Voiced labiodental affricate
Audio sample

The voiced labiodental affricate ([b̪͡v] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop [b̪] and released as a voiced labiodental fricative [v].


Features of the voiced labiodental affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Teochew 未來 bh7 lai5 [b̪͡vue꜔꜔ lai˥˥] 'future' Allophone of /b/ before /u/ in Chaoyang dialect[1]
Italian Some central-south dialects[2] in vetta [iɱˈb̪͡vet̪t̪ä] 'at the top' Labiodental; allophone of /v/ after nasals.[2] See Italian phonology
Luxembourgish[3] Kampf am Ënnergrond [ˈkʰɑmb͡v ɑm
'underground battle' Allophone of a word-final /pf/ before a word-initial vowel. Occurs only in German loanwords.[3] See Luxembourgish phonology
Ngiti[4] abvɔ [āb̪͡vɔ̄] 'thorny vine' Less commonly [b͡β][5]
Tsonga XiNkuna dialect shilebvu [ʃileb̪͡vu] 'chin'


  1. ^ Zhang (2016), pp. 233.
  2. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 72–73.
  4. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1994), p. 31.
  5. ^ Kutsch Lojenga (1994), p. 45.


  • Zhang, Guangyu (2016). 閩客方言史稿 [History of Min & Hakka Dialects] (增訂本 ed.). Wu-Nan Book Inc. ISBN 9789571187419.
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1994), Ngiti: a Central-Sudanic language of Zaire, Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, ISBN 978-3-927620-71-1