Voiced bilabial affricate

The voiced bilabial affricate ([b͡β] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [b] and released as a voiced bilabial fricative [β]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.


Features of the voiced bilabial affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Banjun[1] [example needed]
English Broad Cockney[2] rub [ˈɹ̠ɐˑb͡β] 'rub' Sporadic allophone of /b/.[3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[4] Rare allophone of /b/.[4] See English phonology
Scouse[5] [ˈɹ̠ʊˑb͡β] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /b/.[5] See English phonology
Shipibo[6] boko [ˈb͡βo̽ko̽] 'small intestine' Possible realization of /β/. See Shipibo phonology.[6]
Ngiti[7] abvɔ [āb͡βɔ̄] 'thorny vine' Rarely [bβ] more commonly [b̪v][8]


  1. ^ "Phoible 2.0 -".
  2. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
  3. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  4. ^ a b Cruttenden (2014), p. 172.
  5. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  6. ^ a b Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001).
  7. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 31.
  8. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1992), p. 45.