Voiced retroflex nasal
ɳ
IPA Number117
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɳ
Unicode (hex)U+0273
X-SAMPAn`
Braille
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɳ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n`.

Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of an en (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant). It is similar to ⟨ɲ⟩, the letter for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem, and to ⟨ŋ⟩, the letter for the velar nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem.

Features

Features of the voiced retroflex nasal:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali[1] Rare; occurs in the extreme western dialects
Enindhilyagwa yingarna [jiŋaɳa] 'snake'
Faroese ørn [œɻɳ] 'eagle'
Hindustani Hindi ठंडा/ṭhaḍā [ʈʰəɳɖaː] 'cold' See Hindustani phonology
Urdu ٹھنڈا‎/ṭhaḍā
Kannada ಅಣೆ/ue [ʌɳe] 'dam'
Khanty Eastern dialects еңә/e [eɳə] 'large'
Some northern dialects
Malayalam[2] അണ/aa [ɐɳɐ] 'jaw'
Marathi बा/bāa [baːɳə] 'arrow' See Marathi phonology
Nepali अण्डा/aḍā [ʌɳɖä] 'egg' See Nepali phonology
Marshallese Ņadikdik [nˠɑːrʲiɡ(i)rʲik] 'Knox Atoll'
Norwegian garn About this sound[ɡɑːɳ]  'yarn' See Norwegian phonology
Odia ବଣି/bai [bɔɳi] 'old'
Pashto اتڼ‎/Ata About this sound[at̪aɳ]  'Attan'
Punjabi Gurmukhi ਪੁਰਾਣਾ/purāā [puraːɳaː] 'old'
Shahmukhi پُراݨا‎/purāā
Swedish[3] garn About this sound[ɡɑːɳ]  'yarn' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[4] அணல்/aal [aɳal] 'neck' See Tamil phonology
Telugu గొణుగు/gougu [goɳugu] 'murmur'
Vietnamese[5] anh trả [aɳ˧ ʈa˨˩˦] 'you pay' Allophone of /n/ before /ʈ/ in Saigon dialect. See Vietnamese phonology

Retroflex nasal flap

Retroflex nasal flap
ɽ̃
ɳ̆

Features

Features of the retroflex nasal tap or flap:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ndrumbea[6] [example needed] Allophone of /ɽ/ before a nasal vowel
Kangri[7] [example needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1926). The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language (PDF). 1. Calcutta: Calcutta University Press. p. 269.
  2. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)
  3. ^ Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  4. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  5. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  6. ^ Gordon, Matthew; Ian Maddieson (October 1995). "The phonetics of Ndumbea". Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages III. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics (91): 25–44.
  7. ^ Eaton, Robert D. (2008)

References

  • Eliasson, Stig (1986), "Sandhi in Peninsular Scandinavian", in Anderson, Henning (ed.), Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 271–300
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232