Vitamin E deficiency
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Vitamin E deficiency in humans is a very rare condition, occurring as a consequence of abnormalities in dietary fat absorption or metabolism rather than from a diet low in vitamin E.[1] Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs for vitamin E and other essential nutrients are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).[1] Vitamin E deficiency can cause nerve problems due to poor conduction of electrical impulses along nerves due to changes in nerve membrane structure and function.

Signs and symptoms

Signs of vitamin E deficiency include the following:

Causes

Vitamin E deficiency is rare. There are no records of it from simple lack of vitamin E in a person's diet, but it can arise from physiological abnormalities.[1] It occurs in the people in the following situations:[2][5]

Diagnosis

The U.S. Institute of Medicine defines deficiency as a serum concentration of less than 12 μmol/L. The symptoms can be enough for a diagnosis to be formed.[1]

Treatment

Treatment is oral vitamin E supplementation.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Institute of Medicine (2000). "Vitamin E". Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 186–283.
  2. ^ a b c d Brigelius-Flohé R, Traber MG (July 1999). "Vitamin E: function and metabolism". FASEB J. 13 (10): 1145–55. doi:10.1096/fasebj.13.10.1145. PMID 10385606.
  3. ^ a b c Office of Dietary Supplements. "Vitamin E Professional Fact Sheet". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  4. ^ a b Kowdley KV, Mason JB, Meydani SN, Cornwall S, Grand RJ (June 1992). "Vitamin E deficiency and impaired cellular immunity related to intestinal fat malabsorption". Gastroenterology. 102 (6): 2139–42. doi:10.1016/0016-5085(92)90344-x. PMID 1587435.
  5. ^ Traber MG, Sies H (1996). "Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery". Annu. Rev. Nutr. 16: 321–47. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.16.070196.001541. PMID 8839930.
  6. ^ Brion LP, Bell EF, Raghuveer TS (2003). "Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003665. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003665. PMID 14583988.
  7. ^ Manor D, Morley S (2007). "The alpha-tocopherol transfer protein". Vitam. Horm. 76: 45–65. doi:10.1016/S0083-6729(07)76003-X. PMID 17628171.
  8. ^ Muller DP, Lloyd JK, Wolff OH (1983). "Vitamin E and neurological function: abetalipoproteinaemia and other disorders of fat absorption". Ciba Found. Symp. Novartis Foundation Symposia. 101: 106–21. doi:10.1002/9780470720820.ch8. ISBN 9780470720820. PMID 6557902.
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