Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesVIPR1, HVR1, II, PACAP-R-2, PACAP-R2, RDC1, V1RG, VAPC1, VIP-R-1, VIPR, VIRG, VPAC1, VPAC1R, VPCAP1R, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1
External IDsOMIM: 192321 MGI: 109272 HomoloGene: 3399 GeneCards: VIPR1
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 3: 42.49 – 42.54 MbChr 9: 121.47 – 121.5 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 also known as VPAC1, is a protein, that in humans is encoded by the VIPR1 gene.[5] VPAC1 is expressed in the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala), lung, prostate, peripheral blood leukocytes, liver, small intestine, heart, spleen, placenta, kidney, thymus and testis.[6][7][8]


VPAC1 is a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase.[5]

VIP acts in an autocrine fashion via VPAC11 to inhibit megakaryocyte proliferation and induce proplatelet formation.[9][10]

Clinical significance

Patients with idiopathic achalasia show a significant difference in the distribution of SNPs affecting VIPR1.[11]

VIP and PACAP levels were decreased in anterior vaginal wall of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse patients, they may participate in the pathophysiology of these diseases.[12]

See also


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000114812 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000032528 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: VIPR1 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1".
  6. ^ Ishihara T, Shigemoto R, Mori K, Takahashi K, Nagata S (Apr 1992). "Functional expression and tissue distribution of a novel receptor for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide". Neuron. 8 (4): 811–9. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(92)90101-I. PMID 1314625. S2CID 43589458.
  7. ^ Usdin TB, Bonner TI, Mezey E (Dec 1994). "Two receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide with similar specificity and complementary distributions". Endocrinology. 135 (6): 2662–80. doi:10.1210/en.135.6.2662. PMID 7988457.
  8. ^ Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ (Mar 1995). "Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (7): 2939–43. Bibcode:1995PNAS...92.2939S. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.7.2939. PMC 42334. PMID 7708752.
  9. ^ Nam C, Case AJ, Hostager BS, O'Dorisio MS (Feb 2009). "The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in megakaryocyte proliferation". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 37 (2): 160–7. doi:10.1007/s12031-008-9119-x. PMID 18663606. S2CID 2030939.
  10. ^ Freson K, Peeters K, De Vos R, Wittevrongel C, Thys C, Hoylaerts MF, Vermylen J, Van Geet C (Feb 2008). "PACAP and its receptor VPAC1 regulate megakaryocyte maturation: therapeutic implications". Blood. 111 (4): 1885–93. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-06-098558. PMID 18000164.
  11. ^ Paladini F, Cocco E, Cascino I, Belfiore F, Badiali D, Piretta L, Alghisi F, Anzini F, Fiorillo MT, Corazziari E, Sorrentino R (Jun 2009). "Age-dependent association of idiopathic achalasia with vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 gene". Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 21 (6): 597–602. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01284.x. PMID 19309439. S2CID 24081228.
  12. ^ Hong X, Huang L, Song Y (Aug 2008). "Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the vaginal wall of women with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse". International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. 19 (8): 1151–7. doi:10.1007/s00192-008-0585-z. PMID 18351280. S2CID 2482642.

Further reading

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.