This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Upper Sorbian language.

Vowels

The vowel inventory of Upper Sorbian is exactly the same as that of Lower Sorbian.[1] It is also very similar to the vowel inventory of Slovene.

Vowel phonemes[1][2]
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Consonants

Consonant phonemes[1][10]
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palatal Velar/
Uvular
Glottal
hard soft hard soft soft hard soft hard
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡s (t͡sʲ) t͡ʃ
voiced (d͡z) d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x
voiced (v) z () ʒ ɦ
Trill ʀ ʀʲ
Approximant β ɥ l j

Final devoicing and assimilation

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)

Upper Sorbian has both final devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation, both word-internal and across word boundaries.[3][32] In the latter context, /x/ is voiced to [ɣ]. Regressive voicing assimilation does not occur before sonorants and /ɦ/.[32]

Stress

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2015)

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Stone (2002), p. 600.
  2. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Stone (2002), p. 604.
  4. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:34). The author states that [ɪ] is less front and somewhat lower than [i], but unlike Russian [ɨ], it is front, not central.
  5. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  6. ^ a b c Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 32.
  7. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 33.
  8. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 601, 606–607.
  9. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 31.
  10. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 46.
  11. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 35–37, 41, 46.
  12. ^ a b c Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 41.
  13. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:36–37, 41, 46). On page 36, the author states that Upper Sorbian /β/ is less velar than Polish /w/. The weakness of the velarization is confirmed by the corresponding image on page 37.
  14. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 36.
  15. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 603–604.
  16. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 37–41, 46.
  17. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 190–191.
  18. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 37, 39, 46.
  19. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 39, 46.
  20. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 38.
  21. ^ a b Zygis (2003), p. 191.
  22. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 40–41.
  23. ^ Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181, 190–191.
  24. ^ Zygis (2003), p. 180.
  25. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 600, 602.
  26. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 42–44, 46.
  27. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 26–27, 42–43.
  28. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 43.
  29. ^ Stone (2002), p. 602.
  30. ^ Stone (2002), pp. 600, 605.
  31. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 43, 46.
  32. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 26.
  33. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 27.
  34. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 28.

Bibliography

  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G. (eds.), The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593–685, ISBN 9780415280785
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175–213

Further reading