Venstre, Denmark's Liberal Party
Venstre, Danmarks Liberale Parti
AbbreviationV
LeaderTroels Lund Poulsen
Deputy LeaderStephanie Lose [dk]
Founded1870 (original form)
1910 (current form)
HeadquartersSøllerødvej 30,
2840 Holte
Youth wingVenstres Ungdom
Student wingLiberal Students of Denmark
Membership (2021)Decrease 28,007[1][needs update]
Ideology
Political positionCentre-right[7]
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
European Parliament groupRenew Europe
International affiliationLiberal International
Nordic affiliationCentre Group
Colours  Navy blue
SloganFrihed og fællesskab ("Freedom and Community")
Folketing
23 / 179[a]
European Parliament
2 / 14
Regions[8]
54 / 205
Municipalities[9]
605 / 2,436
Mayors
34 / 98
Election symbol
V
Party flag
Flag of the Venstre, Denmark's Liberal Party
Website
www.venstre.dk

Venstre[b] (V; Danish: [ˈvenstʁɐ], lit.'Left'), full name Venstre, Danmarks Liberale Parti (English: Left, Denmark's Liberal Party), is a conservative-liberal,[2][3][4] agrarian[10] political party in Denmark. Founded as part of a peasants' movement against the landed aristocracy, today it espouses an economically liberal, pro-free-market ideology.[11]

Venstre is the major party of the centre-right in Denmark, and the second-largest party in the country. The party has produced many Prime Ministers. In the 2022 general elections, Venstre received 13.3% of the vote and 23 out of 179 seats. Following the resignation of Jakob Ellemann-Jensen, the party is led by Troels Lund Poulsen who serves as the country's Deputy Prime Minister.[12] Since December 2022, the party has been a junior partner in the second Frederiksen government.[citation needed]

The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) and has four MEPs in the European Parliament.[13]

History

Venstre 1945 election material ("Venstre has been dealt a good hand").

1870–1910

Venstre was founded in 1870 under the name Det Forenede Venstre ("The United Left"). Originally, the party consisted of multiple conflicting groups, all united under the classical liberal (then the standard left-wing) ideology, the safeguarding of farmers' interests and opposition to the then right-wing classical conservative party Højre (literally "Right"). After the party in 1872 gained an absolute majority in the Folketing, it became the leading voice in the battle for parliamentarism, whereafter the party in 1895 split in two, Venstrereformpartiet ("Venstre Reform Party") and Det Moderate Venstre ("The Moderate Left"). In 1905, social liberal factions split from the party and formed Radikale Venstre (also known as the Danish Social Liberal Party), and in 1910 Venstrereformpartiet and Det Moderate Venstre reunited again under the name Venstre.[14]

1910–2009

With the decreasing numbers of farms and the growing urbanisation, membership and voter support dropped in the 1950s. During the 1960s the party gradually evolved from being a traditional farmers' party to a more general liberal party. In 1984 Uffe Ellemann-Jensen was elected chairman, and by profiling the liberal ideology in sharp confrontation to the Social Democrats, for example by campaigning for a reduction of the public sector, increasing market management and privatisation, and by being pro-EU, the party returned to its historical position as the biggest liberal party in the 1990s.[14]

After a disappointing 1998 general election, Ellemann-Jensen resigned as chairman and Anders Fogh Rasmussen was elected in his place. He immediately changed the party's usual confrontational strategy, instead appealing to the political centre. In the 2001 general elections the party campaigned for tighter immigration policies and a "tax stop", which proved successful and the party once again became the biggest in parliament, winning 31.2% of the vote and 56 seats. Venstre formed a coalition government with the Conservative People's Party and the Danish People's Party. For the first time since 1929 a liberal government was no longer dependent on the centre parties. Despite a small decline in both the 2005 general elections (29% and 52 seats) and the 2007 general elections (26.2% and 46 seats), the party remained the biggest and the coalition government continued.[14]

On 5 April 2009, Fogh Rasmussen resigned as chairman, instead serving as Secretary General of NATO. In his place Lars Løkke Rasmussen was elected.[15]

2009–present

In the 2011 general elections, the party gained 26.7% of the vote and 47 seats, but was not able to form a government, instead leading the opposition against Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt's Social Democratic coalition.[citation needed]

Even though the party lost voter support in the 2015 general elections, only gaining 19.5% of the vote, the party formed a minority government. This government was short-lived, and in 2016 Løkke Rasmussen invited the Conservative People's Party and the Liberal Alliance to form a coalition government instead.[16]

During the campaign of the 2019 general elections, Løkke Rasmussen published an autobiography, in which he opened up for the possibility of forming a government with the Social Democrats.[17] This was seen as controversial in the liberal "blue bloc", and Social Democratic leader Mette Frederiksen immediately declined the proposition.[18]

Following internal fighting in the party, Løkke Rasmussen and vice chairman Kristian Jensen both resigned on 31 August 2019. On 21 September 2019, political spokesman and former Minister for Environment and Food Jakob Ellemann-Jensen was elected the party's next chairman.[19]

Following the 2022 general election, in which Venstre suffered its worst result since 1988, Venstre joined a grand coalition government led by Social Democrat leader Mette Frederiksen, and also comprising the Moderates, a Venstre splinter formed by former Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen.[20]

Ideology

Venstre is categorised as centre-right on the political spectrum,[7] although it has been also described as centrist[21][22] and right-wing.[23][24][25][26] Ideologically, it has been described as conservative-liberal,[27][2][3][4][26] liberal-conservative,[28][29][30][31] liberal,[32][33][34][35] conservative,[26][36] classical-liberal,[37] and agrarian.[26] Additionally, Venstre takes a nativist stance regarding immigration and asylum-seeking; they had also said that "immigrants should learn Danish and understand and respect Danish culture and traditions".[38][39]

Venstre is an economically liberal party[32][40] within the Nordic agrarian tradition,[41] and today is notably more pro–free market than its sister parties.[42][needs update] Since the elections in 2001, Venstre has enacted a so-called "tax stop" in order to halt the growth in taxes seen during the previous eight years under the Social Democrats. This tax stop has been under heavy fire from the parties on the left wing of Danish politics, allegedly for being "asocial" and "only for the rich."[43][44]

Prominent members

Prime ministers

Party leaders since 1929

No. Portrait Leader Took office Left office Time in office
1
Thomas Madsen-Mygdal
Madsen, ThomasThomas Madsen-Mygdal
(1876–1943)
1929194111–12 years
2
Knud Kristensen
Kristensen, KnudKnud Kristensen
(1880–1962)
194119497–8 years
3
Edvard Sørensen
Sørensen, EdvardEdvard Sørensen
(1893–1954)
194919500–1 years
4
Erik Eriksen
Eriksen, ErikErik Eriksen
(1902–1972)
195024 May 196514–15 years
5
Poul Hartling
Hartling, PoulPoul Hartling
(1914–2000)
24 May 1965December 197712 years, 191 days
6
Henning Christophersen
Christophersen, HenningHenning Christophersen
(1939–2016)
September 197823 July 19845 years, 326 days
7
Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
Ellemann, UffeUffe Ellemann-Jensen
(1941–2022)
23 July 198418 March 199813 years, 238 days
8
Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Rasmussen, AndersAnders Fogh Rasmussen
(born 1953)
18 March 199817 May 200911 years, 60 days
9
Lars Løkke Rasmussen
Rasmussen, LarsLars Løkke Rasmussen
(born 1964)
17 May 200931 August 201910 years, 106 days
Kristian Jensen
Jensen, KristianKristian Jensen
(born 1971)
Acting
31 August 201921 September 201921 days
10
Jakob Ellemann-Jensen
Jensen, KristianJakob Ellemann-Jensen
(born 1973)
21 September 201923 October 20234 years, 32 days
Stephanie Lose [dk]
Lose, StephanieStephanie Lose [dk]
(born 1982)
Acting
23 October 202318 November 202326 days
11
Troels Lund Poulsen
Poulsen, Troels LundTroels Lund Poulsen
(born 1976)
18 November 2023Incumbent238 days

Origin of the name

The fact that the major centre-right political party in a country calls itself 'Left' is often confusing to foreign (and sometimes Danish) observers. The name has, however, its historical explanation. At the time of its foundation, Venstre affirmed then-progressive ideas in the Danish parliament. Their opponents, Højre (Right), the forerunner of the present-day Conservative People's Party, advocated for established interests, particularly the Church of Denmark and the landed gentry. In current Danish politics there is a clear distinction between the concepts of Venstre (Left, i.e., the party bearing that name) and venstrefløj (left wing, i.e., socialist and other left-leaning parties). The use of the word for "left" in the name of the Danish political party Radikale Venstre (literally: "Radical Left") and the Norwegian party Venstre is meant to refer to liberalism and not socialism.

Members of the party are referred to as venstremænd and venstrekvinder, respectively "Venstre men" and "Venstre women" (singular: -mand, -kvinde).

Election results

Parliament

Election Votes % Seats +/- Government
1872
53 / 104
New Opposition
1873
51 / 104
Decrease 2 Opposition
1876
74 / 104
Increase 23 Opposition
1879
65 / 104
Decrease 9 Opposition
1881
(May)
69 / 102
Increase 4 Opposition
1881
(Jul)
75 / 102
Increase 6 Opposition
1884 80,000 56.3 (#1)
81 / 102
Increase 6 Opposition
1887 132,000 58.1 (#1)
74 / 102
Decrease 7 Opposition
1890 123,000 53.0 (#1)
75 / 102
Increase 1 Opposition
1892 63,000 28.1 (#3)
30 / 102
Decrease 45 Opposition
1895 89,530 40.5 (#1)
53 / 114
Increase 23 Opposition
1898 98,070 43.6 (#1)
63 / 114
Increase 10 Opposition
1901 103,495 45.9 (#1)
76 / 114
Increase 13 Majority
1903 121,357 49.4 (#1)
73 / 114
Decrease 3 Majority
1906 94,272 31.2 (#1)
56 / 114
Decrease 17 Minority
1909 77,949 24.0 (#1)
37 / 114
Decrease 19 Minority (1909)
Opposition (1909–1910)
1910 118,902 34.1 (#1)
57 / 114
Increase 20 Majority
1913 103,917 28.6 (#2)
44 / 114
Decrease 13 Opposition
1915 8,081 62.8 (#1)
43 / 114
Decrease 1 Opposition
1918 269,646 29.4 (#1)
45 / 140
Increase 2 Opposition
1920
(Apr)
350,563 34.2 (#1)
48 / 140
Increase 3 Minority
1920
(Jul)
344,351 36.1 (#1)
51 / 140
Increase 3 Minority
1920
(Sep)
411,661 34.0 (#1)
51 / 149
Steady 0 Minority
1924 362,682 28.3 (#2)
44 / 149
Decrease 7 Opposition
1926 378,137 28.3 (#2)
46 / 149
Increase 2 Minority
1929 402,121 28.3 (#2)
43 / 149
Decrease 3 Opposition
1932 381,862 24.7 (#2)
38 / 149
Decrease 5 Opposition
1935 292,247 17.8 (#2)
28 / 149
Decrease 10 Opposition
1939 309,355 18.2 (#2)
30 / 149
Increase 2 Opposition (1939–1940)
Coalition (1940–1943)
1943 376,850 18.7 (#3)
28 / 149
Decrease 2 Coalition
1945 479,158 23.4 (#2)
38 / 149
Increase 10 Minority
1947 [c] 529,066 27.6 (#2)
49 / 150
Increase 8 Opposition
1950 438,188 21.3 (#2)
32 / 151
Decrease 14 Coalition
1953
(Apr)
456,896 22.1 (#2)
33 / 151
Increase 1 Coalition
1953
(Sep)
499,656 23.1 (#2)
42 / 179
Increase 9 Opposition
1957 578,932 25.1 (#2)
45 / 179
Increase 3 Opposition
1960 512,041 21.1 (#2)
38 / 179
Decrease 7 Opposition
1964 547,770 20.8 (#2)
38 / 179
Steady 0 Opposition
1966 539,027 19.3 (#2)
35 / 179
Decrease 3 Opposition
1968 530,167 18.6 (#3)
34 / 179
Decrease 1 Coalition
1971 450,904 15.6 (#3)
30 / 179
Decrease 4 Opposition
1973 374,283 12.3 (#3)
22 / 179
Decrease 8 Minority
1975 711,298 23.3 (#2)
42 / 179
Increase 20 Opposition
1977 371,728 12.0 (#3)
21 / 179
Decrease 21 Opposition (1977–1978)
Coalition (1978–1979)
1979 396,484 12.5 (#2)
22 / 179
Increase 1 Opposition
1981 353,280 11.3 (#4)
20 / 179
Decrease 2 Opposition (1981–1982)
Coalition (1982–1984)
1984 405,737 12.1 (#3)
22 / 179
Increase 2 Coalition
1987 354,291 10.5 (#4)
19 / 179
Decrease 3 Coalition
1988 394,190 11.8 (#4)
22 / 179
Increase 3 Coalition
1990 511,643 15.8 (#3)
29 / 179
Increase 7 Coalition (1990–1993)
Opposition (1993–1994)
1994 775,176 23.3 (#2)
42 / 179
Increase 13 Opposition
1998 817,894 24.0 (#2)
42 / 179
Steady 0 Opposition
2001 1,077,858 31.2 (#1)
56 / 179
Increase 14 Coalition
2005 974,636 29.0 (#1)
52 / 179
Decrease 4 Coalition
2007 908,472 26.2 (#1)
46 / 179
Decrease 6 Coalition
2011 947,725 26.7 (#1)
47 / 179
Increase 1 Opposition
2015 685,188 19.5 (#3)
34 / 179
Decrease 13 Minority (2015–2016)
Coalition (2016–2019)
2019 825,486 23.4 (#2)
43 / 179
Increase 9 Opposition
2022 460,546 13.3 (#2)
23 / 179
Decrease 20 Coalition

Local elections

Municipal elections
Year Seats
# ±
1925
2,291 / 11,289
1929
2,615 / 11,329
Increase 324
1933
2,692 / 11,424
Increase 77
1937
2,374 / 11,425
Decrease 318
1943
2,217 / 10,569
Decrease 157
1946
2,519 / 11,488
Increase 302
1950
2,342 / 11,499
Decrease 177
1954
2,353 / 11,505
Increase 11
1958
2,405 / 11,529
Increase 52
1962
2,196 / 11,414
Decrease 209
1966
1,747 / 10,005
Decrease 449
Municipal reform
1970
1,080 / 4,677
Decrease 667
1974
1,277 / 4,735
Increase 197
1978
1,155 / 4,759
Decrease 122
1981
1,240 / 4,769
Increase 85
1985
1,201 / 4,773
Decrease 39
1989
1,261 / 4,737
Increase 60
1993
1,601 / 4,703
Increase 340
1997
1,557 / 4,685
Decrease 44
2001
1,666 / 4,647
Increase 109
Municipal reform
2005
804 / 2,522
Decrease 862
2009
699 / 2,468
Decrease 105
2013
767 / 2,444
Increase 68
2017
688 / 2,432
Decrease 79
2021
620 / 2,436
Decrease 68
 
Regional elections
Year Seats
# ±
1935 217,375
124 / 299
New
1943 300,241
123 / 299
Decrease 1
1946 368,040
139 / 299
Increase 16
1950 348,861
128 / 299
Decrease 11
1954 355,295
127 / 299
Decrease 1
1958 412,111
135 / 303
Increase 8
1962 387,628
127 / 301
Decrease 8
1966 402,574
115 / 303
Decrease 12
Municipal reform
1970 449,479
95 / 366
Decrease 20
1974 400,062
98 / 370
Increase 3
1978 411,812
90 / 370
Decrease 8
1981 457,565
84 / 370
Decrease 6
1985 418,149
83 / 374
Decrease 1
1989 451,807
89 / 374
Increase 6
1993 717,536
125 / 374
Increase 36
1997 665,857
124 / 374
Decrease 1
2001 963,220
139 / 374
Increase 15
Municipal reform
2005 744,466
60 / 205
Decrease 79
2009 648,903
54 / 205
Decrease 6
2013 809,664
62 / 205
Increase 8
2017
54 / 205
Decrease 8
2021
54 / 205
Steady 0
 
Mayors
Year Seats
No. ±
2005
35 / 98
2009
31 / 98
Decrease 4
2013
48 / 98
Increase 17
2017
37 / 98
Decrease 11
2021
35 / 98
Decrease 2

European Parliament

Election year # of votes % of votes # of seats won +/- Notes
1979 252,767 14.5 (#3)
3 / 16
1984 248,397 12.5 (#4)
2 / 16
Decrease 1
1989 297,565 16.6 (#3)
3 / 16
Increase 1
1994 394,362 19.0 (#1)
4 / 16
Increase 1
1999 460,834 23.4 (#1)
5 / 16
Increase 1
2004 366,734 19.4 (#2)
3 / 14
Decrease 2
2009 474,041 20.2 (#2)
3 / 13
Steady 0
2014 379,840 17.7 (#3)
2 / 13
Decrease 1
2019 648,203 23.5 (#1)
4 / 14
Increase 2
2024 360,212 14.7 (#3)
2 / 14
Decrease 2

European representation

In the European Parliament, Venstre sits in the Renew Europe group with four MEPs.[45][46][47][48]

In the European Committee of the Regions, Venstre sits in the Renew Europe CoR group, with three full and two alternate members for the 2020–2025 mandate.[49][50]

Youth and student wings

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Only 175 of the 179 seats in the Danish Parliament, the Folketing, are obtainable by Danish political parties as Greenland and the Faroe Islands are assigned two seats each due to their status as territories in the Kingdom of Denmark.
  2. ^ The party name is officially not translated into any other language, but is in English often referred to as the Liberal Party. Similar rules apply for the name of the party's youth wing Venstres Ungdom.
  3. ^ Party stood as Capital Venstre in Nomination districts of the Copenhagen constituency

References

  1. ^ "Hvor mange medlemmer har de politiske partier?". Folketinget. November 28, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Emil Joseph Kirchner; Alistair H. Thomas (1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. pp. 415, 420. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Denmark". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  5. ^ Svante Ersson; Jan-Erik Lane (1998). Politics and Society in Western Europe. SAGE. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7619-5862-8. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  6. ^ Christensen, Nikolaj (2022). Unorganized Religion: Pentecostalism and Secularization in Denmark, 1907-1924. Brill. p. 25. ISBN 9789004509900. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  7. ^ a b Josep M. Colomer (2008). Political Institutions in Europe. Routledge. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-134-07354-2.
  8. ^ "AKVA3: Valg til regions råd efter område, parti og stemmer/kandidater/køn". Statistics Denmark. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  9. ^ "VALGK3: Valg til kommunale råd efter område, parti og stemmer/kandidater/køn". Statistics Denmark. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  10. ^ Nanna Kildal; Stein Kuhnle (2007). Normative Foundations of the Welfare State: The Nordic Experience. Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-134-27283-9.
  11. ^ Åsa Bengtsson; Kasper Hansen; Ólafur Þ Harõarson; Hanne Marthe Narud; Henrik Oscarsson (2013). The Nordic Voter: Myths of Exceptionalism. ECPR Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-907301-50-6.
  12. ^ "Troels Lund Poulsen er valgt som Venstres nye formand - TV 2". nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). November 18, 2023. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  13. ^ "Europavalg". DR. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  14. ^ a b c Bille, Lars; Rüdiger, Mogens. "Venstre". danmarkshistorien.dk (in Danish). Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  15. ^ Lund, Kenneth (April 5, 2009). "Anders Fogh er trådt tilbage". Politiken (in Danish). Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  16. ^ Bille, Lars; Bille, Mogens (February 2, 2009). "Venstre | Gyldendal - Den Store Danske". denstoredanske.dk (in Danish). Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  17. ^ "Løkke åbner for SV-regering efter valget". DR (in Danish). May 16, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  18. ^ "Mette Frederiksen afviser Løkke: SV-regering kan ikke komme på tale". DR (in Danish). May 16, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  19. ^ "Jakob Ellemann-Jensen er valgt som Venstres nye formand". Politiken (in Danish). September 21, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  20. ^ "Denmark's new government bridges left-right divide". December 14, 2022.
  21. ^ "Socialists call for 'cordon sanitaire' around Europe's far right". EUobserver. October 15, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  22. ^ Castle, Stephen (May 6, 2019). "Brexit? Danes Have Seen This Show, and It Doesn't End Well". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  23. ^ "DF considers new role in government". The Local Denmark. June 19, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  24. ^ "Despite condemnations, Denmark passes controversial 'jewellery' law". www.euractiv.com. January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  25. ^ "Danish eurosceptics say 'no thanks' to EU justice rules". France 24. December 3, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  26. ^ a b c d Oskar Niedermayer; Richard Stöss; Melanie Haas (2007). Die Parteiensysteme Westeuropas. Springer-Verlag. pp. 17, 74. ISBN 9783531900612. Retrieved December 31, 2022. Page 17: In Dänemark ordnen wir beispielsweise die rechtsliberale Venstre in die politische Rechte ein, [...]; Page 74: Der eigentliche Gewinner seit 1974 war die (konservative) Agrarpartei (Venstre), [...]
  27. ^ Eric S. Einhorn (2023). "Scandinavia". In Erik Jones; Masha Hedberg (eds.). Europe Today: A Twenty-First Century Introduction. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 124. ISBN 978-15-3811094-2.
  28. ^ "Keiner der beiden Blöcke hat Mehrheit". Tagesschau. November 1, 2022.
  29. ^ "Seltenes Zweckbündnis: Dänemarks neue Regierung steht". Handelsblatt. December 14, 2022.
  30. ^ Hermann, Rudolf (February 12, 2018). "Dänemarks Sozialdemokraten überholen rechts". Neue Züricher Zeitung.
  31. ^ "Neue Drei-Parteien-Regierung in Dänemark steht". Rheinische Post. December 13, 2022.
  32. ^ a b "Very Libérål". Süddeutsche Zeitung. April 6, 2011. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  33. ^ "Europawahl in Dänemark: Katastrophenwahl für dänische Rechtspopulisten". Münchner Merkur. May 27, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2022.
  34. ^ Christopher Munthe Morgenstierne, ed. (2003). Denmark and National Liberation in Southern Africa: A Flexible Response. Nordic Africa Institute. p. 106. ISBN 9789171065179. On August 30 , the 'SV-government', a coalition between the Social Democratic party and the liberal Venstre, was formed.
  35. ^ Irène Bellier; Thomas M. Wilson, eds. (December 22, 2020). An Anthropology of the European Union: Building, Imagining and Experiencing the New Europe. Routledge. ISBN 9781000181067. However, Nordic particularism was also used to justify a 'yes' vote, as in this speech given to a local meeting by a Liberal (Venstre) member of parliament, and reported in Skive Folkeblad on 6 March: ...
  36. ^ Robert Bohn (2016). "X. Industrialisierung und politischer Wandel". Dänische Geschichte. C.H.Beck. ISBN 9783406691294. Retrieved December 31, 2022. Die auf dem linken Flügel dominierenden Kraft war die Venstre - heute eine konservative Partei.
  37. ^ Thomas J. DiLorenzo, ed. (2016). The Problem with Socialism. Simon and Schuster. p. 82. ISBN 9781621575979.
  38. ^ "The Local's party guide: Venstre". The Local Denmark. June 12, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  39. ^ Dickheiwer, Robin (October 27, 2022). "The Copenhagen Post". Copenhagen Post (in Danish). Retrieved January 5, 2023.
  40. ^ Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. Routledge. p. 98–. ISBN 978-0-415-69374-5.
  41. ^ Almeida, Dimitri. "Liberal Parties and European Integration" (PDF).
  42. ^ Esaiasson, Peter; Heidar, Knut (1999). Beyond Westminster and Congress: the Nordic experience. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. p. 377. ISBN 978-0-8142-0839-7.
  43. ^ "Kritik af skattereform: De rige vinder og de fattige taber". www.bt.dk. February 24, 2009.
  44. ^ "AE: Skattestop forgylder de rige". Politiken. September 4, 2002.
  45. ^ "Home | Asger CHRISTENSEN | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  46. ^ "Home | Søren GADE | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. January 27, 1963. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  47. ^ "Home | Morten LØKKEGAARD | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  48. ^ "Home | Linea SØGAARD-LIDELL | MEPs | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. March 30, 1987. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  49. ^ "Members Page CoR".
  50. ^ "Members Page CoR".

Further reading