins of Karma: Cosmos as Man in Ancient Indian Myth and Ritual. State University of New York Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-7914-0094-4. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  203. ^ Klaus G. Witz (1998). The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 35–44. ISBN 978-81-208-1573-5. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  204. ^ Versluis 1993, pp. 69, 76, 95. 106–110.
  205. ^ Eliot 1963.
  206. ^ Easwaran 2007, p. 9.
  207. ^ Juan Mascaró, The Upanishads, Penguin Classics, ISBN 978-0140441635, page 7, 146, cover
  208. ^ a b Paul Deussen, The Philosophy of the Upanishads University of Kiel, T&T Clark, pages 150-179


Further reading