The crater lake of Mount Rinjani, Indonesia
Lake Yeak Laom, Cambodia
Baengnokdam crater lake of Hanla Mountain in winter, South Korea

A volcanic crater lake is a lake in a crater that was formed by explosive activity or a collapse during a volcanic eruption.


Lakes in calderas fill large craters formed by the collapse of a volcano during an eruption. Lakes in maars fill medium-sized craters where an eruption deposited debris around a vent.

Crater lakes form as the created depression, within the crater rim, is filled by water. The water may come from precipitation, groundwater circulation (often hydrothermal fluids in the case of volcanic craters) or melted ice. Its level rises until an equilibrium is reached between the rates of incoming and outgoing water. Sources of water loss singly or together may include evaporation, subsurface seepage, and, in places, surface leakage or overflow when the lake level reaches the lowest point on its rim. At such a saddle location, the upper portion of the lake is contained only by its adjacent natural volcanic dam; continued leakage through or surface outflow across the dam can erode its included material, thus lowering lake level until a new equilibrium of water flow, erosion, and rock resistance is established. If the volcanic dam portion erodes rapidly or fails catastrophically, the occurrence produces a breakout or outburst flood. With changes in environmental conditions over time, the occurrence of such floods is common to all natural dam types.


Landsat image of Lake Toba, Indonesia, the largest volcanic crater lake in the world

A well-known crater lake, which bears the same name as the geological feature, is Crater Lake in Oregon. It is located in the caldera of Mount Mazama. It is the deepest lake in the United States with a depth of 594 m (1,949 ft). Crater Lake is fed solely by falling rain and snow, with no inflow or outflow at the surface, and hence is one of the clearest lakes in the world.[1]

The highest volcano in the world, 6,893-m (22,615-ft) Ojos del Salado in Chile, has a permanent crater lake about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter at an elevation of 6,390 m (20,965 ft) on its eastern side.[2] This is most likely the highest lake of any kind in the world.

Due to their unstable environments, some crater lakes exist only intermittently. Caldera lakes in contrast can be quite large and long-lasting. For instance, Lake Toba (Indonesia) formed after its eruption around 75,000 years ago. At around 100 kilometres (62 mi) by 30 kilometres (19 mi) in extent and 505 metres (1,657 ft) deep at its deepest point, Lake Toba is the largest crater lake in the world.[3]


While many crater lakes are picturesque, they can also be deadly.[4] Gas discharges from Lake Nyos in Cameroon suffocated 1,800 people in 1986,[5] and crater lakes such as Mount Ruapehu's (New Zealand) often contribute to destructive lahars.

Distinction from other volcanic lakes

Main article: Volcanogenic lake

Certain bodies of water, although their formation is directly related to volcanic activity, are not usually referred to as crater lakes, including:



Lake Location
Waw an Namus (three small salt lakes in the caldera) Libya
Deriba Caldera Sudan
Meme River Basin lakes (Lake Barombi Koto, Lake Barombi Mbo, Lake Mboandong and Lake Dissoni/Soden) Cameroon
Lake Nachtiga (between Mount Cameroon and the Atlantic coast) Cameroon
Bakossi Mountains: Lake Bermin and Mount Manengouba lakes (lac Mâle and lac Femelle) Cameroon
Adamawa crater lakes (Tison, Mbalang) Cameroon
Oku Volcanic Field, including Lake Nyos, Lake Oku, Lake Monoun, Mount Mbapit crater lake, Lake Awing and the Bambili lakes Cameroon
Dallol (various acid ponds) Ethiopia
Zengena Lake Ethiopia
Enyo Lake (or Haro Dandii, a lake filling a double crater caldera on Mount Dendi) and Lake Wonchi[6] (Badda Rogghie Mountains) Ethiopia
Debre Zeyit crater lakes (Bishoftu, Hora, Bishoftu Guda, Koriftu and seasonal Cheleklaka) Ethiopia
Lake Dembel, Mount Zuqualla Ethiopia
Lake Ara Shetan (Butajiri-Silti Volcanic Field) Ethiopia
O'a Caldera, with Lake Shala and the smaller Chitu water-filled maar Ethiopia
Bilate River Volcanic Field (several water-filled maars) Ethiopia
El Sod (small salt lake), Borena Zone Ethiopia
Mount Biao, Bioko Island Equatorial Guinea
Lago a Pot, Annobón Island Equatorial Guinea
Lake Assal Djibouti
Kabarole District lakes (including lakes Nyinabulitwa, Nyabikere, Nkuruba, Kifuruka) Uganda
Many crater lakes in the Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru (or Kichwambe) volcanic fields, respectively on the North and South sides of the Kazinga Channel (including Lake Katwe in the Queen Elizabeth National Park) Uganda
Muhavura (small crater lake) Rwanda / Uganda
Mount Bisoke Rwanda / Democratic Republic of Congo
Crocodile Lake, Flamingo Lake, Tilapia Lake, on Central Island (Lake Turkana) Kenya
Mount Marsabit (at least two lakes) Kenya
Emuruangogolak (several maar lakes) Kenya
Lake Simbi, Mount Homa Kenya
Lake Sonachi (Crater Lake Game Sanctuary) Kenya
Lake Chala Kenya / Tanzania
Southern Highlands crater lakes (Lake Ngozi, Kiungululu Crater, Masoko Crater) Tanzania
Lakes Magadi and Empakaai (Ngorongoro Conservation Area) Tanzania
Lake Dziani Boundouni, Mohéli Island Comoros
Dziani Dzaha, Petite-Terre Mayotte
Lake Tritriva Madagascar
Nosy Be crater lakes Madagascar
Itasy crater lakes (close to the larger Lake Itasy) Madagascar
Trou aux Cerfs Mauritius
Ganga Talao lake Mauritius
Piton de l'Eau Réunion
Lagoa do Fanal Portugal, Madeira
Laguna de los Ciclos (Charco Verde), El Golfo, Lanzarote Spain, Canary Islands
Pedra de Lume (salt lake in the crater), Sal Island Cape Verde
Queen Mary's Peak (heart-shaped crater lake) Tristan da Cunha

Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands

Lake Location
Deception Island maare Off the Antarctic Peninsula coast
Mount Larson crater lake, Thule Island South Sandwich Islands
Small crater lakes on the top of various scoria cones, Marion Island Prince Edward Islands
Bassin du Cratère (connected to sea since 1780, now an 'almost crater lake'), Saint-Paul Saint-Paul and Amsterdam Islands
Lac bleu,[7] Amsterdam Saint-Paul and Amsterdam Islands
Grand Cratère, Île de la Possession Crozet Islands


Lake Location
Lake Toba Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Sibayak Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Maninjau Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Asam (Suwoh Caldera) Indonesia, Sumatra
Lake Gunung Tujuh Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Talang (Talang and Dibawah Lakes) Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Singgalang (Dewi and Kumbang Lakes) Indonesia, Sumatra
Bukit Daun Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Kerinci Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Kaba Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Dempo Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Kunyit Indonesia, Sumatra
Mount Sumbing Indonesia, Sumatra
Sorikmarapi Indonesia, Sumatra
Ijen Indonesia, Java
Kawah Putih, Mount Patuha Indonesia, Java
Mount Lamongan (several maare) Indonesia, Java
Kelut (no crater lake anymore after 2007–2008 slow eruptions with hot lava dome, but in 2014 eruption lava dome is thrown away and in rainy season, the crater is initial fill with water) Indonesia, Java
Lake Ngebel, Gunung Wilis Indonesia, Java
Mount Lawu Indonesia, Java
Talagabodas Indonesia, Java
Tengger caldeira (several maar lakes on Semeru summit, seasonnal lake in Bromo crater) Indonesia, Java
The Triangle of Lakes (Ranu Klakah, Ranu Bedali, Ranu Pakis) Indonesia, Java
Mount Galunggung crater lake Indonesia, Java
Merdodo (Dieng Volcanic Complex) Indonesia, Java
Telaga Warna (Dieng Volcanic Complex) Indonesia, Java
Danau Batur, Bali Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Lake Segara Anak (Mount Rinjani), Lombok Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Tambora (ephemeral lake), Sumbawa Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Kelimutu (three crater lakes), Flores Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Inielika (several small temporary dark lakes), Flores Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Sano Nggoang (the deepest volcanic crater lake in the world with depth of 600 meters), West Manggarai Regency, Flores Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Mount Sirung, Pantar Island Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Islands
Kawah Masem, Mount Sempu Indonesia, Sulawesi
Mount Mahawu Indonesia, Sulawesi
Lake Tondano Indonesia, Sulawesi
Mount Klabat Indonesia, Sulawesi
Makian Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Mount Ibu (several small crater lakes), Halmahera Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Todoko-Ranu, Halmahera Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Lake Telaga Paca, Halmahera Indonesia, Maluku Islands
Four crater lakes in the Lower Chindwin volcanic area, including Twin Taung Burma (Myanmar)
Yak Loum Cambodia
Nong Fa Lake Laos
Toroeng Prong Vietnam
Khorgo Uul (at least two lakes) Mongolia
Chaihe scenic spot[8] near Zhalantun (several crater lakes in this volcanic area) China, Inner Mongolia
Longwanqun crater lakes China, Jilin
Heaven Lake (Chonji/Tianchi), Baekdu Mountain North Korea / China, Jilin
White Deer Lake (Baengnokdam), Mulyeongari-Oreum, Muljangori-Oreum South Korea, Jeju Island
Akan caldera lakes (Akan, Mashū, Kussharo) Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake Shikotsu Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake Tōya Japan, Hokkaidō
Lake Kuttara Japan, Hokkaidō
Towada Japan, Honshū
Tazawa (deepest lake in Japan) Japan, Honshū
Mount Zaō (lake Okama) Japan, Honshū
Mount Kusatsu-Shirane (three lakes, including the acidic Yu-gama with sulfur rafts floating on its turquoise surface) Japan, Honshū
Izu-Tobu (Ippeki lake) Japan, Honshū
Lake Haruna Japan, Honshū
Mount Hakone (Lake Ashi) Japan, Honshū
Naruko (Lake Katanuma) Japan, Honshū
Aizu-Bandai-san (various lakes) Japan, Honshū
Mount Iwate Japan, Honshū
Mount Ontake (five crater lakes) Japan, Honshū
Oguni-numa Pond Japan, Honshū
Numazawa-numa lake Japan, Honshū
Hachoike, Mount Amagi Japan, Honshū
Mount Aso (Naka-dake) Japan, Kyūshū
Satsuma Peninsula, Lake Ikeda and Lake Unagi-ike Japan, Kyūshū
Mount Kirishima lakes (including Mi-ike, Oonamino-ike, Rokkannonmi-ike, Byakushi-ike) Japan, Kyūshū
Imuta-ike Japan, Kyūshū
Tairo-ike, Miyake-jima Japan, Izu Islands
Otake, Nakanoshima Japan, Ryukyu Islands
Lake Pinatubo Philippines, Luzon
Taal Lake (caldera-filling) and the crater lake on its island's volcano Philippines, Luzon
Laguna de Bay Philippines, Luzon
Seven Lakes of San Pablo (Bunot, Calibato, Yambo, Pandin, Palakpakin, Muhikap, Sampaloc) Philippines, Luzon
Lake Tikub Philippines, Luzon
Mount Talinis (lakes Balinsasayao, Danao and Kabalin-an, within the Guintabon Caldera), Negros Island Philippines, Visayas
Margaja Valley caldera, Kanlaon Volcano, Negros Island Philippines, Visayas
Lakes Danao and Malagsom, Mahagnao Volcano, Leyte Island Philippines, Visayas
Lake Duminagat, Mount Malindang Philippines, Mindanao
Lake Leonard, Leonard Kniaseff Philippines, Mindanao
Mount Apo Philippines, Mindanao
Lake Maughan, Mount Parker Philippines, Mindanao
Jolo Island, Lakes Seit, Panamao, Timpuak and Sani Crater Philippines, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago
Lake Khaiyr Russia, Yakutia
Khangar Russia, Kamchatka
Kizimen Russia, Kamchatka
Lake Dalny, Uzon Caldera Russia, Kamchatka
Maly Semyachik Russia, Kamchatka
Bolshoy Semyachik Russia, Kamchatka
Karymsky Lake, Akademia Nauk Russia, Kamchatka
Balshoe and Kraternoe, Ksudach Russia, Kamchatka
Kurile Lake Russia, Kamchatka
Gorely Russia, Kamchatka
Ebeko, Paramushir Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Onekotan Island (Kal'tsevoe Lake in the Tao-Rusyr Caldera and Nemo Lake/Caldera) Russia, Kuril Islands
Ketoy Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Zavaritski Caldera, Simushir Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Rudakov, Urup Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Iturup Island lakes (Medvezhia, Chirip, Grozny Group, Bogatyr Ridge) Russia, Kuril Islands
Sabalan Iran
Nemrut Turkey
Meke Golu (Karapınar Field) Turkey
Lake Acıgöl (bitter lake), also called Lake Nar (pomegranate lake) Turkey
Karagöl (Lake Tantalus), Mount Yamanlar Turkey
Lake Ram Israel
Bir Ali crater Yemen
Zubayr Group Islands (crater lakes on Saba Island and on the new island formed during the 2011–2012 eruption) Yemen


Lake Location
Eifel volcanic field (where maare were originally described), including Laacher See and Daun maars Germany
Eyjafjallajökull (volcano) Iceland
Kerið Iceland
Askja (Öskjuvatn and Viti lakes) Iceland
Krafla Iceland
Lake Bardarlaug Iceland
Grímsvötn (subglacial lake in the caldera, now exposed following the 2011 eruption) Iceland
crater lakes in the Landmannalaugar area (Blahylur, Ljotipollur) Iceland
Chaîne des Puys (Gour de Tazenat, Lac Pavin, Lac de Servière, Lac Chauvet, Lac du Bouchet, Lac d'En-Haut) France
Lac d'Issarlès France
Lazio crater lakes (Albano, Bolsena, Bracciano, Martignano, Nemi, Vico, Mezzano) Italy
Lake Avernus (close to Phlegraean Fields) Italy
Lake Sfânta Ana, Ciomadul volcano Romania
Lakes of Monticchio (Lago di Monticchio Grande and Lago di Montichhio Piccolo, twin crater lakes) Italy
Lago Vecchienna Italy
Lago Specchio di Venere (Venus Mirror Lake) or Bagno dell’Acqua (hydrothermal lake within a calderic depression) Italy, Pantelleria
seasonal maar lakes in the Provincia Volcánica de Calatrava (Hoya del Acebuche, Hoya de Cervera) Spain
Lagoa do Caldeirão, Corvo Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoa da Caldeira, Faial Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoas Funda das Lajes, Branca, Comprida, Seca, da Lomba, Rasa, Funda/Negra, Flores Island Portugal, Azores
Caldeira do Enxofre (underground lake filled with cold sulphur water), Graciosa Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoas Seca, da Rosada, Pico Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoa do Pico Pinheiro, São Jorge Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoa das Sete Cidades, do Fogo, das Furnas, Azul, Verde, São Miguel Island Portugal, Azores
Lagoas Negra, do Negro, Terceira Island Portugal, Azores
Mount Samsari (several small lakes in the caldera) Georgia
Lake Akna, Geghama mountains Armenia
Ljótipollur Crater Lake - Area of Landmannalaugar - Iceland
Ljòtipollur Crater Lake, Iceland

North America

Lake Location
Kasatochi volcano, Kasatochi Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Okmok, Umnak Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Kanaga, Kanaga Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Fenner Lake, Semisopochnoi Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Fisher Caldera (several lakes), Unimak Island United States, Alaska, Aleutian Islands
Mount Katmai United States, Alaska
Ukinrek maars United States, Alaska
Mount Kaguyak United States, Alaska
Mount Martin (intermittent acidic lake) United States, Alaska
Mount Douglas United States, Alaska
Devil Mountain Lakes United States, Alaska
Surprise Lake, Mount Aniakchak United States, Alaska
Mount Emmons United States, Alaska
Mount Spurr United States, Alaska
Mount Chiginagak United States, Alaska
Fiftytwo Ridge (several crater lakes) Canada, British Columbia
Mount Rainier United States, Washington
Battle Ground Lake United States, Washington
Crater Lake United States, Oregon
Blue Lake Crater United States, Oregon
Malheur Maar, Diamond Craters United States, Oregon
Newberry Volcano (twin crater lakes: Paulina Lake and East Lake) United States, Oregon
Teardrop Pool South Sister United States, Oregon
Yellowstone Lake United States, Wyoming
Soda Lakes United States, Nevada
Medicine Lake Volcano United States, California
Mono–Inyo Craters United States, California
Clear Lake United States, California
Shastina (three small crater lakes) United States, California
Zuni Salt Lake (maar) United States, New Mexico
Lago Los Espinos Mexico, Michoacán
La Alberca lake (also known as La Joya or Lago del Sangre) Mexico, Guanajuato
Nevado de Toluca (several lakes) Mexico, State of Mexico
Laguna de Aljojuca Mexico, Puebla
Oriental Basin axalapazcos (maar lakes) Mexico, Puebla / Tlaxcala / Veracruz
Sangangüey Mexico, Nayarit
Santa María del Oro Mexico, Nayarit
El Chichón Mexico, Chiapas
Central America & Caribbean
Lago de Amatitlán Guatemala
Lake Ipala Guatemala
Lago de Atitlán Guatemala
Laguna de Ayarza Guatemala
Laguna de Calderas (Pacaya) Guatemala
Laguna Chicabal Guatemala
Tecuamburro Guatemala
Lago de Coatepeque (Coatepeque Lake) El Salvador
Laguna Verde (Apaneca) El Salvador
Lago de Ilopango (Ilopango Lake) El Salvador
Tecapa volcano (Laguna de Alegría) El Salvador
Chanmico maar (at the foot of the San Salvador volcano) El Salvador
Santa Ana Volcano crater lake El Salvador
Cosigüina Nicaragua
Laguna Asososca, Las Pilas Nicaragua
Lakes within the Monte Galan caldera, close to the Momotombo (Laguna Monte Galan, La Sulfatosa, Agua Dulce, El Cachital, Las Piedras) Nicaragua
Chiltepe peninsula (Apoyeque and Xiloá lagoons) Nicaragua
Managua lagoons (Tiscapa, Asososca, Nejapa) Nicaragua
Masaya lake Nicaragua
Apoyo Lagoon Nicaragua
Zapatera Laguna (Zapatera Island, on Lake Nicaragua) Nicaragua
Maderas (Ometepe Island, on Lake Nicaragua) Nicaragua
Rincón de la Vieja Costa Rica
Lake Hule Costa Rica
Poco Sol Costa Rica
Lake Congo and Lake Pozo Verde part of Porvenir Volcano Costa Rica
Río Cuarto Costa Rica
Poás volcano (Laguna Caliente and Laguna Botos) Costa Rica
Cerro Chato Costa Rica
Barva Volcano Costa Rica
Lake Diego de la Haya, Irazú volcano Costa Rica
Mount Liamuiga crater lake, Saint Kitts Saint Kitts and Nevis
La Grande Soufrière (la Citerne) Guadeloupe
Boiling Lake (Morne Trois Pitons National Park) Dominica
Soufrière Saint Vincent
Grand Etang Lake Grenada
Lac Antoine, Mount Saint Catherine Grenada


Lake Location
Crater Lake (Te Wai ā-moe), Mount Ruapehu New Zealand, North Island
Lake Taupō New Zealand, North Island
Lakes of Rotorua, including Rotorua, Tarawera, Rotomahana, Rotokakahi, Tikitapu, Okareka and Okataina and smaller lakes from the Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley (Inferno Crater Lake, Frying Pan Lake, Southern Crater Lake) New Zealand, North Island
Lake Pupuke New Zealand, North Island
Māngere Lagoon New Zealand, North Island
Mount Tongariro (Tama Lakes, Blue Lake and the Emerald Lakes) New Zealand, North Island
Whakaari / White Island (Bay of Plenty), Crater Lake New Zealand, off North Island coast
Tuhua / Mayor Island (Bay of Plenty), Lake Aroarotamahine and Lake Te Paritu New Zealand, off North Island coast
Raoul Island (Blue Lake, Green Lake, Rui Lake) New Zealand, Kermadec Islands
Victory Volcano crater lake Papua New Guinea, New Guinea
Lake Wisdom, Long Island Papua New Guinea, off New Guinea coast
Mount Balbi lake Papua New Guinea, Bougainville
Billy Mitchell Papua New Guinea, Bougainville
Loloru (crescent-shaped crater lake) Papua New Guinea, Bougainville
Dakataua (horseshoe-shaped caldera lake) Papua New Guinea, New Britain
Sakar Island Papua New Guinea, off New Britain coast
Mount Gambier maar complex (including Blue Lake) Australia, South Australia
Atherton Tableland (Lake Euramoo, Lake Eacham, Lake Barrine, Mount Hypipamee Crater, Lynch's Crater, Bromfield Swamp) Australia, Queensland
Mount Le Brun (two intermittent crater lakes) Australia, Queensland
Leura maar complex (Purrumbete, Bullen Merri, Gnotuk, Keilambete, Elingamite, Wangoom, Red Rock intermittent lakes) Australia, Victoria
Tower Hill Australia, Victoria
Mount Eccles Australia, Victoria
Green Lake,[9] Kapoho Crater, Kīlauea, Big Island, USA, Hawaii
Lake Waiau, crater of the Pu'u Waiau cinder cone, Mauna Kea, Big Island, USA, Hawaii
Kalaupapa crater lake, Molokai USA, Hawaii
Salt Lake (filled in for an urbanization project, except for a pond in a golf course), Honolulu, Oahu USA, Hawaii
Rano Kau, Rano Raraku and Rano Aroi (Ma′unga Terevaka) Chile, Easter Island
Anatahan (intermittent lake in the caldera) Northern Mariana Islands
Lake Te Roto, Tikopia Solomon Islands
Lake Lanoto'o, Upolu Samoa
Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i, Niuafo'ou Tonga
Tofua Tonga
Late (ephemeral lake) Tonga
Home Reef (newly formed island, crater lakes observed in 2006) Tonga
Lakes Lalolao, Lano, Lanutavake, Lanutuli, Lanumaha, Kikila and Alofivai (intermittent),[10] Wallis Island Wallis and Futuna
Lake Tagimaucia, Taveuni Island Fiji
Lake Letas, Gaua Island Vanuatu
Lombenben Volcano (lakes Vui, Manaro Ngoru, Manaro Lakua), Aoba Island Vanuatu

South America

Lake Location
Azufral (Laguna Verde, Laguna Negra, Laguna Cristal) Colombia
Laguna de la Cocha Colombia
Lagunas Verdes, Chiles Volcano Ecuador
Mojanda lakes (Caricocha, Yanacocha and Huarmicocha) Ecuador
Laguna Collanes, El Altar Ecuador
Cuicocha Ecuador
Quilotoa Ecuador
Black Lakes of Jumbura Ecuador
La Cumbre, Fernandina Island (ephemeral lake) Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Tagus Cove, Isabela Island Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Lake Arcturus, Genovesa Island Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Laguna El Juncos, San Cristóbal Island Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Santiago Island (small salt crater lake) Ecuador, Galapagos Islands
Jayu Quta (also known as Miguel y Alex Tejada or Maracanacito crater) Bolivia
Laguna del Maule Chile
Nevado Ojos del Salado (likely the highest lake in the world) Chile
Licancabur Lake Chile
Chaitén (crater lakes might have disappeared with the 2008–09 eruption) Chile
Aguas Calientes Chile
Acamarachi Chile
Copahue Chile / Argentina
Planchón-Peteroa Chile / Argentina
Laguna Potrok Aike (Pali-Aike Volcanic Field) Argentina
Aracar Argentina
Laguna Diamante, Cerro Galán Argentina

See also


  1. ^ "Facts and Figures about Crater Lake". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  2. ^ "Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the World's highest volcano". Archived from the original on April 27, 2007.
  3. ^ Glenday, Craig (2010). Guinness World Record 2011. ISBN 9781904994572.
  4. ^ "The Strange Story of Lake Pavin in Auvergne". The Good Life France. Retrieved 14 May 2024.
  5. ^ "Defusing Africa's Killer Lakes". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 14 May 2024.
  6. ^ Archived 2007-08-22 at the Wayback Machine Description of Mount Wonchi crater lake on the website of GTZ
  7. ^ Jouvie, Isabelle (26 April 2016). "Sorties hors base N°3". Isabelle sur son caillou (in French). Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Charming scenery in Chaihe scenic spot in Inner Mongolia - Xinhua |". Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  9. ^ "Kahumana - Permaculture Sanctuary in Hawai'i".
  10. ^ "Wetlands of Wallis and Futuna" (PDF). Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and Service de l’Environnement. 2017.