Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
IPA Number104 (149)
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ɮ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+026E

The voiced alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is ⟨d͡ɮ⟩ (often simplified to ⟨⟩), and in Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨λ⟩ (lambda). It is usually in free variation or an allophone of /ɮ/, /t͡ɬ/ or /l/; no known language contrasts [dɮ] and [ɮ].


Features of the voiced alveolar lateral affricate:


Voiced alveolar lateral affricates are rare. Sandawe has been transcribed with [dɮ], but the sound is more post-alveolar or palatal than alveolar. Consonants written dl in Athabaskan and Wakashan languages are either tenuis affricates, [t͜ɬ] (perhaps slightly voiced allophonically), or have a lateral release, [tˡ] or [dˡ]. In Montana Salish, /l/ may be prestopped, depending on context, in which case it may be realized as [ᵈl] or as an affricate [ᵈɮ̤].[1] In the Nguni languages [d͡ɮ] occurs after nasals: /nɮ̤/ is pronounced [nd͡ɮ̤], with an epenthetic stop, in at least Xhosa[2] and Zulu.[3]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Levantine تدليل tadlil [tæd͡ɮiːl] 'pampering' Allophone of /dl/ in some speakers
Avá-Canoeiro[4] Tocantins[4] [ˌtaːˈpid͡ɮɐ] 'Tapirus terrestris' Possible realisation of /l/. In the speech of people aged 40 to 80 years, the consonant is in free variation with [dl], [dʎ], [ʎ], [ɖ], [ɮ] and [l].[4]
Cherokee[5] ᏜᎺᎭ dlameha [d͡ɮaːmeːhá] 'bat' (mammal) Syllable onset and intervocalic allophone of /t͡ɬ/. See Cherokee phonology
Deg Xinag[6] sichidl [sət͡ʃʰəd͡ɮ] 'my younger brother' Syllable-final realization of /t͡ɬ/.[6]
Hebrew דלעת dlaʻat [d͡ɮaʔat] 'gourd' Allophone of /dl/ sequence in some speakers
Montana Salish p̓əllič̓č [pʼəd͡ɮɮít͡ʃʼt͡ʃ] 'turned over' Positional allophone of /l/
Xhosa indlovu [ind͡ɮ̤ɔːv̤u][missing tone] 'elephant' Allophone of /ɮ̤/ after /n/
Pa Na[7] [d͡ɮau˩˧] 'deep'


  1. ^ Flemming, Edward; Ladefoged, Peter; Thomason, Sarah (August 1994). "Phonetic structures of Montana Salish". UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics. 87: 7.
  2. ^ Scaraffiotti, Zamantuli (2011). Parlons Xhosa: Afrique du Sud. L'Harmattan. p. 13. ISBN 978-2-296-55158-9.
  3. ^ Rycroft, D. K.; Ngcobo, A. B. (1979). "Appendix B: Phonological Notes". Say it in Zulu. p. B6.
  4. ^ a b c Silva (2015:45)
  5. ^ Uchihara, Hiroto (2013). Tone and Accent in Oklahoma Cherokee (PDF) (PhD dissertation). Buffalo: State University of New York. p. 45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-09-04.
  6. ^ a b Hargus, Sharon (2009). Vowel quality and duration in Yukon Deg Xinag (PDF) (Report). p. 2.
  7. ^ Chén, Qíguāng [陈其光] (2001), Bā nà yǔ gàikuàng 巴那语概况 [A Brief Introduction of Bana Language], Minzu Yuwen