Clockwise from top: red fox, bat-eared fox, tanuki
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Vulpini
Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1832

Vulpini is a taxonomic rank which represents the fox-like tribe of the subfamily Caninae (the canines), and is sister to the dog-like tribe Canini.[2]


Image Genus Species
Raccoon Dog01.jpg
Nyctereutes Temminck, 1838
Otocyon megalotis - Etosha 2014.jpg
Otocyon S. Müller, 1835
Fox - British Wildlife Centre (17429406401).jpg
Vulpes Garsault, 1764
Ferrucyon Ruiz-Ramoni et al., 2020
Metalopex S. Müller, 1835
Prototocyon Pohle, 1928


The taxonomy of Carnivora in general and Canidae in particular correlates with various diagnostic features of the dentition and basicranium. Rergarding Vulpini, Tedford has remarked:

These small canids are distinguished from all other Caninae in possessing a wide paroccipital process that is broadly sutured to the posterior surface of the bulla with a short and laterally turned free tip that barely extends below the body of the process. The presence of a metaconule and postprotocrista on M2 of vulpines represents the culmination of a reversal that began with late Leptocyon species to resume the form of the primitive canine M2.

The cladogram below is based on the phylogeny of Lindblad-Toh (2005)[3] modified to incorporate recent findings on Vulpes.[4]


Otocyon megalotis (bat-eared fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes BHL19827472 white background.png

Nyctereutes (raccoon dogs)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXII).png


Vulpes zerda (fennec fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXVI).png

Vulpes cana (Blanford's fox)


Vulpes chama (Cape fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXIII).png

Vulpes vulpes (red fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXII).png

Vulpes rueppellii (Ruppell's fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXXV).png

Vulpes corsac (corsac fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXVII).png

Vulpes ferrilata (Tibetan sand fox)

Tibetan sand fox illustration, transparent background.png

Vulpes macrotis (kit fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXV).png

Vulpes lagopus (Arctic fox)

Dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes (Plate XXVI).png


  1. ^ Damián Ruiz-Ramoni; Francisco Juan Prevosti; Saverio Bartolini Lucenti; Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros; Ana Luisa Carreño (2020). "The Pliocene canid Cerdocyon avius was not the type of fox that we thought". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 40 (2): e1774889. doi:10.1080/02724634.2020.1774889. S2CID 222214868.
  2. ^ a b c d Tedford, Richard H.; Wang, Xiaoming; Taylor, Beryl E. (2009). "Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. hdl:2246/5999. S2CID 83594819.
  3. ^ Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Jaffe, David B.; Kamal, Michael; et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature. 438 (7069): 803–819. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006.
  4. ^ Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Honghai; Liu, Guangshuai; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Jin (2016). "The complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and implications for the phylogeny of Canidae". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 339 (2): 68–77. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2015.11.005. ISSN 1631-0691. PMID 26868757.