Voiced bilabial affricate

The voiced bilabial affricate ([b͡β] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [b] and released as a voiced bilabial fricative [β]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.


Features of the voiced bilabial affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Banjun[1] [example needed]
English Broad Cockney[2] rub [ˈɹ̠ɐˑb͡β] 'rub' Sporadic allophone of /b/.[3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[4] Rare allophone of /b/.[4] See English phonology
Scouse[5] [ˈɹ̠ʊˑb͡β] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /b/.[5] See English phonology
Shipibo[6] boko [ˈb͡βo̽ko̽] 'small intestine' Possible realization of /β/. See Shipibo phonology.[6]
Ngiti[7] abvɔ [āb͡βɔ̄] 'thorny vine' Rarely [bβ] more commonly [b̪v][8]


  1. ^ https://phoible.org/inventories/view/1384
  2. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
  3. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  4. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  5. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  6. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001).
  7. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 31.
  8. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 45.


  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan (ed.), Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281–285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24224-X.