WAQI
A red lightning bolt. Next to it, black text "Radio Mambí", then red text "710 AM", then gray text "A Uforia Station".
Frequency710 kHz
BrandingRadio Mambí
Programming
Language(s)Spanish
FormatTalk radio
Ownership
Owner
History
First air date
December 3, 1939; 82 years ago (1939-12-03)
Former call signs
  • WFTL (1939–1945)
  • WGBS (1945–1985)
Call sign meaning
"Aquí" (Spanish for "here")
Technical information
Licensing authority
FCC
Facility ID37254
ClassB
Power
  • 50,000 watts day
  • 6,300 watts night
Transmitter coordinates
25°46′6.16″N 80°29′8.80″W / 25.7683778°N 80.4857778°W / 25.7683778; -80.4857778
Links
Public license information
WebcastListen live
Websiteradiomambi710.univision.com

WAQI (710 AM) is a commercial radio station licensed to Miami, Florida, United States, featuring a Spanish-language talk format known as Radio Mambí. Currently owned by Uforia Audio Network, the radio division of TelevisaUnivision, the station broadcasts with 50,000 watts during the day and 6,300 watts at night and serves as South Florida's designated primary entry point for the Emergency Alert System, one of three in the state.[1] The studios are located at Univision's Miami headquarters, and the transmitter is located at the intersection of U.S. 41 and Florida State Road 997, near the edge of the Everglades.

The history of today's WAQI begins with the establishment of WFTL in Fort Lauderdale in 1939. The tiny local station raised its profile by switching to its present frequency in 1943 and becoming the highest-power station in Florida at the time. It was acquired by George B. Storer in 1944 after a controversial acquisition that resulted in government scrutiny, moving to Miami the next year. WGBS grew into a 50,000-watt station, and Storer became headquartered in Miami, starting first an FM station and an ill-fated TV station. It generally aired an adult music format after the 1950s. When Storer opted to exit radio at the end of 1978, Jefferson-Pilot Communications purchased its Miami radio properties, converting the low-rated WGBS to a talk format in February 1983.

In 1985, Jefferson-Pilot sold WGBS to buy WNWS (790 AM), then its direct competitor, merging the two stations' programming on the 790 frequency that had a better signal into Broward County. The 710 facility, with its strong signal into Cuba, was then spun off to Cuban-American businessman Amancio Suárez, resulting in the foundation of WAQI Radio Mambí. Known for its hardline anticommunist stance from the start, Mambí has ranked among the most popular Spanish-language stations in South Florida and is also jammed by the Cuban government; however, it has also been criticized for disseminating disinformation, particularly by groups on the left. Sales of Radio Mambí in 1994 and 2022 have attracted attention in political circles.

WFTL in Fort Lauderdale

On January 10, 1939, Tom M. Bryan filed for a construction permit to build a new local radio station to serve Fort Lauderdale on the frequency of 1370 kHz, with 250 watts during the day and 100 at night.[2] The Federal Communications Commission granted Bryan the permit on July 12, 1939, and on December 3, 1939, WFTL made its first broadcasts from studios and a transmitter site on Andrews Avenue.[3] Bryan had brought other pioneering local businesses to Lauderdale prior to building WFTL; these included the city's first ice plant and telephone company.[4] The station upgraded nighttime power to 250 watts in 1940 and moved to 1400 kHz in 1941 with the frequency changes of NARBA.[2]

In February 1941, Bryan filed to sell WFTL to Ralph A. Horton. While there was concern that the association of Horton with a local newspaper, the morning Fort Lauderdale Times,[5] could block the sale,[6] the FCC approved on July 1.[2] Within months of Horton acquiring WFTL, the station joined the Mutual Broadcasting System, becoming the closest Mutual station to Miami,[7] and in October, Horton filed to move to 710 kHz and increase power to 10,000 watts from a new transmitter site west of the city, which the FCC approved on January 6, 1942.[2] At the time, one Miami station (WIOD) broadcast with 5,000 watts, and a second, WQAM, was slated to join it.[8] Materials restrictions associated with the outbreak of World War II slowed work, but by late 1942, the building expansion had been completed, as had the necessary three-tower array.[9] Not only was the station increasing its power to become the largest in Florida, it announced it would set up Miami studios in the Mayfair Theater, quarters originally used by the Miami Conservatory of Music.[10]

The upgrade and new frequency took effect on February 24, 1943, bringing a full-power Mutual signal to Miami.[11]

WGBS

Storer purchase and move to Miami

George B. Storer
George B. Storer

Two months after activating the 10,000-watt facility and new Miami studios, Horton—later citing his lack of knowledge of the radio business[12]—announced he would sell WFTL to the Fort Industry Company, led by George B. Storer, for $275,000; Storer would move the station on a full-time basis to Miami,[5] where he owned a home in Surfside.[13] The FCC slated the transaction for hearing, during which time it was revealed that Fort Industry was keeping the station afloat while the transaction was pending.[14]

The FCC approved of the sale on February 29, 1944, and work began to move the station's operations to Miami on a full-time basis.[12] However, several legal concerns and even questions before a House committee investigating the FCC were raised over two issues: the fact that the same attorney, Andrew Bennett, worked for both Horton and Storer, and allegations that FCC chairman James Lawrence Fly had accepted a $17.30 gratuity from Storer to pay for a stay at an Atlanta hotel.[15] Fly denied having any influence with regard to the sale of WFTL.[16] John Sirica, serving as counsel to the House committee, declared that there had been a conspiracy by Fly, Storer, Bennett and others to obtain WFTL.[17] An editorial in the Fort Lauderdale Daily News pointed out Horton's admitted lack of expertise, quipping that "he didn't know a kilocycle from a station-break and he admitted it" and noting that Horton had entered into a refinancing contract that was an unauthorized transfer of control.[18] A final statement from the committee, released at the start of 1945, chided Fly for "putting the heat on" to pressure Horton to sell, declared Bennett's actions to be a "double-crossing" of Horton, and found the sale price "entirely too low" in view of WFTL's business prospects.[19]

In December 1944, WFTL announced it would leave Mutual on June 15, 1945, to join the Blue Network, replacing WKAT (1360 AM).[20] Prior to the change in network affiliation, the station dropped the WFTL callsign and took Storer's initials as its own, becoming WGBS on April 16.[21][2] WGBS and WQAM exchanged network affiliations in 1947, with WGBS picking up the CBS affiliation,[22] as part of a group deal that also gave affiliation to Fort Industry's WWVA in Wheeling, West Virginia, and WAGA in Atlanta.[23] The FCC approved a daytime power increase to 50,000 watts in 1947, and work was completed in January 1949,[2] making WGBS the first 50,000-watt station in Florida.[24] In 1952, the Fort Industry Company, named prior to owning radio and television properties, changed its name to Storer Broadcasting Company.[25]

Expansion into FM and TV

Further information: WMJX (Miami) and WGBS-TV

In 1948, an FM radio station was launched primarily to simulcast WGBS's AM transmission, as WGBS-FM.[26] However, by 1957, it was operating just six hours a day, six days a week.[27]

Storer had been attempting to enter Miami television, but ownership limit complications complicated its path until Storer was able to buy a UHF television station, WFTL-TV (channel 23), in 1954, the same year it moved its corporate offices to Miami Beach.[a][28] Like with WFTL radio a decade before, Storer moved the station to Miami as WGBS-TV.[29] After losing the NBC affiliation to new VHF station WCKT (channel 7) in 1956, WGBS-TV continued for a year as an independent before shutting down on April 13, 1957, and selling its physical plant to Public Service Television, which was preparing to put WPST-TV (channel 10) on the air;[30][31] Storer declared it to have never been profitable.[32]

WGBS in the 60s and 70s

710 Brickell Avenue, built by Storer for WGBS in 1965
710 Brickell Avenue, built by Storer for WGBS in 1965

CBS Radio's elimination of the bulk of its entertainment programming on November 28, 1960,[33] spurred WGBS to disaffiliate from the network and become an independent.[34] Likewise, WGBS adopted a beautiful music/middle of the road format similar to one successfully implemented by co-owned WJW in Cleveland, Ohio, earlier in the year.[35] To assist the 10-person news department, WGBS established or arranged for international news bureaus throughout Europe and Asia, along with bureaus in the U.S.[36] In October 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, WGBS's high power became of utility to the federal government. It requisitioned airtime on WGBS, WCKR (the former WIOD), and WMIE for three weeks to broadcast Spanish-language Voice of America output to Cuba at night; during this time, normal WGBS programs were heard only on FM.[37] In November, this was relaxed after VOA built its own station at Marathon, though WGBS still continued to air three hours a day of VOA output at night.[38]

In 1964, Storer made a $1 million investment in WGBS. It built a new transmitter site in South Broward, allowing it to raise its nighttime power to 50,000 watts, and a new, colonial-style office building was constructed at 710 Brickell Avenue, leaving the Mayfair after 20 years.[39] The 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) building opened in December 1965;[40] Storer commissioned a custom song, "Make Ours Miami", to mark the occasion, and local governments declared "WGBS Week" in Miami.[41] Arnie Warren, formerly of WKAT, joined WGBS in 1966 and would serve as its morning man for 13 years.[42] By this time, the station was cemented as an adult contemporary outlet.[43] WGBS-FM also saw an upgrade: Storer repurchased the former WGBS-TV transmission tower from Public Service Television (whose license for WPST-TV had been revoked by the FCC)[44] to help enable a power upgrade to 100,000 watts.[45] The station broadcast the Miami Floridians of the American Basketball Association for three of their four seasons of existence, taking over from WOCN (1450 AM) in 1969.[46]

Storer renamed WGBS-FM as WJHR, in honor of Storer Broadcasting co-founder J. Harold Ryan, in 1969,[47] then sold off both it and their Detroit FM outlet in 1970 to Bartell Broadcasters.[48] Storer would return to FM by buying WLYF (101.5 FM) from Sudbrink Communications for $5.56 million in early 1978.[49]

Jefferson-Pilot ownership

Storer opted to exit radio entirely in late 1978 and began to find buyers for its radio properties, using the profits to invest further in cable TV systems.[50][51] Storer asked $14 million for its Miami radio operation, but WGBS and WLYF-FM were ultimately sold for $12.5 million to Jefferson-Pilot Communications in February 1979;[52] the FCC approved of the transaction that December.[2] The stations moved in 1982 to studios in North Dade, allowing Jefferson-Pilot to sell the Brickell studios to Northern Trust Bank of Florida in what marked a record for a property sale on that major thoroughfare.[53] (The building, last used by the Miami Today newspaper, was demolished in 2013.[54])

Ratings for the adult contemporary format declined during Jefferson-Pilot ownership as music listening continued to shift to FM, and WGBS was the last station to broadcast such a format on the AM dial.[55] In February 1983, WGBS switched to a news/talk format, with hosts including David Gold and Mike Siegel.[56] However, ratings were low throughout the run as three other stations battled it out with WGBS in that format, and by mid-1984, it was attracting ratings comparable to its prior adult contemporary sound with higher programming costs, though it was making a profit.[57]

WAQI

Sale to Suárez

We are not objective. We have an objective—to free Cuba.

Héctor Durán, WAQI commentator at the station's launch in 1985[58]

In July 1985, Jefferson-Pilot announced it would purchase one of the direct competitors to WGBS, WNWS (790 AM), with its superior signal in Broward County and stronger ratings.[59][60] The stations worked toward a merger in November, in which four WNWS hosts and two from WGBS headed the new WNWS talk lineup.[61]

Because at the time no company could own multiple AM stations in the same area, the WGBS facility and license—though not the studios—was sold to the Mambisa Broadcasting Corporation for $3.5 million.[59] Mambisa was headed by Amancio Víctor Suárez, a 49-year-old self-made millionaire with no broadcast experience, and named for the mambises, Cuban independence fighters of the 19th century.[62] Suárez had arrived in Florida penniless as a 19-year-old, with interests in home construction and the manufacture of watches and telephone answering machines.[63]

Even before full FCC approval of the underlying transfers, the merger of WGBS into WNWS became effective at noon on October 23, 1985,[64] when the call letters WGBS disappeared from Miami radio after 40 years to make way for WAQI. Temporary studios on SW 67th Avenue were used to start Radio Mambí while permanent facilities on Coral Way were built. Much like its direct format competitors—WQBA (1180 AM), WOCN (1450 AM) "Unión Radio", and WRHC (1550 AM)—Radio Mambí provided primarily news and talk programming alongside soap operas and music.[65] Unión Radio was raided heavily by the new WAQI and lost several popular personalities to the startup.[66]

One of the most attractive characteristics of the 710 facility to Mambisa was the physical plant. Whereas Jefferson-Pilot, competing for English-language listeners, wanted a signal with better Broward coverage, Mambisa got a bonus of import to its work: one of the best Miami signals into Cuba.[66][62] This fact was not lost on the Cuban government. Four days after the changeover to Radio Mambí, transmissions started for Radio Rebelde, one of Cuba's national radio stations, on transmitters on 710 kHz, as Radio Mambí entered what general manager Armando Pérez Roura called "a radio war with Castro" designed to block its anti-government programs from being heard in Cuba.[67] One transmitter at Santa Clara aired Rebelde, and another at Havana was noted as emitting a "high-frequency jamming buzz".[68] Rebelde The irony was that the main interference generated was not within Cuba, where station officials claimed to have a large audience, but in Florida, where high-power Radio Rebelde and WQBA signals clashed.[67] When WAQI was audible in Cuba, it offered an opposition viewpoint that reestablished contact between Cuban exiles and Cuba itself.[69]

Radio Mambí rapidly became a popular station with the heavily Cuban Spanish-speaking audience in Miami by becoming the station of Cuba's exile community, close to the families of political prisoners and organized opposition movements while offering community service and cultural programming.[69] Suárez expanded into television with HBC, which produced the fledgling Telemundo network's first nightly newscast in January 1987 from Miami,[63] and, through another company, he bought FM station WTHM (98.3) in 1987[70] to relaunch it as WRTO-FM "Ritmo 98", the second full-time Spanish-language FM station in the city.[71][72]

In 1992, Radio Martí began to purchase an hour of airtime each night on WAQI and WQBA to broadcast programming to Cuba, utilizing a 1983 clause in the law that created Radio Martí permitting broadcasts over commercial stations if jamming had increased by 25 percent or more.[73] By 2007, Radio Mambí was being paid $182,500 every six months to broadcast the Radio Martí program.[74]

Heftel and Univision ownership

In 1989, Suárez announced an alliance with Heftel Broadcasting, a Las Vegas-based broadcaster specializing in Spanish-language stations and former owner of Miami's WHYI-FM, that included the national expansion of Mi Casa (My House), a magazine acquired the year before.[75] Six years later, after a decade of successful ownership, Suárez announced he would sell the remaining 51 percent of Mambisa to Heftel, which by that time also owned WQBA.[76] That sale attracted the attention of groups that promoted a more conciliatory stance to Cuba, as they feared that common ownership of WQBA and WAQI would leave them with no station that aired their views; they had also protested to no avail when Heftel purchased WQBA the year before.[76] The deal was amended during consideration by the FCC to remove clauses that gave Suárez a stake in Heftel and a management contract[77] before being approved and consummated in September.[78] Heftel eventually reduced the overlap between the two stations by adding programming to WQBA that targeted Central and South American migrants.[79] In 2000, Republican politicians Renier Díaz de la Portilla and Carlos Lacasa engaged in an early-morning fistfight in the station's parking lot after Lacasa's father insulted Díaz de la Portilla's father on the air. Lacasa got a bloody nose, and when host Martha Flores asked on the air for someone to call the police, the city's 911 system was swamped with calls.[80]

Fred Thompson in the Radio Mambí studio in 2007
Fred Thompson in the Radio Mambí studio in 2007

In 2002, Heftel, renamed Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation, announced it would merge with Univision, a deal approved by the FCC the next year.[81]

Many of the hosts on Mambí became institutions in local radio and in the Cuban exile community. Flores died at the age of 92 in 2020, having spent six decades on South Florida airwaves since arriving in Miami in 1959.[82] That same year, Pérez Roura, who later moved to WWFE (670 AM), died at the same age; Ninoska Pérez Castellón, who worked with him at Mambí, recalled how he introduced his show by reading a list of people executed in Cuba on that date in past years.[83]

On October 30, 2014, WAQI was granted a construction permit to move to the WQBA transmitter site and decrease night power to 6,300 watts.[84] This move enabled Univision to sell the 117.7-acre (47.6 ha) former WAQI transmitter site in Miramar in early 2020 for $39 million for redevelopment as 385 single-family homes.[85]

Latino Media Network sale

On June 3, 2022, Univision announced it would sell a package of 18 radio stations across 10 of its markets, primarily AM outlets in large cities (including WAQI and WQBA) and entire clusters in smaller markets such as McAllen, Texas, and Fresno, California, for $60 million to a new company known as Latino Media Network (LMN); Univision proposes to handle operations for a year under agreement before turning over operational control to LMN in the fourth quarter of 2023.[86]

The deal was immediately interpreted in a political context. Latino Media Network is headed by Stephanie Valencia, who headed Latino outreach for Barack Obama, and Jess Morales Rocketto, a Democratic activist, with investors and advisors including Eva Longoria, former Florida Republican Party chair Al Cárdenas, longtime television anchor María Elena Salinas, and former Miami-Dade College president Eduardo J. Padrón. Much of its funding comes from Lakestar Capital, associated with businessman and philanthropist George Soros.[87][88] Other Democratic groups had noted the prevalence of disinformation and antisemitism and the promotion of conspiracy theories, including the Great Replacement, on its air.[89] This was particularly well received by older listeners, loyal to stations like WAQI.[90] A 2021 report by media watchdogs, which focused on programs on Radio Mambí and WURN "Actualidad Radio" during one week in March 2021,[91] cited practices such as hosts not correcting callers' incorrect statements, as well as recitations of false claims as news using sources such as Newsmax and The Daily Caller.[92] A former Univision executive told Graciela Mochkofsky of The New Yorker that Mambí's content was often "indefensible".[93]

Conservative political actors immediately feared that the change in ownership would lead to programming changes, particularly at Radio Mambí, that would marginalize their point of view. The head of Mothers Against Repression, Sylvia Iriondo, announced at a press conference held by the Assembly of the Cuban Resistance, "We have grounds to be extremely concerned [...] We will resist any attempt to censor the voices of this community represented by these radio stations with all legal and legitimate means".[94] Other speakers included Florida lieutenant governor Jeanette Núñez, who recalled growing up listening to Radio Mambí in the car.[95] Six Republican lawmakers, five of them from the Florida delegation—senators Marco Rubio and Rick Scott, representatives Carlos A. Giménez, María Elvira Salazar, and Mario Díaz-Balart, as well as senator Tom Cotton of Arkansas—wrote a letter to FCC chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel urging it to "thoroughly scrutinize" the transaction when filed and casting it as a "desperate" move by Democratic operatives, noting their concern over a proposed sale of WSUA (1260 AM) to ATV Holdings, which had fallen apart earlier that year.[96][97] The re-election campaign of Republican governor Ron DeSantis bought advertising time on WAQI and WQBA ($6,525 of it on WAQI[98]), airing 60-second commercials warning voters, "The left is taking control of our local media" and "they are coming with their ideological agenda", mentioning Soros "and his minions".[99] In an op-ed in the Miami Herald, Valencia and Morales Rocketto wrote of their commitment to free speech and free markets, noting that they "do not intend to change the spirit or character of what has made it popular and profitable".[100] However, several hosts departed the station, including Dania Alexandrino, Lourdes Ubieta, and Nelson Rubio, to start a new online radio station known as Americano Media, which promises to start the "first Spanish-language conservative talk radio network"; Ubieta claimed that Univision offered them and other presenters a bonus worth thousands of dollars in exchange for staying and signing a confidentiality agreement, which Pérez Castellón, who stayed, denied.[101]

Notes

  1. ^ This was co-owned with WFTL (1400 AM), which went on the air in 1946 and revived the designation in Fort Lauderdale.

References

  1. ^ "State of Florida Emergency Alert System Plan". Florida Association of Broadcasters; Florida Division of Emergency Management. August 18, 2018. p. 125. Archived from the original on May 30, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g FCC History Cards for WAQI
  3. ^ "New Broadcast Station Will Open Tomorrow". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. December 2, 1939. p. 5. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  4. ^ "City Name Spread By Radio Station; New BBC Hook-Up". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. December 8, 1940. p. D-3. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  5. ^ a b "WFTL Sold By Horton". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. May 19, 1943. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  6. ^ "FCC Ruling May Block WFTL Sale". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. May 22, 1941. p. 13. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ "Mutual Broadcasting System Sues National For $10,275,000 Damages". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. United Press. January 11, 1942. p. 2-A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  8. ^ Stevens, Marion (January 23, 1942). "Programs and Notes On Radio". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 6-C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  9. ^ Anderson, Jack (November 13, 1942). "Programs and Notes On Radio". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 5-A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  10. ^ Billig, Betty (January 3, 1943). "Wattage Raise To Make WFTL Largest in State: Will Move Studios To Miami". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 8-E. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  11. ^ "WFTL To Start New Dial Spot On Wednesday". Miami Daily News. Miami, Florida. February 23, 1943. p. 4-B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  12. ^ a b "FCC Orders WFTL Radio Station Sale". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. March 1, 1944. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  13. ^ "FCC Approval Sought For WFTL Sale: Surfside Resident Heads Buying Group". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. May 21, 1943. p. 8-A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  14. ^ "WFTL Hearing To End Today". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. October 14, 1943. p. 1-B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  15. ^ Miller, Charles (September 6, 1944). "Fly Denies Charges Of Coercion". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 1-B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  16. ^ "Fly Denies Influencing WFTL Sale: Hearing To Continue Several More Days". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. September 7, 1944. p. 1-B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  17. ^ "House Counsel Charges Plot in WFTL Sale". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Associated Press. September 8, 1944. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  18. ^ "Pass in Review". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. September 8, 1944. p. 4. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ "Probers Rap Sale Of WFTL". Miami Daily News. Miami, Florida. January 3, 1945. p. 8-B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  20. ^ Atchison, Marion (December 19, 1944). "Station WFTL Will Become Blue Affiliate". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 12-A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  21. ^ "Reason For Change". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. April 13, 1945. p. 9. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  22. ^ "WGBS and WQAM To Shift Networks". Miami Daily News. Miami, Florida. January 29, 1947. p. 13-A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  23. ^ "Legality of CBS's Option To WAGA Questioned by Court". The Atlanta Constitution. Atlanta, Georgia. September 12, 1947. p. 14. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ "Radio Station Will Dedicate Transmitter". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. January 15, 1949. p. 4. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  25. ^ "Fort Industry Now Storer Broadcasting Co" (PDF). Broadcasting. May 12, 1952. p. 24. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  26. ^ "WGBS Miami Boost to 50 kW Readied" (PDF). Broadcasting. November 8, 1948. p. 84. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  27. ^ Christensen, Norman (March 3, 1957). "Here's the Answer". Miami Sunday News. Miami, Florida. p. 3C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ "WFTL-TV Sold To Storer Organization; Local UHF Station To Become Major Unit in Big Chain". Fort Lauderdale Daily News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. November 18, 1954. p. 1-A, 12-A. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022. Retrieved February 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ "It's Official". Fort Lauderdale Daily News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. December 26, 1954. p. 10-A. Archived from the original on February 18, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  30. ^ "Storer's Miami Uhf Shuts Down; Equipment Sold to WPST-TV" (PDF). Broadcasting. April 8, 1957. p. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  31. ^ "WGBS-TV Off Air". Fort Lauderdale Sunday News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. April 14, 1957. p. 8-C. Archived from the original on February 18, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  32. ^ "WGBS-TV To Leave Airways: Saturday Final Day For Station's Telecasts". Fort Lauderdale Sunday News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. April 7, 1957. p. 4-B. Archived from the original on June 11, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ "CBS Radio's plans applauded: Harmony reigns at meeting; affiliates like new schedule" (PDF). Broadcasting. Vol. 59, no. 14. October 3, 1960. pp. 62, 64. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  34. ^ "WGBS, CBS part company" (PDF). Broadcasting. Vol. 59, no. 16. October 17, 1960. p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 2, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  35. ^ "Vox Jox" (PDF). Billboard. Vol. 73, no. 2. January 16, 1961. p. 48. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 27, 2021. Retrieved October 21, 2021 – via World Radio History.
  36. ^ "Media reports...: Worldwide coverage" (PDF). Broadcasting. Vol. 59, no. 23. December 5, 1960. pp. 62, 64. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  37. ^ Dunn, Kristine (October 25, 1962). "Cuba Special Pre-Empts Berlin". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 6B. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  38. ^ Dunn, Kristine (November 15, 1962). "TV Spurs Interest in Civil Defense". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 5B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  39. ^ Anderson, Jack E. (June 22, 1964). "$1 Million Project Planned by WGBS". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 7-B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  40. ^ Ash, Agnes (December 19, 1965). "A Station That Looks As Solid As It Sounds". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. Miami 18. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  41. ^ Anderson, Jack E. (December 2, 1965). "WGBS Dedication Adds New Wrinkle". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 17-D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  42. ^ Woods, Sherry (August 17, 1979). "Arnie Warren leaving WGBS after 13 years". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 4B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  43. ^ Roberts, Jack (May 14, 1965). "Radio Race". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 1B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  44. ^ "Bill Bayer Invites Humphrey to Show". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. August 26, 1964. p. 4-B. Archived from the original on February 23, 2022. Retrieved February 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  45. ^ "WGBS spending $500,000 for 50 kw fulltime" (PDF). Broadcasting. Vol. 66, no. 6. February 10, 1964. p. 62. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved December 13, 2019 – via World Radio History.
  46. ^ King, Larry (September 18, 1969). "If We All 'Turned On' Would the Kids Turned Off?". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 7-G. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ "Shelley Winters First To Arrive for Movie". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. May 30, 1969. p. 7A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  48. ^ "Storer Broadcast to sell FM units". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. April 21, 1970. p. 10. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  49. ^ "Changing Hands" (PDF). Broadcasting. April 17, 1978. p. 53. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  50. ^ "'The world has changed': Storer decides to get out of radio, put the money on cable TV" (PDF). Broadcasting. December 11, 1978. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  51. ^ "Storer Selling All Radio Stations To Build TV Holdings, Firm Says". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. December 6, 1978. p. 8-D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  52. ^ "Changing Hands" (PDF). Broadcasting. February 26, 1979. p. 84. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  53. ^ Adams, Robert (February 15, 1983). "Brickell deal a 'record'". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 10A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  54. ^ "Northern Trust to sell Brickell properties, relocate". South Florida Business Journal. March 6, 2013. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  55. ^ Jicha, Tom (December 15, 1982). "Another station abandons music for all-talk format". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 5B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  56. ^ Kelleher, Terry (February 9, 1983). "WGBS is off and limping with new talk format". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 5C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  57. ^ Jicha, Tom (July 25, 1984). "WGBS will keep talking, hoping to find listeners". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 5B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  58. ^ Santiago, Fabiola (October 24, 1985). "New station airs anti-Communist stand". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 6D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  59. ^ a b Kelley, Brad (July 17, 1985). "N.C. firm buys WNWS radio". South Florida Sun Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. p. 6D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  60. ^ Jicha, Tom (July 17, 1985). "WNWS/WGBS left with more voices than can be heard". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 4C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  61. ^ Thornton, Linda R. (October 7, 1985). "New WNWS lineup completed as Burke, Bev Smith land slots". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 4C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  62. ^ a b Meluza, Lourdes (July 25, 1985). "Self-made millionaire offering $3.5 million for WGBS license". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 3D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  63. ^ a b Dibble, Sandra (December 22, 1986). "Aventura televisiva de cubano" [Cuban's television adventure]. El Miami Herald (in Spanish). Miami, Florida. p. 1, 3. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  64. ^ Thornton, Linda (October 24, 1985). "Clark takes over 'America'; Keith Isley leaves I-95 post". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 4D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  65. ^ Yáñez, Luisa (October 23, 1985). "Region's strongest radio station debuts". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 5A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  66. ^ a b "Radio Mambí on the air". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. October 24, 1985. p. 5A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  67. ^ a b Yáñez, Luisa (January 10, 1986). "Spanish-language radio station here says Cuba jams it". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 5A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  68. ^ Tasker, Fred (November 8, 1985). "Radio puts bee in Fidel's hat; he buzzes back". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 1B. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved June 17, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  69. ^ a b Moreno, Sarah (June 13, 2022). "The sale of Radio Mambí marks a pivotal point in the history of Cuban radio in Miami". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  70. ^ Jicha, Tom (October 7, 1987). "Sale means market will get another Spanish radio outlet". The Miami News. Miami, Florida. p. 3C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  71. ^ Parga, Beatriz (November 28, 1987). "Una nueva estación FM en Miami" [A new FM station in Miami]. El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). Miami, Florida. p. 3D. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  72. ^ Parga, Beatriz (January 12, 1988). "Sale al aire nueva emisora FM" [New FM station goes on the air]. El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). Miami, Florida. p. 1B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  73. ^ Glasgow, Kathy (December 16, 1992). "Jammin' In Havana". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved June 17, 2022.
  74. ^ Snyder, Alvin (January 4, 2007). "TV/Radio Martí boost their volume to Cuba, expanding their services". USC Center on Public Diplomacy. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on January 7, 2007.
  75. ^ Sevcec, Pedro (August 4, 1989). "Cambios en emisoras hispanas" [Changes in Hispanic stations]. El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). Miami, Florida. p. 1A, 5A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  76. ^ a b Reyes, Jannice (April 28, 1995). "FCC considera traspaso de acciones de emisoras" [FCC considers transfer of shares of stations]. El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). Miami, Florida. p. 3A, 4A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  77. ^ Ojito, Mirta (June 28, 1995). "Spanish radio giant reportedly set to buy Mambi, Ritmo". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 2B. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  78. ^ Reyes, Jannice (September 8, 1995). "Radio Mambí pasa a empresa norteamericana" [Radio Mambí transferred to American company]. El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). Miami, Florida. p. 3A, 4A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  79. ^ Jacobson, Adam; Acampora, Anthony (August 22, 1997). "Hablando for the Masses: Spanish News/Talk stations balance longevity with current trends and interests" (PDF). Radio & Records. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 5, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  80. ^ García, Manny; Viglucci, Andrés (September 7, 2000). "2 state reps duke it out in radio station's parking lot: Family feud pits brawling legislators". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 1A, 2A. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  81. ^ Hoag, Christina (September 23, 2003). "Univision megadeal OK'd". The Miami Herald. Miami, Florida. p. 1C, 4C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  82. ^ Shoer Roth, Daniel (July 20, 2020). "'Queen of the night:' Martha Flores, Cuban exile radio pioneer, dies in Miami". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on June 11, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  83. ^ Moreno, Sarah; Arias Polo, Arturo (November 24, 2020). "Armando Pérez Roura, a powerful and controversial voice on Miami radio, dies at 92". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on January 6, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  84. ^ "Application for Construction Permit for Commercial Broadcast Station". CDBS Public Access. Federal Communications Commission. October 30, 2014. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  85. ^ Kallergis, Katherine (January 2, 2020). "Univision Sells Miramar site to BBX and CC Homes". The Real Deal. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  86. ^ Venta, Lance (June 3, 2022). "Latino Media Network To Acquire Univision Radio Properties in Ten Markets". Archived from the original on June 6, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  87. ^ Padgett, Tim (June 3, 2022). "A new Latino media group is buying up – and shaking up – Spanish-language radio". WLRN. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  88. ^ Fischer, Sara (June 3, 2022). "New Latino media startup launches with historic $80M raise". Axios. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  89. ^ Vela, Hatzel; Gothner, Chris; Torres, Andrea (June 8, 2022). "'Liberal' Latino Media Group to take over 2 'conservative' Miami radio stations". WPLG. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  90. ^ Kelly, Mary Louise (November 8, 2021). "Misinformation on Spanish talk radio in Miami is tearing families apart". NPR. Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  91. ^ Padgett, Tim (June 8, 2021). "Report Spotlights 'Under-the-Radar' Spanish-Language Radio Disinformation In Miami". WLRN. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  92. ^ "Disinformation in Miami After the Capitol Insurrection". Latina Comunica. June 2021. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  93. ^ Mochkofsky, Graciela (June 24, 2022). "A Different Kind of Bid to Win Over the Spanish-Language Media Audience". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  94. ^ Padgett, Tim (June 8, 2022). "Cuban exiles fear new Spanish-language radio owners in Miami will censor conservative voices". WLRN. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  95. ^ Moreno, Sarah (June 9, 2022). "'They are not going to shut us up.' Cuban exiles vow to boycott if Radio Mambí is 'silenced'". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on June 9, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  96. ^ "Dear Chairwoman Rosenworcel". Marco Rubio. June 8, 2022. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  97. ^ "Controversial Miami AM Sale Dismissed By FCC". Inside Radio. April 15, 2022. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  98. ^ "Order" (PDF). FCC Public Inspection File. June 8, 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  99. ^ "DeSantis Campaign Warns South Florida Voters of Soros-Backed Radio Station Takeover with "Alerta" Ad". Ron DeSantis for Governor. June 6, 2022. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  100. ^ Valencia, Stephanie; Morales Rocketto, Jess (June 10, 2022). "Radio Mambí's new owners will respect and retain the station's Cuban 'spirit'". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  101. ^ Cosme Torres, Lesley (July 13, 2022). "Otro presentador conservador de Radio Mambí dice que se va tras cambiar de manos la emisora de Miami" [Another conservative presenter at Radio Mambí says he's gone after Miami station changes hands]. El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). Retrieved July 14, 2022.