AliasesVGF, SCG7, SgVII, VGF nerve growth factor inducible
External IDsOMIM: 602186 MGI: 1343180 HomoloGene: 2536 GeneCards: VGF
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 7: 101.16 – 101.17 MbChr 5: 137.03 – 137.03 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

VGF or VGF nerve growth factor inducible is a secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor that may play a role in regulating energy homeostasis, metabolism[5] and synaptic plasticity.[6] The protein was first discovered in 1985 by Levi et al.[7] in an experiment with PC12 cells and its name is non-acronymic. VGF gene encodes a precursor which is divided by proteolysis to polypeptides of different mass, which have a variety of functions, the best studied of which are the roles of TLQP-21 in the control of appetite and inflammation.,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] and TLQP-62 as well as AQEE-30 in regulating depression-like behaviors[16][17][18][19][20] and memory [21][22] The expression of VGF and VGF-derived peptides is detected in a subset of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and specific populations of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis, adrenal medulla, gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas.[23] VGF expression is induced by NGF, CREB and BDNF and regulated by neurotrophin-3.[24] Physical exercise significantly increases VGF expression in mice hippocampal tissue and upregulates a neurotrophic signaling cascade thought to underlie the action of antidepressants.[16][25][26][27]

Role in pathology

Changes in expression of discrete VGF fragments have been detected in different neurological and psychiatric conditions. In schizophrenia, one study has shown an increase in the VGF23-62 peptide[28] and a subsequent small study demonstrated that drugs further increase the expression, pointing at a possible ameliorating action of the fragment. A decreased expression of VGF26-62 peptide was found in frontotemporal dementia[29] and the expression of a fragment containing aminoacids 378-398 was found to be changing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis[30] and Alzheimer's disease.[31] VGF expression has also been shown in damaged peripheral nerves, and it is thought to have a role in neuropathic pain.[32] In Glioblastoma, VGF has been shown to play autocrine and paracrine roles in feedback loops between differentiated glioblastoma cells and glioblastoma-specific cancer stem cells, promoting growth, survival and self-renewal.[33]


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  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037428 - Ensembl, May 2017
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  7. ^ Levi A, Eldridge JD, Paterson BM (July 1985). "Molecular cloning of a gene sequence regulated by nerve growth factor". Science. 229 (4711): 393–5. Bibcode:1985Sci...229..393L. doi:10.1126/science.3839317. PMID 3839317.
  8. ^ Bartolomucci A, La Corte G, Possenti R, Locatelli V, Rigamonti AE, Torsello A, Bresciani E, Bulgarelli I, Rizzi R, Pavone F, D'Amato FR, Severini C, Mignogna G, Giorgi A, Schininà ME, Elia G, Brancia C, Ferri GL, Conti R, Ciani B, Pascucci T, Dell'Omo G, Muller EE, Levi A, Moles A (September 2006). "TLQP-21, a VGF-derived peptide, increases energy expenditure and prevents the early phase of diet-induced obesity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (39): 14584–9. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10314584B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606102103. PMC 1600003. PMID 16983076.
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  16. ^ a b Hunsberger JG, Newton SS, Bennett AH, Duman CH, Russell DS, Salton SR, Duman RS (December 2007). "Antidepressant actions of the exercise-regulated gene VGF". Nature Medicine. 13 (12): 1476–82. doi:10.1038/nm1669. PMID 18059283. S2CID 17245049.
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  20. ^ Jiang, Cheng; Lin, Wei-Jye; Labonté, Benoit; Tamminga, Carol A.; Turecki, Gustavo; Nestler, Eric J.; Russo, Scott J.; Salton, Stephen R. (2018-11-20). "VGF and its C-terminal peptide TLQP-62 in ventromedial prefrontal cortex regulate depression-related behaviors and the response to ketamine". Neuropsychopharmacology. 44 (5): 971–981. doi:10.1038/s41386-018-0277-4. ISSN 1740-634X. PMC 6462025. PMID 30504797.
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  22. ^ Lin WJ, Jiang C, Sadahiro M, Bozdagi O, Vulchanova L, Alberini CM, Salton SR (July 2015). "VGF and Its C-Terminal Peptide TLQP-62 Regulate Memory Formation in Hippocampus via a BDNF-TrkB-Dependent Mechanism". The Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (28): 10343–56. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.0584-15.2015. PMC 4502270. PMID 26180209.
  23. ^ Levi A, Ferri GL, Watson E, Possenti R, Salton SR (August 2004). "Processing, distribution, and function of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine peptide precursor". Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 24 (4): 517–33. doi:10.1023/B:CEMN.0000023627.79947.22. PMID 15233376. S2CID 36298228.
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