Velar lateral ejective affricate
Audio sample

The velar lateral ejective affricate is a rare type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨k𝼄ʼ⟩ (extIPA; strict IPA: ⟨kʟ̝̊ʼ⟩).

It is found in two forms in Archi, a Northeast Caucasian language of Dagestan, plain [k𝼄ʼ] and labialized [k𝼄ʷʼ]. It is further forward than velars in most languages, and might better be called prevelar. Archi also has voiceless (pulmonic) variants of its lateral affricates, several voiceless lateral fricatives, and a voiced lateral fricative at the same place of articulation, but no alveolar lateral fricatives or affricates.[1]

[k𝼄ʼ] is also found as an allophone of /kx/ (ejective after a nasal) in Zulu and Xhosa, and of the velar ejective affricate /kxʼ/ in Hadza. In the latter, it contrasts with palatal [c𝼆], as in [c𝼆ʼak𝼄ʼa] 'to cradle'. In fact, the velar ejective is reported to be lateral, or to have a lateral allophone, in various languages of Africa which have clicks, including Taa, various varieties of !Kung, Gǁana (including Gǀui dialect), Khwe (ǁAni dialect), and Khoekhoe.[2]


Features of the velar lateral ejective affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Archi[3] кьан [k𝼄ʼan] 'to love' Pre-velar.[3] Archi contrasts between plain and labialized versions.
Gǀui[4] [example needed] In free variation with the /kxʼ/.
Sandawe tl’ungu [k𝼄ʼùŋɡȕ] 'sky' Allophone of /tɬʼ/ before /u, w/
Zulu umklomelo [umk𝼄ʼɔˈmɛːlo] 'prize'

See also


  1. ^ "The Archi language tutorial" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-04. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  2. ^ Hirosi Nakagawa, 1996. An Outline of Gǀui Phonology.
  3. ^ a b Archi dictionary entry for /k͡𝼄ʼan/, including sound file
  4. ^ Nakagawa, Hirosi. (1996). "An Outline of ǀGui Phonology". African Study Monographs, Suppl. 22, 101–124.