Front cover of an Iraqi passport (1991-2003) design
Front cover of an Iraqi passport (1991-2003) design

Visa requirements for Iraqi citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Iraq. As of 13 April 2021, Iraqi citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 28 countries and territories, ranking the Iraqi passport 109th in the world in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Visa requirements map

Visa requirements for Iraqi citizens
Visa requirements for Iraqi citizens
  Iraq

Visa requirements

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[2]
 Albania Visa required[3]
 Algeria Visa required[4]
 Andorra Visa required[5]
 Angola Visa required[6]
 Antigua and Barbuda Electronic Entry Visa[7] 30 days
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 30 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.
 Argentina Visa required[8]
 Armenia eVisa[9]
 Australia Visa required[10]
 Austria Visa required[11]
 Azerbaijan Visa required[12]
 Bahamas Visa required[13]
 Bahrain eVisa[14]
 Bangladesh Visa required[15]
 Barbados Visa required[16]
 Belarus Visa required[17]
 Belgium Visa required[18]
 Belize Visa required[19]
 Benin eVisa[20]
 Bhutan Visa required[21]
  • Holders of an application for a tourist visa can obtain a visa on arrival.
 Bolivia Visa required[22]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa required[23]

* Visa not required for 30 days if holding multiple-entry visa issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland (Rep.), Monaco, Romania, USA, United Kingdom or a Schengen Member State.

 Botswana Visa required[24]
 Brazil Visa required[25]
 Brunei Visa required[26]
 Bulgaria Visa required[27]

* Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states.

 Burkina Faso Visa required[28]
 Burundi Visa required[29][30]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Cambodia Visa required[31] 30 days
 Cameroon Visa required[32]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.[33]
 Canada Visa required[34]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[35] 3 months
 Central African Republic Visa required[36]
 Chad Visa required[37]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Chile Visa required[38]
 China Visa required[39]
 Colombia Visa required[40]
  • Online visa application available.
 Comoros Visa on arrival[41] 45 days
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[42]
  • Visa not required if passengers have a V.I.P invitation letter.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[43]
  • Passenger with a letter (Visa Volant) issued by the Ministry of Interior and Security can obtain a visa on arrival.
 Costa Rica Visa required[44]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 30 days for valid visa holders or residents of the United States and Canada.
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[45]
 Croatia Visa required[46] Croatia Embassy in Baghdad
 Cuba Visa required[47]
  • Eligible to travel to Cuba with a tourist card only without visa if hold a valid visa or permanent residence permit issued by Canada, the United States or an EU member state.
 Cyprus Visa required[48]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states.
 Czech Republic Visa required[49]
 Denmark Visa required[50]
 Djibouti eVisa[51] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[52] 21 days
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 6 months for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.
 Dominican Republic Visa required[53]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States and Canada.
 Ecuador Visa required[54]
 Egypt Visa required[55]
 El Salvador Visa required[56]
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[57]
 Eritrea Visa required[58]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Estonia Visa required[59]
 Eswatini Visa required[60]
 Ethiopia eVisa[61] up to 90 days
 Fiji Visa required[62]
 Finland Visa required[63]
 France Visa required[64]
 Gabon eVisa[65]
 Gambia Visa required[66]
  • Visa not required if Passengers traveling as tourists on a charter flight.
 Georgia Visa required[67] Georgia Embassy in Amman
 Germany Visa required[68]
 Ghana Visa required[69]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Greece Visa required[70]

Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the Greek Embassy in Baghdad

 Grenada Visa required[71]
 Guatemala Visa required[72]
 Guinea eVisa[73]
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[74] 90 days
 Guyana Visa required[75]
  • Those travelling as tourists can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 30 days provided holding a letter of invitation from sponsor or host.
 Haiti Visa not required[76] 3 months
 Honduras Visa required[77]
 Hong Kong Visa required[78]
 Hungary Visa required[79]
 Iceland Visa required[80]
 India Visa required[81]
  • Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the Indian embassy in Baghdad and Erbil
 Indonesia Visa required[82]
  • Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the Indonesian embassy in Baghdad
 Iran Visa required[83]
 Ireland Visa required[84]
 Israel Visa required[85]
  • Confirmation from Israeli Foreign Ministry is required before a visa is issued.[86]
 Italy Visa required[87]
 Jamaica Visa required[88]
 Japan Visa required[89] Embassy and Consulate of Japan in Baghdad & Erbil
 Jordan Visa required[90]
  • Visa on arrival if having an official "Businessmen card" issued by Jordan or an official letter confirming the attendance to a conference or workshop.
  • Visa on arrival holding a residence permit issued by a country whose citizens can obtain a visa on arrival(except Lebanon) for 1 month maximum stay.
  • Visa on arrival if traveling for medical treatment for Female or Male older than 50 years and younger than 15 years.
 Kazakhstan Visa required[91]
  • Visitors arriving from a country without Kazakh representation and holding an invitation letter, can obtain a single entry visa on arrival for a max. stay of 1 month.
 Kenya eVisa[92]
 Kiribati Visa required[93]
 Kosovo Visa required[94] Kosovo Consulate in Istanbul
 North Korea Visa required[95]
 South Korea Visa required[96]
 Kuwait Visa required[97]
  • Passengers with a confirmation that a visa has been approved before departure can collect their original visa at immigration counter.
 Kyrgyzstan eVisa[98]
 Laos Visa required[100]
 Latvia Visa required[101]
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[102] 30 days
  • Extendable for 2 months
  • Free at Beirut International Airport or any other entry port (no Israeli visa/seal, hold a phone number, Lebanese address, non-refundable return/circle ticket).
 Lesotho eVisa[103][104]
 Liberia Visa required[105]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Libya Visa required[106]
 Liechtenstein Visa required[107]
 Lithuania Visa required[108]
 Luxembourg Visa required[109]
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[110] 90 days
 Malawi eVisa[111]
 Malaysia Visa not required[112] 30 days
 Maldives Free visa on arrival[113] 30 days
 Mali Visa required[114]
 Malta Visa required[115]
 Marshall Islands Visa required[116]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[117]
 Mauritius Visa required[118]
 Mexico Visa required[119]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 180 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Japan.
 Micronesia Visa not required[120] 30 days
 Moldova Visa required[121][122]
  • Invitation letter holders may apply for a visa electronically.
 Monaco Visa required[123]
 Mongolia Visa required[124]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Montenegro Visa required[125]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 30 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States.
 Morocco Visa required[126]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[127] 30 days
 Myanmar Visa required[128]
  • Passengers with a letter of approval issued by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism can obtain a visa on arrival
 Namibia Visa required[129]
 Nauru Visa required[130]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
   Nepal Visa required[131]
 Netherlands Visa required[132]
 New Zealand Visa required[133]
  • Iraqi S series passports are unacceptable, and visas will not be endorsed in them.[134]
  • Holders of an Australian Permanent Resident Visa or Resident Return Visa may be granted a New Zealand Resident Visa on arrival permitting indefinite stay (pursuant to the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement), subject to meeting character requirements and obtaining an Electronic Travel Authority prior to departure.[135]
 Nicaragua Visa required[136]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United States and Canada.
 Niger Visa required[137]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival
 Nigeria eVisa[138]
  • Holders of written e-Visa approval issued by Immigration Authority can obtain a visa on arrival, provided holding a visa application form and e-Visa application payment receipt and holding an invitation letter from Nigerian company accepting immigration responsibilities.
 North Macedonia Visa required[139]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 15 days for valid visa holders of the Schengen Area member states.
 Macau Visa required[140]
 Norway Visa required[141]
 Oman Visa required[142]
  • Passengers with a Visa Deposit Receipt can obtain a visa on arrival.
 Pakistan Online Visa[143]
  • Online Visa eligible.[144]
  • Electronic Travel Authorization to obtain a visa on arrival for business purposes.[145]
 Palau Free visa on arrival[146] 30 days
 Panama Visa required[147]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 30 days for valid visa holders or residents of Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[148]
 Paraguay Visa required[149]
 Peru Visa required[150]
 Philippines Visa required[151]
 Poland Visa required[152]

Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the POLISH CONSULATE IN ERBIL

 Portugal Visa required[153]
  • Portugal does not have an Embassy in Iraq
  • Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at VFS GLOBAL IN ERBIL
 Qatar eVisa[154][155]
  • Holder of valid residence permits or visas from either the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, the Schengen countries, or the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council can obtain an Electronic Travel Authorisation
 Romania Visa required[156]
  • Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the ROMANIAN EMBASSY IN ANKARA or the ROMANIAN CONSULATE IN ERBIL
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states.
 Russia Visa required[157]
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[158] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis eVisa[159]
 Saint Lucia Visa required[160]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa required[161]
 Samoa Visa not required[162] 60 days
 San Marino Visa required[163]
  • Same rules as for Italy. No border control but accessible only via Italy.
 São Tomé and Príncipe eVisa[164][165]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[166]
 Senegal Visa on arrival[167]
  • Visa not required for Passengers with an official invitation letter.
 Serbia Visa required[168]
  • Visa free for a maximum stay of 90 days within 180 days for valid visa holders or residents of the Schengen Area member states, the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States.
 Seychelles Free Visitor's Permit on arrival[169] 3 months
 Sierra Leone Visa required[170]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival
 Singapore Visa required[171]
 Slovakia Visa required[172]
 Slovenia Visa required[173]
 Solomon Islands Visa required[174]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Somalia Visa on arrival[175] 30 days
  • Available at Bosaso, Galcaio and Mogadishu airports.
 South Africa Visa required[176]
  • SOUTH AFRICA does not have an Embassy in Iraq
  • Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the SOUTH AFRICAN EMBASSY IN AMMAN
 South Ossetia Visa required[177]
  • Obtainable online[178]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[179]
 Spain Visa required[180]
  • Iraqi Citizens can apply for visa at the Spanish embassy in Baghdad
  • Iraqi Kurdistan Citizens can apply for visa at ALVARO TRAVEL COMPANY IN ERBIL OR the SPANISH EMBASSY IN ANKARA OR the SPANISH CONSULATE IN ISTANBUL via BLS INTERNATIONAL
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[181] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[182]
  • Passengers with an "Entry Permit" issued by the Sudanese Ministry of Interior can obtain a visa on arrival.
 South Sudan eVisa[183]
 Suriname eVisa[184]
 Sweden Visa required[185]
  Switzerland Visa required[186]
 Syria Visa required[187]
  • Conditional VoA can be obtained.
 Tajikistan Electronic Entry Visa[188]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Tanzania eVisa[189][190]
 Thailand Visa required[191]
 Taiwan Visa required[192]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[193] 30 days
 Togo Visa on arrival[194] 7 days
 Tonga Visa required[195]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa required[196]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Tunisia Visa required[197]
  • Visa not required for passengers traveling on an organized tour.
 Turkey Visa required[198]
  • Holders of a valid visa or residence permit from Schengen area countries, Ireland, the United Kingdom or the United States can apply for e-visa at Airports only
 Turkmenistan Visa required[199]
  • Conditional VoA can be obtained.
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[200] 1 month
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[201] 3 months
 Ukraine Visa required[202]
 United Arab Emirates Visa required[203]
 United Kingdom Visa required[204]
 United States Visa required[205]
 Uruguay Visa required[206]
 Uzbekistan Visa required[207]
  • Pre-arranged visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Vanuatu Visa required[208]
  Vatican City Visa required[209]
  • Schengen Visa Required. Entry can be made from Italy exclusively.
 Venezuela Visa required[210]
 Vietnam Visa required[211]
 Yemen Visa required[212]
 Zambia eVisa[213]
 Zimbabwe eVisa[214]

Non-visa restrictions

This section is transcluded from Non-visa travel restrictions. (edit | history)

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[215] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever
An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Main articles: Vaccination requirements for international travel and International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[216]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[217]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries will increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers when deciding to allow them entry or not or require them to quarantine since recently published research shows that the Pfizer vaccine effect lasts for six months or so.[218]

Passport validity length

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[219] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[220] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[221] Philippines,[222] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[223]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[224] and South Africa.

Other countries, such as Japan,[225] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[226] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

A very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.

Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[227][228] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[229]

Criminal record

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[230] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[231]

Israeli stamps

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)
Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[232] Lebanon,[233] Libya,[234] Sudan,[235] Syria,[236] and Yemen[237] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[238]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity

Main articles: Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan, Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, and Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport
Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan,[239][240][241] Armenian citizens and other foreign nationals of Armenian descent are likely to encounter difficulties when attempting to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[242][243][244]

Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[244] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[245] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[246] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Biometrics

See also: Countries applying biometrics

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.
A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[247]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[248][249] Argentina,[250] Brunei, Cambodia,[251] China,[252] Ethiopia,[253] Ghana, Guinea,[254] India, Japan,[255][256] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[257] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[258] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[259] Singapore, South Korea,[260] Taiwan, Thailand,[261] Uganda[262] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[263] [264] [265] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[266]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[267] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[268][269]

See also

References and Notes

References
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  2. ^ Visa information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan.
  3. ^ Visa regime for foreign citizens, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania.
  4. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  5. ^ Travel to Andorra, Ministry of External Affairs of Andorra.
  6. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  7. ^ Countries exempt from visa, Department of Immigration of Antigua and Barbuda.
  8. ^ Visa regime, National Directorate of Migrations of Argentina (in Spanish).
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  10. ^ Visitor visa options, Department of Home Affairs of Australia.
  11. ^ Schengen visa, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs of Austria.
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  13. ^ Visa requirements for foreigners travelling to the Bahamas, Government of the Bahamas, 18 February 2014.
  14. ^ Bahrain eVisas, Ministry of Interior of Bahrain.
  15. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  32. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  47. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  50. ^ Countries with a visa requirement and visa-free countries, Danish Immigration Service, 8 December 2017.
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  53. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  54. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  55. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  56. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  57. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  58. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  59. ^ Who does not need a visa to visit Estonia?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, 2 November 2017.
  60. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  61. ^ "Ethiopia electronic visa". Main Department for Immigration and Nationality Affairs, Ethiopia. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  62. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  63. ^ Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
  64. ^ Foreign nationals holding ordinary passports exempt from visa requirements, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of France, January 2016.
  65. ^ Gabon e-Visa
  66. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  67. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  243. ^ "Citing ethnicity, Azerbaijan bars photojournalist". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Diana Markosian, a freelance photographer for Bloomberg Markets magazine was denied entry to Azerbaijan last week by authorities who cited her ethnicity as a reason, international news reports said. On June 27, border guards at the Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku detained Markosian on arrival from the Latvian capital, Riga, then expelled her the next day, according to press reports and CPJ interviews. Markosian told CPJ that the border guards took her passport, saying that she had an Armenian last name and that they "needed to clarify something." Then they put her in the airport's transit zone where she spent 16 hours until she was put on a flight to Tbilisi, Georgia. Markosian holds both U.S. and Russian citizenship, she told CPJ. A government spokesman told the Baku-based news agency APA that Markosian was deported because authorities would be unable to provide her with "security" since she is an ethnic Armenian.
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  264. ^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
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  269. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.
Notes